Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) Resistance in NPGS Ethiopian Sorghum Germplasm.
ABSTRACT: The National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) Ethiopian sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] collection of the United States is an important genetic resource for sorghum improvement. Anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineolum) is one of the most harmful fungal diseases in humid sorghum production regions. Although multiple resistance sources have been identified in temperate-adapted germplasm in the Sorghum Association Panel (SAP), these resistance loci explain a limited portion of the total variation, and sources of resistance from tropical germplasm are not available for breeding programs at temperate regions. Using a core set of 335 previously genotyped NPGS Ethiopian accessions, we identified 169 accessions resistant to anthracnose. To identify resistance loci, we merged the genotypic and anthracnose response data for both NPGS Ethiopian germplasm and the SAP and performed genome-wide association scans using 219,037 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 617 accessions. The integrated data set enabled the detection of a locus on chromosome 9 present in the SAP at a low frequency. The locus explains a limited portion of the observed phenotypic variation (r2 = 0.31), suggesting the presence of other resistance loci. The locus in chromosome 9 was constituted by three R genes clustered within a 47-kb region. The presence of multiple sources of resistance in NPGS Ethiopian germplasm and SAP requires the inclusion of other resistance response evaluation that could revealed others low frequency resistance alleles in the panel.
Project description:Sorghum germplasm from West and Central Africa is cultivated in rainy and high humidity regions and is an important source of resistance genes to fungal diseases. Mold and anthracnose are two important biotic constraints to sorghum production in wet areas worldwide. Here, 158 National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) accessions from Senegal were evaluated for agronomic traits, anthracnose, and grain mold resistance at two locations, and genetically characterized according to 20 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 221 alleles were amplified with an average of 11 alleles per locus. Each accession had a unique genetic profile (i.e., no duplicates), and the average genetic distance between accessions was 0.42. Population structure and cluster analysis separated the collection into four populations with pairwise FST values >0.15. Three of the populations were composed of Guinea-race sorghum germplasm, and one included multiple races. Anthracnose resistant accessions were present at high frequency and evenly distributed among the three Guinea-race populations. Fourteen accessions showed resistance to grain mold, and eight were resistant to both diseases. These results indicated that the NPGS of Senegal is a genetically diverse collection with a high frequency of disease resistant accessions. Nevertheless, its population structure suggests the presence of few sources of resistance to both grain mold and anthracnose, which are fixed in the germplasm. The phenotypic and genotypic information for these accessions provides a valuable resource for its correct use to broaden the genetic base of breeding programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) sorghum core collection contains 3011 accessions randomly selected from 77 countries. Genomic and phenotypic characterization of this core collection is necessary to encourage and facilitate its utilization in breeding programs and to improve conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the genome sequences of 318 accessions belonging to the NPGS Sudan sorghum core set, and characterized their agronomic traits and anthracnose resistance response. RESULTS:We identified 183,144 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within or in proximity of 25,124 annotated genes using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. The core collection was genetically highly diverse, with an average pairwise genetic distance of 0.76 among accessions. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed five ancestral populations within the Sudan core set, with moderate to high level of genetic differentiation. In total, 171 accessions (54%) were assigned to one of these populations, which covered 96% of the total genomic variation. Genome scan based on Tajima's D values revealed two populations under balancing selection. Phenotypic analysis showed differences in agronomic traits among the populations, suggesting that these populations belong to different ecogeographical regions. A total of 55 accessions were resistant to anthracnose; these accessions could represent multiple resistance sources. Genome-wide association study based on fixed and random model Circulating Probability (farmCPU) identified genomic regions associated with plant height, flowering time, panicle length and diameter, and anthracnose resistance response. Integrated analysis of the Sudan core set and sorghum association panel indicated that a large portion of the genetic variation in the Sudan core set might be present in breeding programs but remains unexploited within some clusters of accessions. CONCLUSIONS:The NPGS Sudan core collection comprises genetically and phenotypically diverse germplasm with multiple anthracnose resistance sources. Population genomic analysis could be used to improve screening efforts and identify the most valuable germplasm for breeding programs. The new GBS data set generated in this study represents a novel genomic resource for plant breeders interested in mining the genetic diversity of the NPGS sorghum collection.
Project description:White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is a high-protein grain legume crop, grown since ancient Greece and Rome. Despite long domestication history, its cultivation remains limited, partly because of susceptibility to anthracnose. Only some late-flowering, bitter, low-yielding landraces from Ethiopian mountains displayed resistance to this devastating disease. The resistance is controlled by various genes, thereby complicating the breeding efforts. The objective of this study was developing tools for molecular tracking of Ethiopian resistance genes based on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data, envisaging linkage mapping and genomic selection approaches. Twenty GBS markers from two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs), antr04_1/antr05_1 and antr04_2/antr05_2, were converted to PCR-based markers using assigned transcriptome sequences. Newly developed markers improved mapping resolution around both anthracnose resistance loci, providing more precise QTL estimation. PCR-based screening of diversified domesticated and primitive germplasm revealed the high specificity of two markers for the antr04_1/antr05_1 locus (TP222136 and TP47110) and one for the antr04_2/antr05_2 locus (TP338761), highlighted by simple matching coefficients of 0.96 and 0.89, respectively. Moreover, a genomic selection approach based on GBS data of a recombinant inbred line mapping population was assessed, providing an average predictive ability of 0.56. These tools can be used for preselection of candidate white lupin germplasm for anthracnose resistance assays.
Project description:Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.
Project description:Sorghum production is expanding to warmer and more humid regions where its production is being limited by multiple fungal pathogens. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum, is one of the major diseases in these regions, where it can cause yield losses of both grain and biomass. In this study, 114 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from resistant sorghum line SC112-14 were evaluated at four distinct geographic locations in the United States for response to anthracnose. A genome scan using a high-density linkage map of 3,838 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected two loci at 5.25 and 1.18 Mb on chromosomes 5 and 6, respectively, that explain up to 59% and 44% of the observed phenotypic variation. A bin-mapping approach using a subset of 31 highly informative RILs was employed to determine the disease response to inoculation with ten anthracnose pathotypes in the greenhouse. A genome scan showed that the 5.25 Mb region on chromosome 5 is associated with a resistance response to nine pathotypes. Five SNP markers were developed and used to fine map the locus on chromosome 5 by evaluating 1,500 segregating F2:3 progenies. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic analyses of 11 recombinants, the locus was narrowed down to a 470-kb genomic region. Following a genome-wide association study based on 574 accessions previously phenotyped and genotyped, the resistance locus was delimited to a 34-kb genomic interval with five candidate genes. All five candidate genes encode proteins associated with plant immune systems, suggesting they may act in synergy in the resistance response.
Project description:The eastern Africa region, Ethiopia and its surroundings, is considered as the center of origin and diversity for sorghum, and has contributed to global sorghum genetic improvement. The germplasm from this region harbors enormous genetic variation for various traits but little is known regarding the genetic architecture of most traits. Here, 1425 Ethiopian landrace accessions were phenotyped under field conditions for presence or absence of awns, panicle compactness and shape, panicle exsertion, pericarp color, glume cover, plant height and smut resistance under diverse environmental conditions in Ethiopia. In addition, F1 hybrids obtained from a subset of 1341 accessions crossed to an A1 cytoplasmic male sterile line, ATx623, were scored for fertility/sterility reactions. Subsequently, genotyping-by-sequencing generated a total of 879,407 SNPs from which 72,190 robust SNP markers were selected after stringent quality control (QC). Pairwise distance-based hierarchical clustering identified 11 distinct groups. Of the genotypes assigned to either one of the 11 sub-populations, 65% had high ancestry membership coefficient with the likelihood of more than 0.60 and the remaining 35% represented highly admixed accessions. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified loci and SNPs associated with aforementioned traits. GWAS based on compressed mixed linear model (CMLM) identified SNPs with significant association (FDR ? 0.05) to the different traits studied. The percentage of total phenotypic variation explained with significant SNPs across traits ranged from 2 to 43%. Candidate genes showing significant association with different traits were identified. The sorghum bHLH transcription factor, ABORTED MICROSPORES was identified as a strong candidate gene conditioning male fertility. Notably, sorghum CLAVATA1 receptor like kinase, known for regulation of plant growth, and the ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene RAP2-7, known to suppress transition to flowering, were significantly associated with plant height. In addition, the YELLOW SEED1 like MYB transcription factor and TANNIN1 showed strong association with pericarp color validating previous observations. Overall, the genetic architecture of natural variation representing the complex Ethiopian sorghum germplasm was established. The study contributes to the characterization of genes and alleles controlling agronomic traits, and will serve as a source of markers for molecular breeding.
Project description:Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a global concern for wheat production, and has been increasingly destructive in Ethiopia, as well as in the United States and in many other countries. As Ethiopia has a long history of stripe rust epidemics, its native wheat germplasm harbors potentially valuable resistance loci. Moreover, the Ethiopian germplasm has been historically underutilized in breeding of modern wheat worldwide and thus the resistance alleles from the Ethiopian germplasm represent potentially novel sources. The objective of this study was to identify loci conferring resistance to predominant Pst races in Ethiopia and the United States. Using a high-density 90 K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism array, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was conducted on 182 durum wheat landrace accessions and contemporary varieties originating from Ethiopia. Landraces were detected to be more resistant at the seedling stage while cultivars were more resistant at the adult-plant stages. GWAS identified 68 loci associated with seedling resistance to one or more races. Six loci on chromosome arms 1AS, 1BS, 3AS, 4BL, and 5BL were associated with resistance against at least two races at the seedling stage, and five loci were previously undocumented. GWAS analysis of field resistance reactions identified 12 loci associated with resistance on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2BS, 3BL, 4AL, 4B and 5AL, which were detected in at least two of six field screening nurseries at the adult-plant stage. Comparison with previously mapped resistance loci indicates that six of the 12 resistance loci are newly documented. This study reports effective sources of resistance to contemporary races in Ethiopia and the United States and reveals that Ethiopian durum wheat landraces are abundant in novel Pst resistance loci that may be transferred into adapted cultivars to provide resistance against Pst.
Project description:Germplasm collections are a crucial resource to conserve natural genetic diversity and provide a source of novel traits essential for sustained crop improvement. Optimal collection, preservation and utilization of these materials depends upon knowledge of the genetic variation present within the collection. Here we use the high-throughput genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology to characterize the United States National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). The GBS data, derived from 1234 cucumber accessions, provided more than 23?K high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are well distributed at high density in the genome (~1 SNP/10.6?kb). The SNP markers were used to characterize genetic diversity, population structure, phylogenetic relationships, linkage disequilibrium, and population differentiation of the NPGS cucumber collection. These results, providing detailed genetic analysis of the U.S. cucumber collection, complement NPGS descriptive information regarding geographic origin and phenotypic characterization. We also identified genome regions significantly associated with 13 horticulturally important traits through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Finally, we developed a molecularly informed, publicly accessible core collection of 395 accessions that represents at least 96% of the genetic variation present in the NPGS. Collectively, the information obtained from the GBS data enabled deep insight into the diversity present and genetic relationships among accessions within the collection, and will provide a valuable resource for genetic analyses, gene discovery, crop improvement, and germplasm preservation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The narrow genetic basis of resistance in modern wheat cultivars and the strong selection response of pathogen populations have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of the wheat rust diseases. Characterizing new sources of resistance and incorporating multiple genes into elite cultivars is the most widely accepted current mechanism to achieve durable varietal performance against changes in pathogen virulence. Here, we report a high-density molecular characterization and genome-wide association study (GWAS) of stripe rust and stem rust resistance in 190 Ethiopian bread wheat lines based on phenotypic data from multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance screening experiments. A total of 24,281 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers filtered from the wheat 90 K iSelect genotyping assay was used to survey Ethiopian germplasm for population structure, genetic diversity and marker-trait associations.<h4>Results</h4>Upon screening for field resistance to stripe rust in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Ethiopia over multiple growing seasons, and against multiple races of stripe rust and stem rust at seedling stage, eight accessions displayed resistance to all tested races of stem rust and field resistance to stripe rust in all environments. Our GWAS results show 15 loci were significantly associated with seedling and adult plant resistance to stripe rust at false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted probability (P) <0.10. GWAS also detected 9 additional genomic regions significantly associated (FDR-adjusted P < 0.10) with seedling resistance to stem rust in the Ethiopian wheat accessions. Many of the identified resistance loci were mapped close to previously identified rust resistance genes; however, three loci on the short arms of chromosomes 5A and 7B for stripe rust resistance and two on chromosomes 3B and 7B for stem rust resistance may be novel.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results demonstrate that considerable genetic variation resides within the landrace accessions that can be utilized to broaden the genetic base of rust resistance in wheat breeding germplasm. The molecular markers identified in this study should be useful in efficiently targeting the associated resistance loci in marker-assisted breeding for rust resistance in Ethiopia and other countries.
Project description:Root damage caused by aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major cause of grain yield reduction on acid soils, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where food security is most tenuous. In sorghum, Al tolerance is conferred by SbMATE, an Al-activated root citrate efflux transporter that underlies the major Al tolerance locus, AltSB, on sorghum chromosome 3. We used association mapping to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Al tolerance in sorghum and to detect functional variants amenable to allele mining applications. Linkage disequilibrium across the AltSB locus decreased much faster than in previous reports in sorghum, and reached basal levels at approximately 1000 bp. Accordingly, intra-locus recombination events were found to be extensive. SNPs and indels highly associated with Al tolerance showed a narrow frequency range, between 0.06 and 0.1, suggesting a rather recent origin of Al tolerance mutations within AltSB. A haplotype network analysis suggested a single geographic and racial origin of causative mutations in primordial guinea domesticates in West Africa. Al tolerance assessment in accessions harboring recombinant haplotypes suggests that causative polymorphisms are localized to a ?6 kb region including intronic polymorphisms and a transposon (MITE) insertion, whose size variation has been shown to be positively correlated with Al tolerance. The SNP with the strongest association signal, located in the second SbMATE intron, recovers 9 of the 14 highly Al tolerant accessions and 80% of all the Al tolerant and intermediately tolerant accessions in the association panel. Our results also demonstrate the pivotal importance of knowledge on the origin and evolution of Al tolerance mutations in molecular breeding applications. Allele mining strategies based on associated loci are expected to lead to the efficient identification, in diverse sorghum germplasm, of Al tolerant accessions able maintain grain yields under Al toxicity.