Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei on the Peripheral Immune Response in Children with Celiac Disease Autoimmunity: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Two Lactobacillus strains have proven anti-inflammatory properties by reducing pro-inflammatory responses to antigens. This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial tested the hypothesis that L. plantarum HEAL9 and L. paracasei 8700:2 suppress ongoing celiac disease autoimmunity in genetically at risk children on a gluten-containing diet in a longitudinally screening study for celiac disease. Seventy-eight children with celiac disease autoimmunity participated of whom 40 received 1010 CFU/day of L. plantarum HEAL9 and L. paracasei 8700:2 (probiotic group) and 38 children maltodextrin (placebo group) for six months. Blood samples were drawn at zero, three and six months and phenotyping of peripheral blood lymphocytes and IgA and IgG autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) were measured. In the placebo group, naïve CD45RA+ Th cells decreased (p = 0.002) whereas effector and memory CD45RO+ Th cells increased (p = 0.003). In contrast, populations of cells expressing CD4+CD25highCD45RO+CCR4+ increased in the placebo group (p = 0.001). Changes between the groups were observed for NK cells (p = 0.038) and NKT cells (p = 0.008). Median levels of IgA-tTG decreased more significantly over time in the probiotic (p = 0.013) than in the placebo (p = 0.043) group whereas the opposite was true for IgG-tTG (p = 0.062 respective p = 0.008). In conclusion, daily oral administration of L. plantarum HEAL9 and L. paracasei 8700:2 modulate the peripheral immune response in children with celiac disease autoimmunity.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of consuming dairy yogurt containing Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei (L. paracasei), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (B. lactis) and heat-treated Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) on immune function. A randomized, open-label, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 200 nondiabetic subjects. Over a twelve-week period, the test group consumed dairy yogurt containing probiotics each day, whereas the placebo group consumed milk. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin (IL)-12 and immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 levels were significantly increased in the test group at twelve weeks compared to baseline. Additionally, the test group had significantly greater increases in serum NK cell activity and interferon (IFN)-? and IgG1 than placebo group. Daily consumption of dairy yogurt containing L. paracasei, B. lactis and heat-treated L. plantarum could be an effective option to improve immune function by enhancing NK cell function and IFN-? concentration (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03051425).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The combination of Lactobacillus plantarum HEAL9 and Lactobacillus paracasei 8700:2 (commercially available as Probi Defendum®) has previously been reported to reduce the incidence, duration and severity of naturally acquired common colds in adults. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Probi Defendum® on aspects of common cold in healthy children 1-6 years of age attending day care. METHODS:A total of 131 children, out of the planned 320, were recruited into the study during 1 common cold season and randomised to consume once daily either 109 CFU (colony forming units) of the probiotic product or placebo. Due to unforeseen reasons, the recruitment of more children did not continue beyond the first cold season. RESULTS:There were 106 children that completed the study out of the 131 randomised. Daily consumption of the probiotic product for a period of 3 months significantly reduced the severity of the symptom "nasal congestion/runny nose" with a mean severity score for the whole study period of 7.5?±?9.7 in the probiotic group and 13.9?±?15.2 in the placebo (p?<?0.05). Moreover, significantly less concomitant medication was used in the probiotic group. When the data were projected to a larger population corresponding to the originally estimated sample size, the results were in favour of the probiotic group regarding the reduced absence from day care (p?<?0.05), reduced mean total severity per day in the reported episodes (p?<?0.05) and reduced severity of the symptom "crying more than usual" (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSION:Intake of Probi Defendum® once daily for a period of 3 months was beneficial to children and reduced the severity of common colds.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The presence of HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 is associated with an increased risk of celiac disease. In addition, nearly all children with celiac disease have serum antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG). METHODS:We studied 6403 children with HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 prospectively from birth in the United States, Finland, Germany, and Sweden. The primary end point was the development of celiac disease autoimmunity, which was defined as the presence of tTG antibodies on two consecutive tests at least 3 months apart. The secondary end point was the development of celiac disease, which was defined for the purpose of this study as either a diagnosis on biopsy or persistently high levels of tTG antibodies. RESULTS:The median follow-up was 60 months (interquartile range, 46 to 77). Celiac disease autoimmunity developed in 786 children (12%). Of the 350 children who underwent biopsy, 291 had confirmed celiac disease; an additional 21 children who did not undergo biopsy had persistently high levels of tTG antibodies. The risks of celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease by the age of 5 years were 11% and 3%, respectively, among children with a single DR3-DQ2 haplotype, and 26% and 11%, respectively, among those with two copies (DR3-DQ2 homozygosity). In the adjusted model, the hazard ratios for celiac disease autoimmunity were 2.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70 to 2.56) among heterozygotes and 5.70 (95% CI, 4.66 to 6.97) among homozygotes, as compared with children who had the lowest-risk genotypes (DR4-DQ8 heterozygotes or homozygotes). Residence in Sweden was also independently associated with an increased risk of celiac disease autoimmunity (hazard ratio, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.61 to 2.25). CONCLUSIONS:Children with the HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2, especially homozygotes, were found to be at high risk for celiac disease autoimmunity and celiac disease early in childhood. The higher risk in Sweden than in other countries highlights the importance of studying environmental factors associated with celiac disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others.).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Viral infections of the upper airways are the most common cause for absence from work or school, and there is evidence for probiotic efficacy in reducing the incidence and severity of these infections.<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to confirm the previously reported beneficial effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum HEAL9 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei 8700:2 against community-acquired common colds and identify a possible mechanism of action.<h4>Methods</h4>In a double-blind study, healthy adults (18-70 years of age) with at least 4 colds during the last 12 months before recruitment were randomly allocated to consume either probiotics (n = 448; total daily dose of 109 CFU with the 2 strains equally represented) or placebo (n = 450) once daily for 12 weeks. Recruitment took place from October to February during 2013-2016 (over 3 cold seasons). The probiotic impact on the severity of the colds (Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21) was the primary endpoint, whereas secondary endpoints included the incidence rate and duration of colds and an analysis of immune markers. Mann-Whitney U test and mixed model were used for the analysis of continuous variables and Fisher´s exact test was used for the analysis of categorical endpoints.<h4>Results</h4>Symptom severity was not reduced after intake of the probiotic, despite the positive trend seen in the first season. However, significantly fewer colds were experienced in the probiotic group (mean of 1.24 colds) as compared to the placebo group (mean of 1.36 colds; P = 0.044) for subjects reporting at least 1 cold, the incidence of recurring colds was 30% lower (20.8% vs. 29.8%, respectively; P = 0.055), and the use of analgesics was 18% lower (26.3% vs. 32%, respectively; P = 0.07). After 12 weeks, the change from baseline for IFN-? differed between the groups (mean difference of -7.01; 95% CI, -14.9 to 0.93; P = 0.045).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Intake of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum HEAL9 and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei 8700:2 can be protective against multiple colds in adults prone to getting colds.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02013934.
Project description:Lactobacillus acidophilus UBLA-34, L. paracasei UBLPC-35, L. plantarum UBLP-40, and L. reuteri UBLRU-87 were isolated from different varieties of fermented foods. To determine the probiotic safety at the strain level, the whole genome of the respective strains was sequenced, assembled, and characterized. Both the core-genome and pan-genome phylogeny showed that L. reuteri was closest to L. plantarum than to L. acidophilus, which was closest to L. paracasei. The genomic analysis of all the strains confirmed the absence of genes encoding putative virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and the plasmids.
Project description:<h4>Background/aims</h4>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely related to gut-microbiome. There is a paucity of research on which strains of gut microbiota affect the progression of NAFLD. This study explored the NAFLD-associated microbiome in humans and the role of Lactobacillus in the progression of NAFLD in mice.<h4>Methods</h4>The gut microbiome was analyzed via next-generation sequencing in healthy people (n=37) and NAFLD patients with elevated liver enzymes (n=57). Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were separated into six groups (n=10 per group; normal, Western, and four Western diet + strains [109 colony-forming units/g for 8 weeks; L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei, and L. plantarum]). Liver/body weight ratio, liver pathology, serum analysis, and metagenomics in the mice were examined.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to healthy subjects (1.6±4.3), NAFLD patients showed an elevated Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (25.0±29.0) and a reduced composition of Akkermansia and L. murinus (P<0.05). In the animal experiment, L. acidophilus group was associated with a significant reduction in liver/body weight ratio (5.5±0.4) compared to the Western group (6.2±0.6) (P<0.05). L. acidophilus (41.0±8.6), L. fermentum (44.3±12.6), and L. plantarum (39.0±7.6) groups showed decreased cholesterol levels compared to the Western group (85.7±8.6) (P<0.05). In comparison of steatosis, L. acidophilus (1.9±0.6), L. plantarum (2.4±0.7), and L. paracasei (2.0±0.9) groups showed significant improvement of steatosis compared to the Western group (2.6±0.5) (P<0.05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Ingestion of Lactobacillus, such as L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, and L. plantarum, ameliorates the progression of nonalcoholic steatosis by lowering cholesterol. The use of Lactobacillus can be considered as a useful strategy for the treatment of NAFLD.
Project description:Background: Fermented foods have been proposed to prevent common infectious diseases (CIDs) in children attending day care or preschool.To investigate the efficacy of dietary supplementation with cow's skim milk fermented with the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 in reducing CIDs in children attending day care or preschool. Methods: Multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on healthy children (aged 12-48 months) consuming daily 7 grams of cow's skim milk fermented with L. paracasei CBA L74 (group A), or placebo (maltodextrins group B) attending day care or preschool during the winter season. The main outcome was the proportion of children who experienced ?1 episode of CID during a 3-month follow-up. Fecal biomarkers of innate (?- and ?-defensins, cathelicidin) and acquired immunity (secretory IgA) were also monitored. Results: A total of 126 children (71 males, 56%) with a mean (SD) age of 33 (9) months completed the study, 66 in group A and 60 in group B. At intention to treat analysis, the proportion of children presenting ?1 CID was 60% in group A vs. 83% in group B, corresponding to an absolute risk difference (ARD) of -23% (95% CI: -37% to -9%, p < 0.01). At per-protocol-analysis (PPA), the proportion of children presenting ?1 CID was 18% in group A vs. 40% in group B, corresponding to an absolute risk difference (ARD) of -22% (95% CI: -37% to -6%, p < 0.01). PPA showed that the proportion of children presenting ?1 acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was significantly lower in group A (18% vs. 40%, p < 0.05). The ARD for the occurrence of ?1 AGE was -22% (95% CI: -37% to -6%, p < 0.01) in group A. Similar findings were obtained at PPA regarding the proportion of children presenting ?1 upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), which was significantly lower in group A (51% vs. 74%, p < 0.05), corresponding to an ARD of -23% (95% CI: -40% to -7%, p < 0.01). Significant changes in innate and acquired immunity biomarkers were observed only in subjects in group A. Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with cow's skim milk fermented with L. paracasei CBA L74 is an efficient strategy in preventing CIDs in children.
Project description:This prospective study investigates whether measurement of plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), a sensitive marker for small intestinal epithelial damage, improves non-invasive diagnosing of celiac disease (CD), and whether I-FABP levels are useful to evaluate mucosal healing in patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD). Ninety children with elevated tTG-IgA titres and HLA-DQ2/DQ8 positivity were included (study group). Duodenal biopsies were taken, except in those fulfilling the ESPGHAN criteria. Plasma I-FABP levels and tTG-IgA titres were assessed sequentially during six months of follow-up. Eighty children with normal tTG-IgA titres served as control group. In 61/90 (67.8%) of the children in the study group an increased I-FABP level was found; in all these children CD diagnosis was confirmed. Interestingly, in 14/30 (46.7%) children with slightly elevated tTG-IgA titres (<10x upper limit of normal), an increased I-FABP level was found. In all these children the diagnosis of CD was confirmed histologically. After gluten elimination for six weeks I-FABP levels had decreased towards levels in the control group. Measurement of plasma I-FABP, in addition to tTG-IgA, EMA-IgA and HLAtyping, enables non-invasive diagnosing of CD in a substantial number of children, and might therefore be of value in the diagnostic approach of CD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Appropriate interpretation of a positive celiac antibody test by an ordering physician is important in order to institute proper management. We evaluated why children with an initial positive celiac serology were not referred for diagnostic biopsy or followed with serial testing by the ordering physician. METHODS:Consecutive celiac serologies in all patients less than 18 years of age were evaluated over 3.5 years and 775 children with a positive tissue transglutaminase antibody (TTG) were identified. If no management of a positive TTG could be identified, a survey was sent to the ordering physician. Responses were categorized as appropriate or inappropriate management. RESULTS:Of the 775 patients with a positive TTG, 193 (24.9%, 95% CI 21.9-28.1%) received no follow-up management. We contacted 173 ordering physicians and 120 (69%) responded. Of the 120 responses, 55 patients (45.8%, 95% CI 36.8-55.1%) were managed appropriately and 46 (38.3%, 95% CI 29.7-47.7%) were considered to be inappropriately managed when no repeat TTG was obtained within 18 months. Reasons for inappropriate management included: screen considered to be false positive (44.7%), patient was not experiencing symptoms of celiac disease (31.6%), symptoms had resolved (15.8%), results were not indicative of celiac disease (26.3%) and patients started a gluten-free diet with no evaluation of response (15.8%). In 19 patients the TTG was not acted upon for technical reasons. CONCLUSIONS:Positive TTGs require appropriate interventions. These include: subspecialist referral for further evaluation and/or repeat testing to evaluate: 1) treatment response or 2) patients with minimal or no symptoms.
Project description:Background and Objectives:HIV enteropathy may cause disruption of the intestinal barrier, leading to a loss of CD4+ T cells, increased intestinal permeability, and microbial translocation. Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 has the ability to improve gut barrier function. This study investigated the effect of L. plantarum IS-10506 on a number of biomarkers of enteropathy-related damage in HIV-infected paediatric patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ARV). Materials and Methods:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 2-18 year-old children, diagnosed as HIV infected according to the WHO 2007 criteria who had received ARV for ? 6 months. Subjects were excluded if ARV therapy was discontinued or the patients took probiotics ? 2 weeks prior to the study or during the study period. Subjects were randomized into a probiotic group and placebo group. The probiotic group received L. plantarum IS-10506 2.86 × 1010 cfu/day for 6 days. Blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, serum CD4+ T cell count, serum CD8+ T cell count, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, and faecal sIgA level were assessed as biomarkers. Results:Twenty-one subjects completed this study. The blood LPS level decreased significantly in the probiotic group (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference in absolute CD4+ T cell count, percent CD4+ cells, absolute CD8+ T cell count, CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio, or faecal sIgA. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion:The probiotic L. plantarum IS-10506 reduced the blood LPS level but showed no effect on the humoral mucosa and systemic immune response in HIV-infected children undergoing ARV therapy.