ABSTRACT: Vaccine delivery via mucosal surfaces is an interesting alternative to parenteral vaccine administration, as it avoids the use of a needle and syringe. Mucosal vaccine administration also targets the mucosal immune system, which is the largest lymphoid tissue in the human body. The mucosal immune response involves systemic, antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune response in addition to a local response which is characterised by a predominantly cytotoxic T cell response in combination with secreted IgA. This antibody facilitates pathogen recognition and deletion prior to entrance into the body. Hence, administration via the respiratory mucosa can be favoured for all pathogens which use the respiratory tract as entry to the body, such as influenza and for all diseases directly affecting the respiratory tract such as pneumonia. Additionally, the different mucosal tissues of the human body are interconnected via the so-called "common mucosal immune system", which allows induction of an antigen-specific immune response in distant mucosal sites. Finally, mucosal administration is also interesting in the area of therapeutic vaccination, in which a predominant cellular immune response is required, as this can efficiently be induced by this route of delivery. The review gives an introduction to respiratory vaccination, formulation approaches and application strategies.
Project description:Needle-free, mucosal immunization is a highly desirable strategy for vaccination against many pathogens, especially those entering through the respiratory mucosa, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, mucosal vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) is impeded by a lack of suitable adjuvants and/or delivery platforms that could induce a protective immune response in humans. Here, we report on a novel biotechnological approach for mucosal vaccination against TB that overcomes some of the current limitations. This is achieved by coating protective TB antigens onto the surface of inert bacterial spores, which are then delivered to the respiratory tract. Our data showed that mice immunized nasally with coated spores developed humoral and cellular immune responses and multifunctional T cells and, most importantly, presented significantly reduced bacterial loads in their lungs and spleens following pathogenic challenge. We conclude that this new vaccine delivery platform merits further development as a mucosal vaccine for TB and possibly also other respiratory pathogens.
Project description:Each year, approximately five million people die worldwide from putatively vaccine-preventable mucosally transmitted diseases. With respect to mass vaccination campaigns, one strategy to cope with this formidable challenge is aerosol vaccine delivery, which offers potential safety, logistical, and cost-saving advantages over traditional vaccination routes. Additionally, aerosol vaccination may elicit pivotal mucosal immune responses that could contain or eliminate mucosally transmitted pathogens in a preventative or therapeutic vaccine context. In this current preclinical non-human primate investigation, we demonstrate the feasibility of aerosol vaccination with the recombinant poxvirus-based vaccine vectors NYVAC and MVA. Real-time in vivo scintigraphy experiments with radiolabeled, aerosol-administered NYVAC-C (Clade C, HIV-1 vaccine) and MVA-HPV vaccines revealed consistent mucosal delivery to the respiratory tract. Furthermore, aerosol delivery of the vaccines was safe, inducing no vaccine-associated pathology, in particular in the brain and lungs, and was immunogenic. Administration of a DNA-C/NYVAC-C prime/boost regime resulted in both systemic and anal-genital HIV-specific immune responses that were still detectable 5 months after immunization. Thus, aerosol vaccination with NYVAC and MVA vectored vaccines constitutes a tool for large-scale vaccine efforts against mucosally transmitted pathogens.
Project description:We have previously reported that a subunit protein vaccine based on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike protein and a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-based RBD (RBD-rAAV) vaccine could induce highly potent neutralizing Ab responses in immunized animals. In this study, systemic, mucosal, and cellular immune responses and long-term protective immunity induced by RBD-rAAV were further characterized in a BALB/c mouse model, with comparison of the i.m. and intranasal (i.n.) routes of administration. Our results demonstrated that: 1) the i.n. vaccination induced a systemic humoral immune response of comparable strength and shorter duration than the i.m. vaccination, but the local humoral immune response was much stronger; 2) the i.n. vaccination elicited stronger systemic and local specific cytotoxic T cell responses than the i.m. vaccination, as evidenced by higher prevalence of IL-2 and/or IFN-gamma-producing CD3+/CD8+ T cells in both lungs and spleen; 3) the i.n. vaccination induced similar protection as the i.m. vaccination against SARS-CoV challenge in mice; 4) higher titers of mucosal IgA and serum-neutralizing Ab were associated with lower viral load and less pulmonary pathological damage, while no Ab-mediated disease enhancement effect was observed; and 5) the vaccination could provide long-term protection against SARS-CoV infection. Taken together, our findings suggest that RBD-rAAV can be further developed into a vaccine candidate for prevention of SARS and that i.n. vaccination may be the preferred route of administration due to its ability to induce SARS-CoV-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses and its better safety profile.
Project description:There has been substantial interest in the development of needle-free vaccine administration that has led to a variety of approaches for delivery through the skin for induction of a systemic immune response. The mucosal administration of vaccines has inherently been needle-free, but the simple application of vaccines on the mucosal surface by itself does not lead to mucosal immunity. Since many important bacterial infections develop after initial colonization of the upper respiratory tract of the host, prevention of colonization could not only prevent infection but also eliminate the reservoir of pathogens that reside exclusively in that ecologic niche. This study was designed to provide proof of concept for a needle-free immunization approach that would reduce or eliminate colonization and prevent infection. In order to accomplish this a microparticle vaccine preparation was delivered just below the oral mucosal epithelial cell layer where it would lead to a robust immune response. A vaccine antigen (mutant transferrin binding protein B) shown to be capable of preventing infection in pigs was incorporated into a polyphosphazene microparticle preparation and delivered by a needle-free device to the oral sub-epithelial space of pigs. This vaccination regimen not only provided complete protection from infection after intranasal challenge by Glaesserella parasuis but also eliminated natural colonization by this bacterium. Notably, the complete prevention of natural colonization was dependent upon delivery of the microparticle preparation below the epithelial layer in the oral mucosa as intradermal or intramuscular delivery was not as effective at preventing natural colonization. This study also demonstrated that a primary immunization in the presence of maternal antibody limited the resulting antibody response but a robust antibody response after the second immunization indicated that maternal antibody did not prevent induction of B-cell memory.
Project description:Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is a leading cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. No vaccine is presently available to address this major unmet medical need. We generated a new genetic vaccine based on chimpanzee Adenovirus (PanAd3-RSV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara RSV (MVA-RSV) encoding the F, N, and M2-1 proteins of RSV, for the induction of neutralizing antibodies and broad cellular immunity. Because RSV infection is restricted to the respiratory tract, we compared intranasal (IN) and intramuscular (M) administration for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in different species. A single IN or IM vaccination completely protected BALB/c mice and cotton rats against RSV replication in the lungs. However, only IN administration could prevent infection in the upper respiratory tract. IM vaccination with MVA-RSV also protected cotton rats from lower respiratory tract infection in the absence of detectable neutralizing antibodies. Heterologous prime boost with PanAd3-RSV and MVA-RSV elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and broad T-cell responses in nonhuman primates. In addition, animals primed in the nose developed mucosal IgA against the F protein. In conclusion, we have shown that our vectored RSV vaccine induces potent cellular and humoral responses in a primate model, providing strong support for clinical testing.
Project description:Respiratory mucosa immunization is capable of eliciting both local and distal mucosal immune responses; it is a potentially powerful yet largely unused modality for vaccination against respiratory diseases. Targeting the lower versus upper airways by aerosol delivery alters the immunogenicity profile of a vaccine, although the full extent of this impact is not well characterized. We set out to define the cellular and humoral response profiles elicited by immunization via intranasal, small aerosol droplets, and large aerosol droplets. We compared responses following adenovirus-vectored vaccination by these routes in macaques, either for the generation of primary immune responses or for the boosting of previously primed systemic responses. Aerosol delivery (4 or 10?m diameter droplets, addressing lower or upper airways, respectively) generated the highest magnitude lung CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, reaching 10-30% vaccine-specific levels in bronchoalveolar lavage cells. In contrast, intranasal delivery was less immunogenic with >10-fold lower peak lung T-cell responses. Systemic (blood) T-cell responses were only observed following 4?m aerosol (and parenteral) immunization, while all delivery routes elicited similar humoral responses. These data demonstrate distinct immune response profiles with each respiratory tract vaccination modality and suggest that small droplet aerosol offers several immunological advantages over other respiratory routes.
Project description:Induction of long-lasting immunity against viral respiratory tract infections remains an elusive goal. Using a nonhuman primate model of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) infection, we compared mucosal and systemic immune responses induced by different DNA delivery approaches to a novel parenteral DNA prime-tonsillar adenoviral vector booster immunization regimen. Intramuscular (i.m.) electroporation (EP) of a DNA vaccine encoding the fusion protein of hRSV induced stronger systemic immune responses than intradermal EP, tattoo immunization, and conventional i.m. DNA injection. A single EP i.m., followed by two atraumatic tonsillar immunizations with the adenoviral vector, elicited strong systemic immune responses, an unique persistent CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell response in the lower respiratory tract and protection from intranasal hRSV challenge. Thus, parenteral DNA priming followed by booster immunization targeted to a mucosal inductive site constitutes an effective vaccine regimen for eliciting protective immune responses at mucosal effector sites.The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the most common cause of severe respiratory tract disease in infancy and leads to substantial morbidity and morality in the elderly. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity and efficacy of several gene-based immunization protocols in rhesus macaques. Thereby, we found that the combination of an initially parenterally delivered DNA vaccine with a subsequent atraumatic tonsillar adenoviral vector immunization results in a strong systemic immune response accompanied by an exceptional high T-cell response in the mucosa. Strikingly, these animals were protected against a RSV challenge infection controlling the viral replication indicated by a 1,000-fold-lower viral load in the lower respiratory tract. Since mucosal cellular responses of this strength had not been described in earlier RSV vaccine studies, this heterologous DNA prime-tonsillar boost vaccine strategy is very promising and should be pursued for further preclinical and clinical testing.
Project description:Direct delivery of aerosolized vaccines to the respiratory mucosa elicits both systemic and mucosal responses. This vaccine strategy has not been tested for Ebola virus (EBOV) or other hemorrhagic fever viruses. Here, we examined the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of an aerosolized human parainfluenza virus type 3-vectored vaccine that expresses the glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV (HPIV3/EboGP) delivered to the respiratory tract. Rhesus macaques were vaccinated with aerosolized HPIV3/EboGP, liquid HPIV3/EboGP, or an unrelated, intramuscular, Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon vaccine expressing EBOV GP. Serum and mucosal samples from aerosolized HPIV3/EboGP recipients exhibited high EBOV-specific IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibody titers, which exceeded or equaled titers observed in liquid recipients. The HPIV3/EboGP vaccine induced an EBOV-specific cellular response that was greatest in the lungs and yielded polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, including a subset that expressed CD103 (?E integrin), and CD4+ T helper cells that were predominately type 1. The magnitude of the CD4+ T cell response was greater in aerosol vaccinees. The HPIV3/EboGP vaccine produced a more robust cell-mediated and humoral immune response than the systemic replicon vaccine. Moreover, 1 aerosol HPIV3/EboGP dose conferred 100% protection to macaques exposed to EBOV. Aerosol vaccination represents a useful and feasible vaccination mode that can be implemented with ease in a filovirus disease outbreak situation.
Project description:There is an urgent need for novel vaccination strategies to combat respiratory pathogens. Mucosal vaccine delivery is an attractive option as it directly targets the site of infection; however, preclinical development has been hindered by a lack of suitable mucosal adjuvants and a limited understanding of their immune effects in the lung environment. Herein, we define the early immune events following the intrapulmonary delivery of a vaccine incorporating the adjuvant delta-inulin. Analysis of the early inflammatory response showed vaccine-induced innate cell recruitment to lungs and local lymph nodes (LN) was transient and non-polarised, correlating with an increase in pulmonary chemotactic factors. Use of fluorescently labelled adjuvant revealed widespread tissue dissemination of adjuvant particles, coupled with broad cellular uptake and transit to the lung-draining LN by a range of innate immune cells. Mass cytometric analysis revealed extensive phenotypic changes in innate and adaptive cell subsets induced by vaccination; this included identification of unconventional lymphocytes such as ??-T cells and MAIT cells that increased following vaccination and displayed an activated phenotype. This study details a comprehensive view of the immune response to intrapulmonary adjuvant administration and provides pre-clinical evidence to support delta-inulin as a suitable adjuvant for pulmonary vaccines.
Project description:Both rectal and vaginal mucosal surfaces serve as transmission routes for pathogenic microorganisms. Vaccination through large intestinal mucosa, previously proven protective for both of these mucosal sites in animal studies, can be achieved successfully by direct intracolorectal (i.c.r.) administration, but this route is clinically impractical. Oral vaccine delivery seems preferable but runs the risk of the vaccine's destruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, we designed a large intestine-targeted oral delivery with pH-dependent microparticles containing vaccine nanoparticles, which induced colorectal immunity in mice comparably to colorectal vaccination and protected against rectal and vaginal viral challenge. Conversely, vaccine targeted to the small intestine induced only small intestinal immunity and provided no rectal or vaginal protection, demonstrating functional compartmentalization within the gut mucosal immune system. Therefore, using this oral vaccine delivery system to target the large intestine, but not the small intestine, may represent a feasible new strategy for immune protection of rectal and vaginal mucosa.