Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing Reveal Presence of a Novel Ungulate Bocaparvovirus in Alpacas.
ABSTRACT: Viruses belonging to the genus Bocaparvovirus (BoV) are a genetically diverse group of DNA viruses known to cause respiratory, enteric, and neurological diseases in animals, including humans. An intestinal sample from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) herd with reoccurring diarrhea and respiratory disease was submitted for next-generation sequencing, revealing the presence of a BoV strain. The alpaca BoV strain (AlBoV) had a 58.58% whole genome nucleotide percent identity to a camel BoV from Dubai, belonging to a tentative ungulate BoV 8 species (UBoV8). Recombination events were lacking with other UBoV strains. The AlBoV genome was comprised of the NS1, NP1, and VP1 proteins. The NS1 protein had the highest amino acid percent identity range (57.89-67.85%) to the members of UBoV8, which was below the 85% cut-off set by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. The low NS1 amino acid identity suggests that AlBoV is a tentative new species. The whole genome, NS1, NP1, and VP1 phylogenetic trees illustrated distinct branching of AlBoV, sharing a common ancestor with UBoV8. Walker loop and Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) motifs that are vital for virus infectivity were identified in NS1 and VP1 proteins, respectively. Our study reports a novel BoV strain in an alpaca intestinal sample and highlights the need for additional BoV research.
Project description:Primate bocaparvovirus (BOV) is a possible cause of respiratory disorders and gastroenteritis in humans. However, the diversity and evolution of these viruses remain largely unknown, despite the identification of a growing number of BOVs in non-human primates (NHPs). Here, we report the identification of a novel BOV (provisionally named Macaca mulatta bocaparvovirus [MmBOV]) in the feces of wild Macaca mulatta in China by viral metagenomic analysis. Seven of 400 fecal samples from Macaca mulatta were positive for MmBOV. An almost complete genome sequence of 4,831 nucleotides was obtained, which had genomic organization and protein motifs similar to human bocaviruses (HOBVs), and shared characteristically low G/C content and weak codon usage bias. Sequence analyses of NS1, NP1, and VP1 revealed that MmBOV was most closely related to HBOV4 of Primate bocaparvovirus 2 (approximately 68.4%/70.6%, 73.3%/67.6%, and 70.4%/73.1% nucleotide/amino acid identities, respectively). Additionally, phylogenetic analysis revealed that MmBOV formed an independent peripheral branch, but clustered closely with those of the Primate bocaparvovirus species in the BOV genus (particularly HBOV4). These data strongly suggest that HBOV4 originated from NHP bocaparvoviruses around 200-300 years ago, and that NHPs may act as HBOV reservoirs. Following the International Committee of Taxonomy for Viruses guidelines, we propose MmBOV as a new species (tentatively named Primate bocaparvovirus 3) in the genus Bocaparvovirus, which is the first report of a novel species of primate BOV. Our data facilitate future research on the genetic diversity and evolution of primate bocaparvoviruses and highlight the importance of bocaparvovirus surveys in wild NHPs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Porcine bocavirus is classified within the genus Bocaparvovirus, family Parvoviridae. Unlike other parvoviruses, the members of genus Bocaparvovirus (bocaparvoviruses) encode an additional open reading frame (NP1). Many strains of PBoVs have been identified in domestic pigs and recognized as a potential emerging pathogen causing respiratory and gastrointestinal disease. FINDINGS:A new strain of porcine bocavirus (PBoV) that harbored the shortest NP1 gene among all currently characterized PBoVs (provisionally named as 'PBoV-KU14') was detected in domestic pigs. Almost the complete genome sequence was obtained, approximately 4,630 nucleotides in lengths with putative NS1, NP1, and VP1/2 genes of 1,908, 600, 1,851 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic and comparative analysis was performed using protein and nucleotide sequences. It was revealed that PBoV-KU14 belongs to the genus Bocaparvovirus and species Ungulate bocaparvovirus 4. However, phylogenetic incongruence was observed among species classifications based on the NS1, NP1 and VP1/2 proteins, which indicates a probability of crossover recombination. Conserved protein domains unique for genus Bocaparvovirus in NP1, VP1 protein were also detected. CONCLUSION:NP1 gene truncation supposed to be caused by cross over recombination was detected in a new strain of PBoV (PBoV-KU14). Considering high rates of substitution and recombination in parvovirus, periodic surveillance study to monitor genomic variation and find new strainsof PBoVs seems to be needed.
Project description:The genus bocavirus includes bovine parvovirus (BPV), minute virus of canines (MVC), and a group of human bocaviruses (HBoV1-4). Using sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA), a novel bocavirus group was discovered with high prevalence (12.59%) in piglet stool samples. Two nearly full-length genome sequences were obtained, which were approximately 5,100 nucleotides in length. Multiple alignments revealed that they share 28.7-56.8% DNA sequence identity with other members of Parvovirinae. Phylogenetic analyses indicated their closest neighbors were members of the genus bocavirus. The new viruses had a putative non-structural NP1 protein, which was unique to bocaviruses. They were provisionally named porcine bocavirus 1 and 2 (PBoV1, PBoV2). PBoV1 and PBoV2 shared 94.2% nucleotide identity in NS1 gene sequence, suggesting that they represented two different bocavirus species. Two additional samples (6V, 7V) were amplified for 2,407 bp and 2,434 bp products, respectively, including a partial NP1 gene and the complete VP1 gene; Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 6Vand 7V grouped with PBoV1 and PBoV2 in the genus of bocavirus, but were in the separate clusters. Like other parvoviruses, PBoV1, PBoV2, 6Vand 7V also contained a putative secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) motif in the VP1 unique region, with a conserved HDXXY motif in the catalytic center. The conserved motif YXGXF of the Ca(2+)-binding loop of sPLA2 identified in human bocavirus was also found in porcine bocavirus, which differs from the YXGXG motif carried by most other parvoviruses. The observation of PBoV and potentially other new bocavirus genus members may aid in molecular and functional characterization of the genus bocavirus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC), associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV), associated with respiratory disease. FINDINGS:In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3). The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1) shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. CONCLUSIONS:We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal's complex disease remains to be determined.
Project description:Viral metagenomic analysis was used to identify a previously uncharacterized parvovirus species, "HBoV2," whose closest phylogenetic relative is the human bocavirus (HBoV). HBoV2 has a genomic organization identical to that of HBoV but has only 78%, 67%, and 80% identity, respectively, with the latter's NS1, NP1, and VP1/VP2 proteins. The study used polymerase chain reaction to detect HBoV2 sequences in 5 of 98 stool samples from Pakistani children and in 3 of 699 stool samples from Edinburgh. Nearly-full-length genome sequencing revealed the presence of 3 HBoV2 genotypes and evidence of recombination between genotypes. Further studies are necessary to identify anatomical sites of HBoV2 replication and potential associations with clinical symptoms or disease.
Project description:Porcine bocaviruses (PoBoVs) are small linear ssDNA viruses belonging to the genus bocavirus in the family Parvoviridae. The genome encodes four proteins-the non-structural protein 1 (NS1), the NP1 protein (unknown function) and the two structural proteins VP1 and VP2. In recent years, a number of different highly divergent PoBoV species have been discovered. PoBoVs have been shown to be present in pig populations in Europe, Asia and in the United States of America. In this study, we present the first data of the presence of PoBoV in Africa, specifically in Uganda. A PCR targeting a PoBoV species that have previously been detected in both Sweden and China was used to screen 95 serum samples from domestic pigs in Uganda. Two pigs were found to be positive for this specific PoBoV and the complete coding region was amplified from one of these samples. The amino acid sequence comparison of all these proteins showed a high identity (98-99 %) to the published Chinese sequences (strains: H18 and SX) belonging to the same PoBoV species. The same was true for the Swedish sequences from the same species. To the other PoBoV species the divergence was higher and only a 28-43 % protein sequence identity was seen comparing the different proteins.
Project description:The genome of recombinant adeno-associated virus 2 (rAAV2) remains a promising candidate for gene therapy for cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, but due to limitations in the packaging capacity and the tropism of this virus with respect to the airways, strategies have evolved for packaging an rAAV2 genome (up to 5.8?kb) into the capsid of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) to produce a chimeric rAAV2/HBoV1 vector. Although a replication-incompetent HBoV1 genome has been established as a trans helper for capsid complementation, this system remains suboptimal with respect to virion yield. Here, a streamlined production system is described based on knowledge of the involvement of HBoV1 nonstructural (NS) proteins NS1, NS2, NS3, NS4, and NP1 in the process of virion production. The analyses reveal that NS1 and NS2 negatively impact virion production, NP1 is required to prevent premature termination of transcription of the cap mRNA from the native genome, and silent mutations within the polyadenylation sites of the cap coding sequence can eliminate this requirement for NP1. It is further shown that preventing the expression of all NS proteins significantly increases virion yield. Whereas the expression of capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 from a codon-optimized cap mRNA was highly efficient, optimal virion assembly, and thus potency, required enhanced VP1 expression, entailing a separate VP1 expression cassette. The final NS protein-free production system uses three-plasmid co-transfection of HEK293 cells, with one trans helper plasmid encoding VP1 and the AAV2 Rep proteins, and another encoding VP2-3 and components from adenovirus. This system yielded >16-fold more virions than the prototypic system, without reducing transduction potency. This increase in virion production is expected to facilitate greatly both research on the biology of rAAV2/HBoV1 and preclinical studies testing the effectiveness of this vector for gene therapy of CF lung disease in large animal models.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the presence of canine bocaviruses (CBoVs) in fecal samples from 105 cats with diarrhea and 92 asymptomatic cats in northeast China. One fecal sample, 17CC0312, collected from an asymptomatic cat, was found to be positive for canine bocavirus 1 (CBoV1). The nearly complete genome of this virus was cloned and sequenced. The viral genome was 5,069 nucleotides (nt) in length and combined four open reading frames (ORFs) in the order 5'-NS1-ORF4-NP1-VP1/VP2-3'. The 17CC0312 virus shared more than 90.3% nucleotide sequence identity with CBoV1 reference sequences and was placed within the CBoV1 group in a phylogenetic tree based on complete genome sequences. Further phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequence of the VP2 gene showed that this feline CBoV1 strain belongs to CBoV1 lineage 3. These data provide the first molecular evidence of the presence of CBoV1 in a domestic cat and suggest that cats might be carriers of CBoV1.
Project description:Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is an autonomous parvovirus in the Bocaparvovirus genus. The multifunctional nuclear protein NP1 is involved in viral replication. In the present study, we found that the mutations in the C-terminus of NS1 affected NP1 function in viral replication. Knocking out NP1 expression in the recombinant infectious clone, on which the C-terminus of NS1 was mutated based on the clinical samples from nasopharyngeal aspirates, resulted in different degrees of decreased replication. The result suggested that NP1 facilitated the replication of viral genome but was not necessary, which is different from the minute virus of canines, where NP1 is essential for viral replication. Further studies showed that clinical mutations in the NP1 region did not affect viral genome replication, and UP1 promoted viral DNA replication. Our results suggested that the C-terminus of NS1 is important for viral replication and may be a target for regulating the replication of the viral genome.
Project description:Porcine bocavirus is a recently discovered virus that infects pigs and is classified within the Bocavirus genus (family Parvoviridae, subfamily Parvovirinae). The viral genome constitutes linear single-stranded DNA and has three open reading frames that encode four proteins: NS1, NP1, VP1, and VP2. There have been more than seven genotypes discovered to date. These genotypes have been classified into three groups based on VP1 sequence. Porcine bocavirus is much more prevalent in piglets that are co-infected with other pathogens than in healthy piglets. The virus can be detected using PCR, loop-mediated isothermal amplification, cell cultures, indirect immunofluorescence, and other molecular virology techniques. Porcine bocavirus has been detected in various samples, including stool, serum, lymph nodes, and tonsils. Because this virus was discovered only five years ago, there are still many unanswered questions that require further research. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and primary research achievements regarding porcine bocavirus.