Food Additive Titanium Dioxide and Its Fate in Commercial Foods.
ABSTRACT: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most extensively utilized food additives (E171) in the food industry. Along with nanotechnology development, the concern about the presence of nanostructured particles in E171 TiO2 and commercial food products is growing. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of commercially available E171 TiO2 particles, including particle size distribution, were investigated, followed by their cytotoxicity and intestinal transport evaluation. The fate determination and quantification of E171 TiO2 in commercial foods were carried out based on the analytical procedure developed using simulated foods. The results demonstrated that TiO2 is a material mainly composed of particles larger than 100 nm, but present as an agglomerated or aggregated particle in commercial foods with amounts of less than 1% (wt/wt). Titanium dioxide particles generated reactive oxygen species and inhibited long-term colony formation, but the cytotoxicity was not related to particle size distribution or particle type (food- or general-grade). All TiO2 particles were mainly transported by microfold (M) cells, but also by intestinal tight junction. These findings will be useful for TiO2 application in the food industry and predicting its potential toxicity.
Project description:Recent studies indicate the presence of nano-scale titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an additive in human foodstuffs, but a practical protocol to isolate and separate nano-fractions from soluble foodstuffs as a source of material remains elusive. As such, we developed a method for separating the nano and submicron fractions found in commercial-grade TiO2 (E171) and E171 extracted from soluble foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products (e.g., chewing gum, pain reliever, and allergy medicine). Primary particle analysis of commercial-grade E171 indicated that 54% of particles were nano-sized (i.e., < 100 nm). Isolation and primary particle analysis of five consumer goods intended to be ingested revealed differences in the percent of nano-sized particles from 32%?58%. Separation and enrichment of nano- and submicron-sized particles from commercial-grade E171 and E171 isolated from foodstuffs and pharmaceuticals was accomplished using rate-zonal centrifugation. Commercial-grade E171 was separated into nano- and submicron-enriched fractions consisting of a nano:submicron fraction of approximately 0.45:1 and 3.2:1, respectively. E171 extracted from gum had nano:submicron fractions of 1.4:1 and 0.19:1 for nano- and submicron-enriched, respectively. We show a difference in particle adhesion to the cell surface, which was found to be dependent on particle size and epithelial orientation. Finally, we provide evidence that E171 particles are not immediately cytotoxic to the Caco-2 human intestinal epithelium model. These data suggest that this separation method is appropriate for studies interested in isolating the nano-sized particle fraction taken directly from consumer products, in order to study separately the effects of nano and submicron particles.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, the risk of gut barrier disruption is an increasing concern because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction. Food-grade E171 may interact with mucus, a gut barrier protagonist still poorly explored in food nanotoxicology. To test this hypothesis, a comprehensive approach was performed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo interactions between TiO2 and intestinal mucus, by comparing food-grade E171 with NM-105 (Aeroxyde P25) OECD reference nanomaterial.We tested E171-trapping properties of mucus in vitro using HT29-MTX intestinal epithelial cells. Time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed without labeling to avoid modification of the particle surface. Near-UV irradiation of E171 TiO2 particles at 364 nm resulted in fluorescence emission in the visible range, with a maximum at 510 nm. The penetration of E171 TiO2 into the mucoid area of HT29-MTX cells was visualized in situ. One hour after exposure, TiO2 particles accumulated inside "patchy" regions 20 µm above the substratum. The structure of mucus produced by HT29-MTX cells was characterized by MUC5AC immunofluorescence staining. The mucus layer was thin and organized into regular "islands" located approximately 20 µm above the substratum. The region-specific trapping of food-grade TiO2 particles was attributed to this mucus patchy structure. We compared TiO2-mediated effects in vivo in rats after acute or sub-chronic oral daily administration of food-grade E171 and NM-105 at relevant exposure levels for humans. Cecal short-chain fatty acid profiles and gut mucin O-glycosylation patterns remained unchanged, irrespective of treatment.Food-grade TiO2 is trapped by intestinal mucus in vitro but does not affect mucin O-glycosylation and short-chain fatty acid synthesis in vivo, suggesting the absence of a mucus barrier impairment under "healthy gut" conditions.
Project description:Background Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is broadly used in common consumer goods, including as a food additive (E171 in Europe) for colouring and opacifying properties. The E171 additive contains TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), part of them being absorbed in the intestine and accumulated in several systemic organs. Exposure to TiO2-NPs in rodents during pregnancy resulted in alteration of placental functions and a materno-foetal transfer of NPs, both with toxic effects on the foetus. However, no human data are available for pregnant women exposed to food-grade TiO2-NPs and their potential transfer to the foetus. In this study, human placentae collected at term from normal pregnancies and meconium (the first stool of newborns) from unpaired mothers/children were analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy for their titanium (Ti) contents and for analysis of TiO2 particle deposition, respectively. Using an ex vivo placenta perfusion model, we also assessed the transplacental passage of food-grade TiO2 particles. Results By ICP-MS analysis, we evidenced the presence of Ti in all placentae (basal level ranging from 0.01 to 0.48?mg/kg of tissue) and in 50% of the meconium samples (0.02–1.50?mg/kg), suggesting a materno-foetal passage of Ti. STEM-EDX observation of the placental tissues confirmed the presence of TiO2-NPs in addition to iron (Fe), tin (Sn), aluminium (Al) and silicon (Si) as mixed or isolated particle deposits. TiO2 particles, as well as Si, Al, Fe and zinc (Zn) particles were also recovered in the meconium. In placenta perfusion experiments, confocal imaging and SEM-EDX analysis of foetal exudate confirmed a low transfer of food-grade TiO2 particles to the foetal side, which was barely quantifiable by ICP-MS. Diameter measurements showed that 70 to 100% of the TiO2 particles recovered in the foetal exudate were nanosized. Conclusions Altogether, these results show a materno-foetal transfer of TiO2 particles during pregnancy, with food-grade TiO2 as a potential source for foetal exposure to NPs. These data emphasize the need for risk assessment of chronic exposure to TiO2-NPs during pregnancy.
Project description:Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer's patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-? secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources.
Project description:Our objective was to investigate epigenomic and transcriptomic changes in J774 macrophages after incubation with talc and titanium dioxide particles. This dataset comprises the results of reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) of the J774 cell DNA 24 hours after exposure to 10 ug/well of fine-sized talc or titanium dioxide particles in vitro with or without 2 ug/mL 17-b estradiol. Overall design: Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing of genomic DNA extracted from J774 cells after talc and TiO2 (with/without estrogen) particle exposure, in triplicates.
Project description:The food additive titanium dioxide (TiO2), or E171, is a white food colorant. Recent studies showed after E171 ingestion a significantly increased number of colorectal tumours in a colorectal cancer mouse model as well as inflammatory responses and dysregulation of the immune system in the intestine of rats. In the mouse colon, E171 induced gene expression changes related to oxidative stress, impairment of the immune system, activation of signalling and cancer-related processes. E171 comprises nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs). Previous in vitro studies showed that E171, NPs and MPs induced oxidative stress responses, DNA damage and micronuclei formation. This study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of the NPs and MPs to effects of E171 at the transcriptome level in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells by genome wide microarray analysis. The results showed that E171, NPs, and MPs induce gene expression changes related to signalling, inflammation, immune system, transport and cancer. At the pathway level, metabolism of proteins with the insulin processing pathway and haemostasis were specific to E171 exposure. The gene expression changes associated with the immune system and inflammation induced by E171, MPs, and NPs suggest the creation of a favourable environment for colon cancer development.
Project description:E171 (titanium dioxide) is a food additive that has been authorized for use as a food colorant in the European Union. The application of E171 in food has become an issue of debate, since there are indications that it may alter the intestinal barrier. This work applied standardized and validated methodologies to characterize representative samples of 15 pristine E171 materials based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS). The evaluation of selected sample preparation protocols allowed identifying and optimizing the critical factors that determine the measurement of the particle size distribution by TEM. By combining optimized sample preparation with method validation, a significant variation in the particle size and shape distributions, the crystallographic structure (rutile versus anatase), and the physicochemical form (pearlescent pigments versus anatase and rutile E171) was demonstrated among the representative samples. These results are important for risk assessment of the E171 food additive and can contribute to the implementation of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance on risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced at high volumes and applied in many consumer and food products. Recent toxicokinetic modelling indicated the potential of TiO2 to accumulate in human liver and spleen upon daily oral exposure, which is not routinely investigated in chronic animal studies. A health risk from nanosized TiO2 particle consumption could not be excluded then. RESULTS:Here we show the first quantification of both total titanium (Ti) and TiO2 particles in 15 post-mortem human livers and spleens. These low-level analyses were enabled by the use of fully validated (single particle) inductively coupled plasma high resolution mass spectrometry ((sp)ICP-HRMS) detection methods for total Ti and TiO2 particles. The presence of TiO2 in the particles in tissues was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. CONCLUSIONS:These results prove that TiO2 particles are present in human liver and spleen, with ?24% of nanosize (<?100 nm). The levels are below the doses regarded as safe in animals, but half are above the dose that is deemed safe for liver damage in humans when taking into account several commonly applied uncertainty factors. With these new and unique human data, we remain with the conclusion that health risks due to oral exposure to TiO2 cannot be excluded.
Project description:Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is commonly used as a food additive (E171 in the EU) for its whitening and opacifying properties. However, a risk of intestinal barrier disruption, including dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, is increasingly suspected because of the presence of a nano-sized fraction in this additive. We hypothesized that food-grade E171 and Aeroxyde P25 (identical to the NM-105 OECD reference nanomaterial in the European Union Joint Research Centre) interact with both commensal intestinal bacteria and transient food-borne bacteria under non-UV-irradiated conditions. Based on differences in their physicochemical properties, we expect a difference in their respective effects. To test these hypotheses, we chose a panel of eight Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacterial strains, isolated from different biotopes and belonging to the species Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis (subsp. lactis and cremoris), Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus sakei. Bacterial cells were exposed to food-grade E171 vs. P25 in vitro and the interactions were explored with innovative (nano)imaging methods. The ability of bacteria to trap TiO2 was demonstrated using synchrotron UV fluorescence imaging with single cell resolution. Subsequent alterations in the growth profiles were shown, notably for the transient food-borne L. lactis and the commensal intestinal E. coli in contact with food-grade TiO2. However, for both species, the reduction in cell cultivability remained moderate, and the morphological and ultrastructural damages, observed with electron microscopy, were restricted to a small number of cells. E. coli exposed to food-grade TiO2 showed some internalization of TiO2 (7% of cells), observed with high-resolution nano-secondary ion mass spectrometry (Nano-SIMS) chemical imaging. Taken together, these data show that E171 may be trapped by commensal and transient food-borne bacteria within the gut. In return, it may induce some physiological alterations in the most sensitive species, with a putative impact on gut microbiota composition and functioning, especially after chronic exposure.
Project description:The use of particulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an active sunscreen ingredient has raised concerns about potential risks from TiO2-mediated free radical formation. To date, remediation attempts have concentrated on reducing the yield of free radical generation by TiO2 upon sunlight exposure. The problem with this approach is that given the band gap in TiO2, production of radical and the ensuing reactive oxygen species (ROS) is completely normal. Our strategy is based on a nontoxic, biocompatible shell that neutralizes the free radicals by scavenging them with natural antioxidants before they exit the particle. The new lignin@TiO2 composites preserve the scattering and absorption properties of TiO2 because the particles retain their nanoscale dimensions as preferred by the cosmetic industry. Although the target properties for photocatalysis and sun-protection applications are opposite, we argue that exactly the same knowledge is required to optimize either one.