An In Vivo (Gallus gallus) Feeding Trial Demonstrating the Enhanced Iron Bioavailability Properties of the Fast Cooking Manteca Yellow Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
ABSTRACT: The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally produced pulse crop and an important source of micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America and Africa. Many of the preferred black and red seed types in these regions have seed coat polyphenols that inhibit the absorption of iron. Yellow beans are distinct from other market classes because they accumulate the antioxidant kaempferol 3-glucoside in their seed coats. Due to their fast cooking tendencies, yellow beans are often marketed at premium prices in the same geographical regions where dietary iron deficiency is a major health concern. Hence, this study compared the iron bioavailability of three faster cooking yellow beans with contrasting seed coat colors from Africa (Manteca, Amarillo, and Njano) to slower cooking white and red kidney commercial varieties. Iron status and iron bioavailability was assessed by the capacity of a bean based diet to generate and maintain total body hemoglobin iron (Hb-Fe) during a 6 week in vivo (Gallus gallus) feeding trial. Over the course of the experiment, animals fed yellow bean diets had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher Hb-Fe than animals fed the white or red kidney bean diet. This study shows that the Manteca yellow bean possess a rare combination of biochemical traits that result in faster cooking times and improved iron bioavailability. The Manteca yellow bean is worthy of germplasm enhancement to address iron deficiency in regions where beans are consumed as a dietary staple.
Project description:The common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a nutrient-dense pulse crop that is produced globally for direct human consumption and is an important source of protein and micronutrients for millions of people across Latin America, the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. Dry beans require large amounts of heat energy and time to cook, which can deter consumers worldwide from using beans. In regions where consumers rely on expensive fuelwood for food preparation, the yellow bean is often marketed as fast cooking. This study evaluated the cooking time and health benefits of five major market classes within the yellow bean seed type (Amarillo, Canary, Manteca, Mayocoba, Njano) over two field seasons. This study shows how the Manteca yellow bean possesses a fast cooking phenotype, which could serve as genetic resource for introducing fast cooking properties into a new generation of dry beans with cooking times <20 min when pre-soaked and <80 min unsoaked. Mineral analysis revealed fast cooking yellow beans have high iron retention (>80%) after boiling. An in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture bioassay revealed a strong negative association between cooking time and iron bioavailability in yellow beans with r values = -0.76 when pre-soaked and -0.64 when unsoaked across the two field seasons. When either pre-soaked or left unsoaked, the highest iron bioavailability scores were measured in the fast cooking Manteca genotypes providing evidence that this yellow market class is worthy of germplasm enhancement through the added benefit of improved iron quality after cooking.
Project description:Biofortification is a plant breeding method that introduces increased concentrations of minerals in staple food crops (e.g., legumes, cereal grains), and has shown success in alleviating insufficient Fe intake in various human populations. Unlike other strategies utilized to alleviate Fe deficiency, studies of the gut microbiota in the context of Fe biofortification have not yet been reported, although the consumption of Fe biofortified staple food crops has increased significantly over time. Hence, in this study, we performed a 6-week feeding trial in Gallus gallus (n = 14), aimed to investigate the alterations in the gut microbiome following administration of an Fe biofortified bean-based diet (biofortified, BFe) versus a bean based diet with poorly-bioavailable Fe (standard, SFe). Cream seeded carioca bean based diets were designed in an identical fashion to those used in a recent human clinical trial of Fe biofortified beans in Rwanda. We hypothesized that the different dietary Fe contents in the beans based diets will alter the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome. The primary outcomes were changes in the gut microbiome composition and function analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We observed no significant changes in phylogenetic diversity between groups. There were significant differences in the composition of the microbiota between groups, with the BFe group harboring fewer taxa participating in bacterial Fe uptake, increased abundance of bacteria involved in phenolic catabolism, and increased abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, depletion of key bacterial pathways responsible for bacterial viability and Fe uptake suggest that improvements in Fe bioavailability, in addition to increases in Fe-polyphenol and Fe-phytate complexes due to biofortification, led to decreased concentrations of cecal Fe available for bacterial utilization. Our findings demonstrate that Fe biofortification may improve Fe status without negatively altering the structure and function of the gut microbiota, as is observed with other nutritional methods of Fe supplementation. These results may be used to further improve the efficacy and safety of future biofortification efforts in eradicating global Fe deficiency.
Project description:Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 ?g Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 ?g Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 ?g Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific targeting of such compounds during the breeding process may yield improved dietary Fe-bioavailability. Our findings are in agreement with the human efficacy trial that demonstrated that the biofortified carioca beans improved the Fe-status of Rwandan women. We suggest the utilization of these in vitro and in vivo screening tools to guide studies aimed to develop and evaluate biofortified staple food crops. This approach has the potential to more effectively utilize research funds and provides a means to monitor the nutritional quality of the Fe-biofortified crops once released to farmers.
Project description:Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), like many legumes, are rich in iron, zinc, and certain other microelements that are generally found to be in low concentrations in cereals, other seed crops, and root or tubers and therefore are good candidates for biofortification. But a quandary exists in common bean biofortification: namely that the distribution of iron has been found to be variable between the principal parts of seed; namely the cotyledonary tissue, embryo axis and seed coat. The seed coat represents ten or more percent of the seed weight and must be considered specifically as it accumulates much of the anti-nutrients such as tannins that effect mineral bioavailability. Meanwhile the cotyledons accumulate starch and phosphorus in the form of phytates. The goal of this study was to evaluate a population of progeny derived from an advanced backcross of a wild bean and a cultivated Andean bean for seed coat versus cotyledonary minerals to identify variability and predict inheritance of the minerals. We used wild common beans because of their higher seed mineral concentration compared to cultivars and greater proportion of seed coat to total seed weight. Results showed the most important gene for seed coat iron was on linkage group B04 but also identified other QTL for seed coat and cotyledonary iron and zinc on other linkage groups, including B11 which has been important in studies of whole seed. The importance of these results in terms of physiology, candidate genes and plant breeding are discussed.
Project description:The Zolfino bean is a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris, which is cultivated in a limited area of Tuscany, Italy, and is widely appreciated for its flavor and culinary uses.A yellow Zolfino landrace cultivated in the Leccio-Reggello area was characterized and compared with three other varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (i.e. the Borlotto, Cannellino, and Corona beans) in terms of its general features and potential as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory agent.The length, width, thickness, equatorial section surface, weight, volume, and seed coat section were measured in all the beans. The seed surface area was also estimated by an original empirical method. The ability of the different beans to interfere with the enzymes of the polyol pathway (that is, aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase) was tested using the supernatant after soaking the beans at room temperature and after thermal treatment, which simulated the bean-cooking process in a controlled fashion.Concerning the general features, Zolfino was comparable with other beans, except Corona, in terms of surface-volume ratio, which possesses the lowest tegument thickness. Moreover, Zolfino appears the most effective in inhibiting AR activity. The inhibitory ability is unaffected by thermal treatment and appears to be associated with compound(s) present in the coat of the bean.The ability of Zolfino to inhibit AR, thus reducing the flux of glucose through the polyol pathway, highlights the features of Zolfino as a functional food, potentially useful in treating the dysfunctions linked to the hyperactivity of AR, such as diabetic complications or inflammatory responses.
Project description:Seed hardness trait has a profound impact on cooking time and canning quality in dry beans. This study aims to identify the unknown genetic factors and associated molecular markers to better understand and tag this trait. An F<sub>2:7</sub> recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was derived from a cross between the hard and soft seeded black bean parents (H68-4 and BK04-001). Eighty-five RILs and the parental lines were grown at two locations in southern Manitoba during years 2014-2016. Seed samples were harvested manually at maturity to test for seed hardness traits. The hydration capacity and stone seed count were estimated by soaking the seeds overnight at room temperature following AACC method 56-35.01. Seed samples from 2016 tests were also cooked to determine effect of seed hardness on cooking quality. For mapping of genomic regions contributing to the traits, the RIL population was genotyped using the genotype by sequencing (GBS) approach. The QTL mapping revealed that in addition to the major QTL on chromosome 7 at a genomic location previously reported to affect seed-hydration, two novel QTL with significant effects were also detected on chromosomes 1 and 2. In addition, a major QTL affecting the visual appeal of cooked bean was mapped on chromosome 4. This multi-year-site study shows that despite large environmental effects, seed hardness is an oligo-genic and highly heritable trait, which is inherited independently of the cooking quality scored as visual appeal of cooked beans. The identification of the QTLs and development of SNP markers associated with seed hardness can be applied for common bean variety improvement and genetic exploitation of these traits.
Project description:The composition of the maturing coffee bean determines the processing performance and ultimate quality of the coffee produced from the bean. Analysis of differences in gene expression during bean maturation may explain the basis of genetic and environmental variation in coffee quality. The transcriptome of the coffee bean was analyzed at three stages of development, immature (green), intermediate (yellow) and mature (red). A total of more than 120 million 150?bp paired-end reads were collected by sequencing of transcripts of triplicate samples at each developmental stage. A greater number of transcripts were expressed at the yellow stage. As the beans matured the types of highly expressed transcripts changed from transcripts predominantly associated with galactomannan, triacylglycerol (TAG), TAG lipase, 11?S and 7S-like storage protein and Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 17 (FLA17) in green beans to transcripts related to FLA1 at the yellow stage and TAG storage lipase SDP1, and SDP1-like in red beans. This study provides a genomic resource that can be used to investigate the impact of environment and genotype on the bean transcriptome and develop coffee varieties and production systems that are better adapted to deliver quality coffee despite climate variations.
Project description:A previous study demonstrated that birds that are exposed to light at night develop advanced reproductive systems. However, spectrum might also affect the photoperiodic response of birds. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of spectral composition on the growth and reproductive physiology of female breeders, using pure light-emitting diode spectra. A total of 1,000 newly hatched female avian breeders (Gallus gallus) were equally allocated to white-, red-, yellow-, green- and blue-light treated groups. We found that blue-light treated birds had a greater and faster weight gain than did red- and yellow-light treated birds (P = 0.02 and 0.05). The red light expedited the sexual maturation of the chicks, whose age at sexual maturity was 7 and 14 days earlier than that of the green- and blue-light treated birds, respectively. The accumulative egg production of the red-light treated birds was 9 and 8 eggs more than that of the blue- and green-light treated birds. The peak lay rate of the red-light treated groups was significantly greater than the blue-light treated birds (P = 0.028). In conclusion, exposure to short-wavelength light appears to promote growth of female breeder birds, whereas exposure to long-wavelength light appears to accelerate reproductive performance.
Project description:Snap beans are a significant source of micronutrients in the human diet. Among the micronutrients present in snap beans are phenolic compounds with known beneficial effects on human health, potentially via their metabolism by the gut-associated microbiome. The genetic pathways leading to the production of phenolics in snap bean pods remain uncertain. In this study, we quantified the level of total phenolic content (TPC) in the Bean Coordinated Agriculture Program (CAP) snap bean diversity panel of 149 accessions. The panel was characterized spectrophotometrically for phenolic content with a Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay. Flower, seed and pod color were also quantified, as red, purple, yellow and brown colors are associated with anthocyanins and flavonols in common bean. Genotyping was performed through an Illumina Infinium Genechip BARCBEAN6K_3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) analysis identified 11 quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) associated with TPC. An SNP was identified for TPC on Pv07 located near the P gene, which is a major switch in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Candidate genes were identified for seven of the 11 TPC QTN. Five regulatory genes were identified and represent novel sources of variation for exploitation in developing snap beans with higher phenolic levels for greater health benefits to the consumer.
Project description:There are over a hundred genotypes of Phaseolus vulgaris L. grown and consumed in Tanzania. Currently, identification of bean genotypes containing high seed iron and zinc contents has been the focus globally for common bean iron and zinc biofortification. Diversity in seed iron and zinc contents were investigated in 99 bean genotypes grown in Tanzania to identify high seed iron and zinc-containing genotypes for use in iron and zinc biofortification. Flour obtained by grinding seeds of each bean genotypes was used in the determination of iron and zinc concentrations. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine significant differences among common bean genotypes in terms of seed iron and zinc contents. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment interaction (GGE) were conducted to determine stability and adaptation across sites (TARI-Selian, SUA, and TARI-Uyole) of bean genotypes in terms of seed iron and zinc contents. Data in this data article show that some landraces had high seed iron and zinc contents compared to release varieties thus can be used for iron and zinc genetic biofortification in common beans breeding programs. For more explanation of the data presented in this data article, please follow the related research article "Environmental and genotypes influence on seed iron and zinc levels of landraces and improved varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Tanzania" .