ABSTRACT: Organoids derived from stem cells or tissues in culture can develop into structures that resemble the in vivo anatomy and physiology of intact organs. Human organoid cultures provide the potential to study human development and model disease processes with the same scrutiny and depth of analysis customary for research with nonhuman model organisms. Resembling the complexity of the actual tissue or organ, patient-derived human organoid studies may accelerate medical research, creating new opportunities for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, generating knowledge and tools for preclinical studies, including drug development and testing. Biologists are drawn to this system as a new "model organism" to study complex disease phenotypes and genetic variability among individuals using patient-derived tissues. The American Society for Cell Biology convened a task force to report on the potential, challenges, and limitations for human organoid research. The task force suggests ways to ease the entry for new researchers into the field and how to facilitate broader use of this new model organism within the research community. This includes guidelines for reproducibility, culturing, sharing of patient materials, patient consent, training, and communication with the public.
Project description:Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo. Kidney organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells provide personalized biomarkers, which can be correlated with genetic and clinical information. Organoid models can also improve our comprehension of aspects of particular diseases; for example, in prostate cancer, 3D organoids can aid in the identification of tumour-initiating cells from an epithelial cell lineage. Furthermore, kidney organoid differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells enables gene editing to model disease in kidney tubular epithelial cells. State-of-the-art human organoid cultures have potential as tools in basic and clinical research in renal, bladder, and prostatic diseases.
Project description:Organoid technology provides the possibility of culturing patient-derived colon tissue and colorectal cancers (CRCs) while maintaining all functional and phenotypic characteristics. Labeling stem cells, especially in normal and benign tumor organoids of human colon, is challenging and therefore limits maximal exploitation of organoid libraries for human stem cell research. Here, we developed STAR (stem cell Ascl2 reporter), a minimal enhancer/promoter element that reports transcriptional activity of ASCL2, a master regulator of LGR5+ intestinal stem cells. Using lentiviral infection, STAR drives specific expression in stem cells of normal organoids and in multiple engineered and patient-derived CRC organoids of different genetic makeup. STAR reveals that differentiation hierarchies and the potential for cell fate plasticity are present at all stages of human CRC development. Organoid technology, in combination with the user-friendly nature of STAR, will facilitate basic research into human adult stem cell biology.
Project description:The prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains dismal, with a median survival of approximately 15 months. Current preclinical GBM models are limited by the lack of a "normal" human microenvironment and the inability of many tumor cell lines to accurately reproduce GBM biology. To address these limitations, we have established a model system whereby we can retro-engineer patient-specific GBMs using patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSCs) and human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cerebral organoids. Our cerebral organoid glioma (GLICO) model shows that GSCs home toward the human cerebral organoid and deeply invade and proliferate within the host tissue, forming tumors that closely phenocopy patient GBMs. Furthermore, cerebral organoid tumors form rapidly and are supported by an interconnected network of tumor microtubes that aids in the invasion of normal host tissue. Our GLICO model provides a system for modeling primary human GBM ex vivo and for high-throughput drug screening.
Project description:We have developed a cancer model of gliomas in human cerebral organoids that allows direct observation of tumor initiation as well as continuous microscopic observations. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to target an HRasG12V-IRES-tdTomato construct by homologous recombination into the TP53 locus. Results show that transformed cells rapidly become invasive and destroy surrounding organoid structures, overwhelming the entire organoid. Tumor cells in the organoids can be orthotopically xenografted into immunodeficient NOD/SCID IL2RG-/- animals, exhibiting an invasive phenotype. Organoid-generated putative tumor cells show gene expression profiles consistent with mesenchymal subtype human glioblastoma. We further demonstrate that human-organoid-derived tumor cell lines or primary human-patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines can be transplanted into human cerebral organoids to establish invasive tumor-like structures. Our results show potential for the use of organoids as a platform to test human cancer phenotypes that recapitulate key aspects of malignancy.
Project description:Patient-derived model systems are important tools for studying novel anti-cancer therapies. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have gained favor over the last 10 years as newer mouse strains have improved the success rate of establishing PDXs from patient biopsies. PDXs can be engrafted from head and neck cancer (HNC) samples across a wide range of cancer stages, retain the genetic features of their human source, and can be treated with both chemotherapy and radiation, allowing for clinically relevant studies. Not only do PDXs allow for the study of patient tissues in an in vivo model, they can also provide a renewable source of cancer cells for organoid cultures. Herein, we review the uses of HNC patient-derived models for radiation research, including approaches to establishing both orthotopic and heterotopic PDXs, approaches and potential pitfalls to delivering chemotherapy and radiation to these animal models, biological advantages and limitations, and alternatives to animal studies that still use patient-derived tissues.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer and IBD account for a large portion of the practice of colorectal surgery. Historical research models have provided insights into the underlying causes of these diseases but come with many limitations. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding the advantage of organoid models in modeling benign and malignant colorectal pathology. DATA SOURCES:Sources included PubMed, Ovid-Medline, and Ovid Embase STUDY SELECTION:: Two reviewers completed a systematic review of the literature between January 2006 and January of 2020 for studies related to colon and intestinal organoids. Reviews, commentaries, protocols, and studies not performed in humans or mice were excluded. RESULTS:A total of 73 articles were included. Organoid models of colorectal disease have been rising in popularity to further elucidate the genetic, transcriptomic, and treatment response of these diseases at the individual level. Increasingly complex models utilizing coculture techniques are being rapidly developed that allow in vitro recapitulation of the disease microenvironment. LIMITATIONS:This review is only qualitative, and the lack of well utilized nomenclature in the organoid community may have resulted in the exclusion of articles. CONCLUSIONS:Historical disease models including cell lines, patient-derived tumor xenografts, and animal models have created a strong foundation for our understanding of colorectal pathology. Recent advances in 3-dimensional cell cultures, in the form of patient-derived epithelial organoids and induced human intestinal organoids have opened a new avenue for high-resolution analysis of pathology at the level of an individual patient. Recent research has shown the potential of organoids as a tool for personalized medicine with their ability to retain patient characteristics, including treatment response.
Project description:Background & Aims Patient-derived gastrointestinal organoids are powerful tools for studying human physiology and disease. However, generating organoids requires prompt isolation and culture of fresh tissue, which is labor and time intensive, placing restraints on basic and clinical research. For example organoid biobanking efforts, or the ability to obtain specimens from distant locations that lack the expertise to culture organoids, is limited by current approaches. We sought to develop a method by which tissue biopsies from patients could be cryo-preserved, stored, or shipped, and later thawed in order to establish live organoid cultures. Methods A method for freezing and recovery, along with straightforward isolation methods using readily available materials were developed. Epithelial isolation and culture conditions were optimized to promote cell survival and the establishment of long-term culture post-thawing. Results Patient biopsies from stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon and from adenomateous colonic polyps were frozen, subsequently thawed and used to successfully establish patient-specific epithelium-only organoid cultures with 100% efficiency (n=31 independent patient biopsies from different regions of the GI tract). Frozen tissue could be shipped internationally and across the United States and used to establish successful organoid cultures. Organoid cultures could be expanded, passaged and frozen down for long-term storage. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that organoids derived from fresh tissue or from frozen biopsies are >99% transcriptionally identical. Conclusions Cryo-preservation of human tissue biopsies followed by the establishment of long-term, expandable cultures has negligible effect on transcription when compared to freshly prepared organoids, and will be of immense benefit to research and for clinical applications. This technique will allow for the establishment of biobanks of human tissues that can be revived and cultured in the future as well as transported across the globe for research, therapeutic or diagnostic use in remote labs and/or clinics.
Project description:Bladder cancer is the fifth most prevalent cancer in the U.S., yet is understudied, and few laboratory models exist that reflect the biology of the human disease. Here, we describe a biobank of patient-derived organoid lines that recapitulates the histopathological and molecular diversity of human bladder cancer. Organoid lines can be established efficiently from patient biopsies acquired before and after disease recurrence and are interconvertible with orthotopic xenografts. Notably, organoid lines often retain parental tumor heterogeneity and exhibit a spectrum of genomic changes that are consistent with tumor evolution in culture. Analyses of drug response using bladder tumor organoids show partial correlations with mutational profiles, as well as changes associated with treatment resistance, and specific responses can be validated using xenografts in vivo. Our studies indicate that patient-derived bladder tumor organoids represent a faithful model system for studying tumor evolution and treatment response in the context of precision cancer medicine.
Project description:Rectal cancer (RC) is a challenging disease to treat that requires chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to optimize outcomes for individual patients. No accurate model of RC exists to answer fundamental research questions relevant to patients. We established a biorepository of 65 patient-derived RC organoid cultures (tumoroids) from patients with primary, metastatic or recurrent disease. RC tumoroids retained molecular features of the tumors from which they were derived, and their ex vivo responses to clinically relevant chemotherapy and radiation treatment correlated with the clinical responses noted in individual patients' tumors. Upon engraftment into murine rectal mucosa, human RC tumoroids gave rise to invasive RC followed by metastasis to lung and liver. Importantly, engrafted tumors displayed the heterogenous sensitivity to chemotherapy observed clinically. Thus, the biology and drug sensitivity of RC clinical isolates can be efficiently interrogated using an organoid-based, ex vivo platform coupled with in vivo endoluminal propagation in animals.