Promiscuity of the catalytic Sec7 domain within the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 in ARF activation, Golgi homeostasis, and effector recruitment.
ABSTRACT: The integrity of the Golgi and trans-Golgi network (TGN) is disrupted by brefeldin A (BFA), which inhibits the Golgi-localized BFA-sensitive factor (GBF1) and brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (BIG1 and BIG2). Using a cellular replacement assay to assess GBF1 functionality without interference from the BIGs, we show that GBF1 alone maintains Golgi architecture; facilitates secretion; activates ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)1, 3, 4, and 5; and recruits ARF effectors to Golgi membranes. Unexpectedly, GBF1 also supports TGN integrity and recruits numerous TGN-localized ARF effectors. The impact of the catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d) on GBF1 functionality was assessed by swapping it with the Sec7d from ARF nucleotide-binding site opener (ARNO)/cytohesin-2, a plasma membrane GEF reported to activate all ARFs. The resulting chimera (GBF1-ARNO-GBF1 [GARG]) targets like GBF1, supports Golgi/TGN architecture, and facilitates secretion. However, unlike GBF1, GARG activates all ARFs (including ARF6) at the Golgi/TGN and recruits additional ARF effectors to the Golgi/TGN. Our results have general implications: 1) GEF's targeting is independent of Sec7d, but Sec7d influence the GEF substrate specificity and downstream effector events; 2) all ARFs have access to all membranes, but are restricted in their distribution by the localization of their activating GEFs; and 3) effector association with membranes requires the coincidental presence of activated ARFs and specific membrane identifiers.
Project description:Cellular life requires the activation of the ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) by Golgi brefeldin A-resistant factor 1 (GBF1), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) with a highly conserved catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d). In addition to the Sec7d, GBF1 contains other conserved domains whose functions remain unclear. Here, we focus on HDS2 (homology downstream of Sec7d 2) domain because the L1246R substitution within the HDS2 ?-helix 5 of the zebrafish GBF1 ortholog causes vascular hemorrhaging and embryonic lethality (13). To dissect the structure/function relationships within HDS2, we generated six variants, in which the most conserved residues within ?-helices 1, 2, 4, and 6 were mutated to alanines. Each HDS2 mutant was assessed in a cell-based "replacement" assay for its ability to support cellular functions normally supported by GBF1, such as maintaining Golgi homeostasis, facilitating COPI recruitment, supporting secretion, and sustaining cellular viability. We show that cells treated with the pharmacological GBF1 inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA) and expressing a BFA-resistant GBF1 variant with alanine substitutions of RDR1168 or LF1266 are compromised in Golgi homeostasis, impaired in ARF activation, unable to sustain secretion, and defective in maintaining cellular viability. To gain insight into the molecular mechanism of this dysfunction, we assessed the ability of each GBF1 mutant to target to Golgi membranes and found that mutations in RDR1168 and LF1266 significantly decrease targeting efficiency. Thus, these residues within ?-helix 2 and ?-helix 6 of the HDS2 domain in GBF1 are novel regulatory determinants that support GBF1 cellular function by impacting the Golgi-specific membrane association of GBF1.
Project description:Despite extensive work on ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 1 at the Golgi complex, the functions of Arf2-5 in the secretory pathway, or for that of any Arf at the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) remain uncharacterized. Here, we examined the recruitment of fluorescently tagged Arf1, -3, -4, and -5 onto peripheral ERGIC. Live cell imaging detected Arfs on peripheral puncta that also contained Golgi-specific brefeldin A (BFA) resistance factor (GBF) 1 and the ERGIC marker p58. Unexpectedly, BFA did not promote corecruitment of Arfs with GBF1 either at the Golgi complex or the ERGIC, but it uncovered striking differences between Arf1,3 and Arf4,5. Although Arf1,3 quickly dissociated from all endomembranes after BFA addition, Arf4,5 persisted on ERGIC structures, even after redistribution of GBF1 to separate compartments. The GDP-arrested Arf4(T31N) mutant localized to the ERGIC, even with BFA and Exo1 present. In addition, loss of Arf x GTP after treatment with Exo1 caused rapid release of all Arfs from the Golgi complex and led to GBF1 accumulation on both Golgi and ERGIC membranes. Our results demonstrate that GDP-bound Arf4,5 associate with ERGIC membranes through binding sites distinct from those responsible for GBF1 recruitment. Furthermore, they provide the first evidence that GBF1 accumulation on membranes may be caused by loss of Arf x GTP, rather than the formation of an Arf x GDP x BFA x GBF1 complex.
Project description:Trafficking through the Golgi apparatus requires members of the Arf family of GTPases, whose activation is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Once activated, Arf-GTP recruits effectors such as coat complexes and lipid-modifying enzymes to specific membrane sites, creating a domain competent for cargo concentration and transport. GBF1 is a peripherally associated Arf GEF involved in both endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport. The mechanism of GBF1 binding to membranes is unknown. As a first step to understanding the mechanism of membrane association, we constructed a yellow fluorescent protein-tagged version of GBF1 and performed fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis to determine its residence time on Golgi membranes. We find that GBF1 molecules are not stably associated with the Golgi but rather cycle rapidly on and off membranes. The drug brefeldin A (BFA), an uncompetitive inhibitor of the exchange reaction that binds to an Arf-GDP-Arf GEF complex, stabilizes GBF1 on Golgi membranes. Using an in vivo assay to monitor Arf1-GTP levels, we show that GBF1 exchange activity on Arf1 is inhibited by BFA in mammalian cells. These results suggest that an Arf1-GBF1-BFA complex is formed and has a longer residence time on Golgi membranes than GBF1 or Arf1 alone.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) and their activating guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) play key roles in membrane traffic and signaling. All ARF GEFs share a ?200-residue Sec7 domain (Sec7d) that alone catalyzes the GDP to GTP exchange that activates ARF. We determined the crystal structure of human BIG2 Sec7d. A C-terminal loop immediately following helix J (loop>J) was predicted to form contacts with helix H and the switch I region of the cognate ARF, suggesting that loop>J may participate in the catalytic reaction. Indeed, we identified multiple alanine substitutions within loop>J of the full length and/or Sec7d of two large brefeldin A-sensitive GEFs (GBF1 and BIG2) and one small brefeldin A-resistant GEF (ARNO) that abrogated binding of ARF and a single alanine substitution that allowed ARF binding but inhibited GDP to GTP exchange. Loop>J sequences are highly conserved, suggesting that loop>J plays a crucial role in the catalytic activity of all ARF GEFs. Using GEF mutants unable to bind ARF, we showed that GEFs associate with membranes independently of ARF and catalyze ARF activation in vivo only when membrane-associated. Our structural, cell biological, and biochemical findings identify loop>J as a key regulatory motif essential for ARF binding and GDP to GTP exchange by GEFs and provide evidence for the requirement of membrane association during GEF activity.
Project description:Expression cloning from a cDNA library prepared from a mutant CHO cell line with Golgi-specific resistance to Brefeldin A (BFA) identified a novel 206-kD protein with a Sec7 domain termed GBF1 for Golgi BFA resistance factor 1. Overexpression of GBF1 allowed transfected cells to maintain normal Golgi morphology and grow in the presence of BFA. Golgi- enriched membrane fractions from such transfected cells displayed normal levels of ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) activation and coat protein recruitment that were, however, BFA resistant. Hexahistidine-tagged-GBF1 exhibited BFA-resistant guanine nucleotide exchange activity that appears specific towards ARF5 at physiological Mg2+concentration. Characterization of cDNAs recovered from the mutant and wild-type parental lines established that transcripts in these cells had identical sequence and, therefore, that GBF1 was naturally BFA resistant. GBF1 was primarily cytosolic but a significant pool colocalized to a perinuclear structure with the beta-subunit of COPI. Immunogold labeling showed highest density of GBF1 over Golgi cisternae and significant labeling over pleiomorphic smooth vesiculotubular structures. The BFA-resistant nature of GBF1 suggests involvement in retrograde traffic.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) GTPases are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) to support cellular homeostasis. Key to understanding spatio-temporal regulation of ARF signaling is the mechanism of GEF recruitment to membranes. Small GEFs are recruited through phosphoinositide (PIP) binding by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain downstream from the catalytic Sec7 domain (Sec7d). The large GEFs lack PH domains, and their recruitment mechanisms are poorly understood. We probed Golgi recruitment of GBF1, a GEF catalyzing ARF activation required for Golgi homeostasis. We show that the homology downstream of Sec7d-1 (HDS1) regulates Golgi recruitment of GBF1. We document that GBF1 binds phosphoinositides, preferentially PI3P, PI4P and PI(4,5)P2, and that lipid binding requires the HDS1 domain. Mutations within HDS1 that reduce GBF1 binding to specific PIPs in vitro inhibit GBF1 targeting to Golgi membranes in cells. Our data imply that HDS1 and PH domains are functionally analogous in that each uses lipid-based membrane information to regulate GEF recruitment. Lipid-based recruitment of GBF1 extends the paradigm of lipid regulation to small and large GEFs and suggests that lipid-based mechanisms evolved early during GEF diversification. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Defects in subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex represent a growing subset of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs). In addition to altered protein glycosylation and vesicular trafficking, Cog-deficient patient fibroblasts exhibit a striking delay in the Golgi-disrupting effects of brefeldin A (BFA). Despite the diagnostic value of this BFA resistance, the molecular basis of this response is not known. To investigate potential mechanisms of resistance, we analyzed the localization of the large ARF-GEF, GBF1, in several Cog-deficient cell lines. Our results revealed mislocalization of GBF1 to non-Golgi compartments, in particular the ERGIC, within these cells. Biochemical analysis of GBF1 in control and BFA-treated fibroblasts demonstrated that the steady-state level and membrane recruitment is not substantially affected by COG deficiency, supporting a role for the COG complex in the localization but not membrane association of GBF1. We also showed that pretreatment of fibroblasts with bafilomycin resulted in a GBF1-independent BFA resistance that appears additive with the resistance associated with COG deficiency. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of BFA resistance in Cog-deficient cells by suggesting a role for impaired ARF-GEF localization.
Project description:We previously proposed a novel mechanism by which the enzyme Golgi-specific Brefeldin A resistance factor 1 (GBF1) is recruited to the membranes of the cis-Golgi, based on in vivo experiments. Here, we extended our in vivo analysis on the production of regulatory Arf-GDP and observed that ArfGAP2 and ArfGAP3 do not play a role in GBF1 recruitment. We confirm that Arf-GDP localization is critical, as a TGN-localized Arf-GDP mutant protein fails to promote GBF1 recruitment. We also reported the establishment of an in vitro GBF1 recruitment assay that supports the regulation of GBF1 recruitment by Arf-GDP. This in vitro assay yielded further evidence for the requirement of a Golgi-localized protein because heat denaturation or protease treatment of Golgi membranes abrogated GBF1 recruitment. Finally, combined in vivo and in vitro measurements indicated that the recruitment to Golgi membranes via a putative receptor requires only the HDS1 and HDS2 domains in the C-terminal half of GBF1.
Project description:The small GTPase Arf4 and the Arf GTPase-activating protein (GAP) ASAP1 cooperatively sequester sensory receptor cargo into transport carriers targeted to primary cilia, but the input that drives Arf4 activation in this process remains unknown. Here, we show, by using frog retinas and recombinant human proteins, that during the carrier biogenesis from the photoreceptor Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN) a functional complex is formed between Arf4, the Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) GBF1 and the light-sensing receptor, rhodopsin. Rhodopsin and Arf4 bind the regulatory N-terminal dimerization and cyclophillin-binding (DCB)-homology upstream of Sec7 (HUS) domain of GBF1. The complex is sensitive to Golgicide A (GCA), a selective inhibitor of GBF1 that accordingly blocks rhodopsin delivery to the cilia, without disrupting the photoreceptor Golgi. The emergence of newly synthesized rhodopsin in the endomembrane system is essential for GBF1-Arf4 complex formation in vivo Notably, GBF1 interacts with the Arf GAP ASAP1 in a GCA-resistant manner. Our findings indicate that converging signals on GBF1 from the influx of cargo into the Golgi/TGN and the feedback from Arf4, combined with input from ASAP1, control Arf4 activation during sensory membrane trafficking to primary cilia.
Project description:The drug brefeldin A (BFA) disrupts protein traffic and Golgi morphology by blocking activation of ADP ribosylation factors (ARFs) through an unknown mechanism. Here, we investigated the cellular localization and BFA sensitivity of human p200 ARF-GEP1 (p200), a ubiquitously expressed guanine nucleotide exchange factor of the Sec7 domain family. Multiple tagged forms of the full-length polypeptide localized to tight ribbon-like perinuclear structures that overlapped with the Golgi marker mannosidase II and were distinct from the pattern observed with ERGIC53/58. Analysis of several truncated forms mapped the Golgi-localization signal to the N-terminal third of p200. BFA treatment of transiently or stably transfected cells resulted in the redistribution of Golgi markers and in loss of cell viability, thereby indicating that overproduction of p200 may not be sufficient to overcome the toxic effect. A 39-kDa fragment spanning the Sec7 domain catalyzed loading of guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate onto class I ARFs and displayed clear sensitivity to BFA. Kinetic analysis established that BFA did not compete with ARF for interaction with p200 but, rather, acted as an uncompetitive inhibitor that only targeted the p200-ARF complex with an inhibition constant of 7 microM. On the basis of these results, we propose that accumulation of an abortive p200-ARF complex in the presence of BFA likely leads to disruption of Golgi morphology. p200 mapped to chromosome 8q13, 3.56 centirays from WI-6151, and database searches revealed the presence of putative isoforms whose inhibition may account for the effects of BFA on various organelles.