In a pilot study, reduced fatty acid desaturase 1 function was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and response to treatment in children.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:FADS1 gene encodes delta 5 desaturase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Minor alleles of FADS1 locus polymorphisms are associated with reduced FADS1 expression and intra-hepatic fat accumulation. However, the relationship between FADS1 expression and pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk remains to be explored. METHODS:We analyzed FADS1 transcription levels and their association with intra-hepatic fat and histology in children, and we performed pathway enrichment analysis on transcriptomic profiles associated with FADS1 polymorphisms. We also evaluated the weight of FADS1 alleles on the response to combined docosahexaenoic acid, choline, and vitamin E (DHA-CHO-VE) treatment. RESULTS:FADS1 mRNA level was significantly and inversely associated with intra-hepatic fat (p?=?0.004), degree of steatosis (p?=?0.03), fibrosis (p?=?0.05), and NASH (p?=?0.008) among pediatric livers. Transcriptomics demonstrated a significant enrichment of a number of pathways strongly related to NAFLD (e.g., liver damage, fibrosis, and hepatic stellate cell activation). Compared to children who are common allele homozygotes, children with FADS1 minor alleles had a greater reduction in steatosis, fibrosis, and NAFLD activity score after DHA-CHO-VE. CONCLUSION:This study suggests that decreased FADS1 expression may be associated with NAFLD in children but an increased response to DHA-CHO-VE.
Project description:The incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has increased in parallel with the incidence of obesity. While both NAFLD and NASH are characterized by hepatosteatosis, NASH is characterized by hepatic damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. We previously reported that feeding Ldlr(-/-) mice a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet containing menhaden oil attenuated several markers of NASH, including hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Herein, we test the hypothesis that DHA [22:6 (n-3)] is more effective than EPA [20:5 (n-3)] at preventing Western diet (WD)-induced NASH in Ldlr(-/-) mice. Mice were fed the WD supplemented with either olive oil (OO), EPA, DHA, or EPA + DHA for 16 wk. WD + OO feeding induced a severe NASH phenotype, characterized by robust hepatosteatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Whereas none of the C20-22 (n-3) fatty acid treatments prevented WD-induced hepatosteatosis, all 3 (n-3) PUFA-containing diets significantly attenuated WD-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and hepatic damage. The capacity of dietary DHA to suppress hepatic markers of inflammation (Clec4F, F4/80, Trl4, Trl9, CD14, Myd88), fibrosis (Procol1?1, Tgf?1), and oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase subunits Nox2, p22phox, p40phox, p47phox, p67phox) was significantly greater than dietary EPA. The effects of DHA on these markers paralleled DHA-mediated suppression of hepatic Fads1 mRNA abundance and hepatic arachidonic acid content. Because DHA suppression of NASH markers does not require a reduction in hepatosteatosis, dietary DHA may be useful in combating NASH in obese humans.
Project description:PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic fatty liver disease worldwide. The incidence of NAFLD parallels the prevalence of obesity. Moreover, NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). As such, NAFLD has become a major public health concern. We discuss recent clinical trials and meta-analyses evaluating the efficacy of C20-22 ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to attenuate preexisting NAFLD in adults and children. RECENT FINDINGS:Humans with NAFLD and NASH; and preclinical mouse models of NASH, have a high abundance of hepatic saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated (MUFA) fat, but a low abundance of hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA. This change in hepatic fat type and abundance is associated with hepatic lipotoxicity, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. Recent meta-analyses and clinical trials evaluated the capacity of C20-22 ?3 PUFA dietary supplementation to improve health outcomes in adults and children with preexisting NAFLD. Diets supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22?:?6,?3) alone or with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20?:?5,?3) are tolerated and effective at lowering liver fat in NAFLD patients. However, outcomes are mixed with respect to C20-22 ?3 PUFA attenuation of more severe NAFLD markers, such as hepatic injury, inflammation and fibrosis. SUMMARY:These studies suggest that dietary supplementation with C20-22 ?3 PUFA should be considered as a viable and effective option to lower liver fat in obese adults and children with NAFLD.
Project description:Two recent randomized controlled trials demonstrated improved radiographic, histological and hepatometabolic cues of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in pediatric patients treated with the ?-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in combination with vitamin D (VD) or with choline (CHO) and vitamin E (VE), the DHA-VD and DHA-CHO-VE trials, respectively). In the present study we verified the nutritional compliance to these DHA-based multivitamin treatments; lipidomics biomarkers of the reported outcome on NASH indicators were also investigated. Samples were obtained from 30 biopsy-proven pediatric NASH patients of the DHA-CHO-VE trial randomized in multivitamin treatment group and placebo group (n?=?15 each), and from 12 patients of the treatment group of the DHA-VD trial. All patients underwent 6-month therapy plus 6 months of follow-up. Plasma samples and clinical data were obtained at baseline and at the end of the study (12 months). Selected biomarkers included the free form of DHA and other ?-3 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA), indices of the vitamin E status, and some hepatic metabolites of these lipids. Radiographic and histological improvements of treated patients were associated with increased concentrations of DHA, ?-linolenic acid and ?-tocopherol (i.e. VE), and with decreased AA that was also investigated in complex lipids by untargetd lipidomics. As a result a significantly lowered AA/DHA ratio was observed to represent the main indicator of the response to the DHA-based therapy. Furthermore, baseline levels of AA/DHA showed strong association with NAS and US improvement. A stable correction of DHA AA metabolism interaction is associated with the curative effect of this therapy and may represent a key nutritional endpoint in the clinical management of pediatric NASH.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality in children. Recently, we have reported the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the major dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, in children with NAFLD. DHA exerts a potent anti-inflammatory activity through the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)120. Our aim was to investigate in pediatric NAFLD the mechanisms underlying the effects of DHA administration on histo-pathological aspects, GPR120 expression, hepatic progenitor cell activation and macrophage pool.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>20 children with untreated NAFLD were included. Children were treated with DHA for 18 months. Liver biopsies before and after the treatment were analyzed. Hepatic progenitor cell activation, macrophage pool and GPR120 expression were evaluated and correlated with clinical and histo-pathological parameters.<h4>Results</h4>GPR120 was expressed by hepatocytes, liver macrophages, and hepatic progenitor cells. After DHA treatment, the following modifications were present: i) the improvement of histo-pathological parameters such as NAFLD activity score, ballooning, and steatosis; ii) the reduction of hepatic progenitor cell activation in correlation with histo-pathological parameters; iii) the reduction of the number of inflammatory macrophages; iv) the increase of GPR120 expression in hepatocytes; v) the reduction of serine-311-phosphorylated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) nuclear translocation in hepatocytes and macrophages in correlation with serum inflammatory cytokines.<h4>Conclusions</h4>DHA could modulate hepatic progenitor cell activation, hepatocyte survival and macrophage polarization through the interaction with GPR120 and NF-?B repression. In this scenario, the modulation of GPR120 exploits a novel crucial role in the regulation of the cell-to-cell cross-talk that drives inflammatory response, hepatic progenitor cell activation and hepatocyte survival.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There are no licensed treatments for non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in adults or children. In NAFLD, several studies have shown a benefit of omega-3 fatty acid treatment on lipid profile, insulin-sensitivity and hepatic steatosis and it has also been suggested that Vitamin D treatment has potential antifibrotic properties in liver disease.<h4>Trial design</h4>To date, however, there are no studies that have tested the combination of Docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and vitamin D treatment which may benefit the whole spectrum of disease in NAFLD. Our aim therefore, was to test the effect of daily DHA (500 mg) plus vitamin D (800 IU) treatment, in obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD and vitamin D deficiency, in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.<h4>Methods</h4>The 41/43 patients completed the study (18-treatment, 23-placebo). At 12 months: i) the main outcome was liver histology improvement, defined by NAS; ii) the secondary outcome was amelioration of metabolic parameters.<h4>Results</h4>DHA plus vitamin D treatment reduced the NAFLD Activity Score (NAS), in the treatment group (5.4 v1.92; p<0.001 for baseline versus end of study). There was no change in fibrosis score, but a reduction of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and fibrillar collagen content was noted (3.51±1.66 v. 1.59±1.37; p = 0.003) in treatment group. Moreover, the triglycerides (174.5 vs. 102.15 mg/dl), ALT (40.25 vs. 24.5 UI/l) and HOMA-IR (4.59 vs. 3.42) were all decreased with treatment.<h4>Conclusion</h4>DHA plus vitamin D treatment improved insulin-resistance, lipid profile, ALT and NAS. There was also decreased HSC activation and collagen content with treatment.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Many currently used animal models of NAFLD/NASH lack clinical features of either NASH or metabolic syndrome such as hepatic inflammation and fibrosis (e.g. high-fat diets) or overweight and insulin resistance (e.g. methionine-choline-deficient diets) or they are based on monogenetic defects (e.g. ob/ob mice). In the current study, a western-type diet containing soybean oil with high n 6-PUFA and 0.75% cholesterol (SOD+Cho) induced steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis accompanied by hepatic lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in livers of C57BL/6-mice which in addition showed increased weight gain and insulin resistance, thus displaying a phenotype closely resembling all clinical features of NASH in patients with metabolic syndrome. In striking contrast a soybean oil-containing western-type diet without cholesterol (SOD) induced only mild steatosis but neither hepatic inflammation nor fibrosis, weight gain or insulin resistance. Another high-fat diet mainly consisting of lard and supplemented with fructose in drinking water (LAD+Fru) resulted in more prominent weight gain, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis than SOD+Cho but livers were devoid of inflammation and fibrosis. Although both LAD+Fru- and SOD+Cho-fed animals had high plasma cholesterol, liver cholesterol was elevated only in SOD+Cho animals. Cholesterol induced expression of chemotactic and inflammatory cytokines in cultured Kupffer cells and rendered hepatocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. Summarizing, dietary cholesterol in SOD+Cho diet may trigger hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. SOD+Cho-fed animals may be a useful disease model displaying many clinical features of patients with the metabolic syndrome and NASH.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health problem worldwide. NAFLD ranges in severity from benign steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are strongly associated with NAFLD, and the western diet (WD) is a major contributor to the onset and progression of these chronic diseases. Our aim was to use a lipidomic approach to identify potential lipid mediators of diet-induced NASH. We previously used a preclinical mouse (low density lipoprotein receptor null mouse, Ldlr -/-) model to assess transcriptomic mechanisms linked to WD-induced NASH and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, ?3)-mediated remission of NASH. This report used livers from the previous study to carry out ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with dynamic multi-reaction monitoring (HPLC-dMRM) to assess the impact of the WD and DHA on hepatic membrane lipid and oxylipin composition, respectively. Feeding mice the WD increased hepatic saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4, ?6) in membrane lipids and suppressed ?3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in membrane lipids and ?3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory oxylipins. Supplementing the WD with DHA lowered hepatic ARA in membrane lipids and ARA-derived oxylipins and significantly increased hepatic DHA and its metabolites in membrane lipids, as well as C20-22 ?3 PUFA-derived oxylipins. NASH markers of inflammation and fibrosis were inversely associated with hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA-derived Cyp2C- and Cyp2J-generated anti-inflammatory oxylipins (false discovery rate adjusted p-value; q ? 0.026). Our findings suggest that dietary DHA promoted partial remission of WD-induced NASH, at least in part, by lowering hepatic pro-inflammatory oxylipins derived from ARA and increasing hepatic anti-inflammatory oxylipins derived from C20-22 ?3 PUFA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern in western societies. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), the progressive form of NAFLD, is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis. NASH is a risk factor for cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is predicted to be the leading cause of liver transplants by 2020. Despite this growing public health concern, there remain no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved NASH treatments. Using Ldlr -/- mice as a preclinical model of western diet (WD)-induced NASH, we previously established that dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6,?3) attenuated WD-induced NASH in a prevention study. Herein, we evaluated the capacity of DHA supplementation of the WD and a low fat diet to fully reverse NASH in mice with pre-existing disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Ldlr -/- mice fed the WD for 22 wks developed metabolic syndrome (MetS) and a severe NASH phenotype, including obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and low hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content. These mice were randomized to 5 groups: a baseline group (WDB, sacrificed at 22 wks) and 4 treatments: 1) WD + olive oil (WDO); 2) WD + DHA (WDD); 3) returned to chow + olive oil (WDChO); or 4) returned to chow + DHA (WDChD). The four treatment groups were maintained on their respective diets for 8 wks. An additional group was maintained on standard laboratory chow (Reference Diet, RD) for the 30-wk duration of the study.<h4>Results</h4>When compared to the WDB group, the WDO group displayed increased hepatic expression of genes linked to inflammation (Opn, Il1rn, Gdf15), hepatic fibrosis (collagen staining, Col1A1, Thbs2, Lox) reflecting disease progression. Mice in the WDD group, in contrast, had increased hepatic C20-22 ?3 PUFA and no evidence of NASH progression. MetS and NASH markers in the WDChO or WDChD groups were significantly attenuated and marginally different from the RD group, reflecting disease remission.<h4>Conclusion</h4>While these studies establish that DHA supplementation of the WD blocks WD-induced NASH progression, DHA alone does not promote full remission of diet-induced MetS or NASH.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) usually takes decades to develop into cirrhosis, which limits the longitudinal study of NAFLD. This work aims at developing a NAFLD-caused cirrhosis model in gerbil and examining the dynamic relationship between hepatic lipid metabolism and cirrhosis. We fed gerbil a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFHCD) for 24 weeks, and recorded the gerbil's phenotype at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24 weeks. The model's pathological process, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, liver collagen deposition and presence of relevant cytokines were tested and evaluated during the full-time frame of disease onset. The gerbil model can induce non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) within 9 weeks, and can develop cirrhosis after 21 weeks induction. The model's lipids metabolism disorder is accompanied with the liver damage development. During the NAFLD progression, triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) have presented distinct rise and fall tendency, and the turning points are at the fibrosis stage. Besides that, the ratios of total cholesterol (CHO) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) exhibited constant growth tendency, and have a good linear relationship with hepatic stellate cells (HSC) (R2 = 0.802, P < 0.001). The gerbil NAFLD cirrhosis model has been developed and possesses positive correlation between lipids metabolism and cirrhosis. The compelling rise and fall tendency of TG and FFA indicated that the fibrosis progression can lead to impairment in lipoprotein synthesis and engender decreased TG level. CHO/HDL-C ratios can imply the fibrosis progress and be used as a blood indicator for disease prediction and prevention.