Effects of a nursing care program on functional outcomes in older acute medical in-patients: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: Background:Hospitalization often leads to long periods of bed rest and inactivity which is associated with an increase in length of hospital stay, loss of capacity for basic self-care and discharge into a nursing home. Objective:This trial aims to verify if a nursing care program centered on basic self-care and predefined physical activity, improves functional outcomes in older hospitalized patients. Methods:This is a 2-group randomized controlled trial with repeated measures: 182 older acute medical patients will be blindly randomly allocated to the control group (n?=?91) or intervention group (n?=?91). The intervention will consist of nursing care intervention centered on basic self-care that includes a twice daily walking training, plus privileging pre-established trips to the toilet by walking and all daytime meals seated, off the bed. The main outcome was changes in the number of independent activities of daily living from 2 weeks before admission (baseline) to discharge. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT03106064). Results:This intervention has the potential to change the outcomes of the older patient in the acute setting. Conclusion:The loss of independence in self-care is determinant in future health care needs. If our hypothesis is correct and demonstrate that this nursing care program centered on basic self-care for older acute medical patients improves functional outcomes, a change in the paradigmatic organization of hospital care may be justifiable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the health benefits of increasing physical activity in the secondary prevention of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), up to 60% of ACS patients are insufficiently active. Evidence supporting the effect of Web-based interventions on increasing physical activity outcomes in ACS patients is growing. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using Web-based technologies that measured objective physical activity outcomes are sparse. OBJECTIVE:Our aim is to evaluate in insufficiently active ACS patients, the effect of a fully automated, Web-based tailored nursing intervention (TAVIE en m@rche) on increasing steps per day. METHODS:A parallel two-group multicenter RCT (target N=148) is being conducted in four major teaching hospitals in Montréal, Canada. An experimental group receiving the 4-week TAVIE en m@rche intervention plus a brief "booster" at 8 weeks, is compared with the control group receiving hyperlinks to publicly available websites. TAVIE en m@rche is based on the Strengths-Based Nursing Care orientation to nursing practice and the Self-Determination Theory of human motivation. The intervention is centered on videos of a nurse who delivers the content tailored to baseline levels of self-reported autonomous motivation, perceived competence, and walking behavior. Participants are recruited in hospital and are eligible if they report access to a computer and report less than recommended physical activity levels 6 months before hospitalization. Most outcome data are collected online at baseline, and 5 and 12 weeks postrandomization. The primary outcome is change in accelerometer-measured steps per day between randomization and 12 weeks. The secondary outcomes include change in steps per day between randomization and 5 weeks, and change in self-reported energy expenditure for walking and moderate to vigorous physical activity between randomization, and 5 and 12 weeks. Theoretical outcomes are the mediating role of self-reported perceived autonomy support, autonomous and controlled motivations, perceived competence, and barrier self-efficacy on steps per day. Clinical outcomes are quality of life, smoking, medication adherence, secondary prevention program attendance, health care utilization, and angina frequency. The potential moderating role of sex will also be explored. Analysis of covariance models will be used with covariates such as sex, age, fatigue, and depression symptoms. Allocation sequence is concealed, and blinding will be implemented during data analysis. RESULTS:Recruitment started March 30, 2016. Data analysis is planned for November 2017. CONCLUSIONS:Finding alternative interventions aimed at increasing the adoption of health behavior changes such as physical activity in the secondary prevention of ACS is clearly needed. Our RCT is expected to help support the potential efficacy of a fully automated, Web-based tailored nursing intervention on the objective outcome of steps per day in an ACS population. If this RCT is successful, and after its implementation as part of usual care, TAVIE en m@rche could help improve the health of ACS patients at large. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02617641; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02617641 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6pNNGndRa).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polypharmacy is prevalent among hospitalized older adults, particularly those being discharged to a post-care care facility (PAC). The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine if a patient-centered deprescribing intervention initiated in the hospital and continued in the PAC setting reduces the total number of medications among older patients. METHODS:The Shed-MEDS study is a 5-year, randomized controlled clinical intervention trial comparing a patient-centered describing intervention with usual care among older (≥50 years) hospitalized patients discharged to PAC, either a skilled nursing facility (SNF) or an inpatient rehabilitation facility (IPR). Patient measurements occur at hospital enrollment, hospital discharge, within 7 days of PAC discharge, and at 60 and 90 days following PAC discharge. Patients are randomized in a permuted block fashion, with block sizes of two to four. The overall effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated using total medication count as the primary outcome measure. We estimate that 576 patients will enroll in the study. Following attrition due to death or loss to follow-up, 420 patients will contribute measurements at 90 days, which provides 90% power to detect a 30% versus 25% reduction in total medications with an alpha error of 0.05. Secondary outcomes include the number of medications associated with geriatric syndromes, drug burden index, medication adherence, the prevalence and severity of geriatric syndromes and functional health status. DISCUSSION:The Shed-MEDS trial aims to test the hypothesis that a patient-centered deprescribing intervention initiated in the hospital and continuing through the PAC stay will reduce the total number of medications 90 days following PAC discharge and result in improvements in geriatric syndromes and functional health status. The results of this trial will quantify the health outcomes associated with reducing medications for hospitalized older adults with polypharmacy who are discharged to post-acute care facilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial was prospectively registered at clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT02979353 ). The trial was first registered on 12/1/2016, with an update on 09/28/17 and 10/12/2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Residents living in nursing homes usually have complex healthcare needs and require a comprehensive care approach to identifying and meeting their care needs. Suboptimal quality of care is reported in nursing homes and is associated with the poor health and well-being of the residents, the burden on acute care hospitals and the high costs of healthcare for the government. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that an Aged Care Clinical Mentoring Model will create and sustain evidence-based quality improvement in priority areas and will be cost-effective in nursing homes in Hunan Province, China. METHODS:A cluster randomized controlled trial will be applied to the study. Fourteen nursing homes will be randomly allocated to either the intervention group (n?=?7) or the control group (n?=?7). Forty staff will be recruited from each nursing home and the estimated sample size will be 280 staff in each group. The intervention includes a structured, evidence-based quality improvement education program for staff to facilitate knowledge translation in evidence-based quality improvement targeting urinary incontinence, pressure injury and falls prevention. The primary outcomes are nursing homes' capacity to create and sustain quality improvement, staff perceptions of person-centered care, self-reported quality of care by residents and selected quality indicators at 12 months follow-up adjusted for baseline value. Secondary outcomes are residents' quality of life, residents' unplanned admissions to acute care hospitals, quality of care reported by staff, staff job satisfaction and staff intention to leave adjusted for baseline value. A mixed linear regression model will be adopted to compare the significant differences between groups over a 12-month period. DISCUSSION:Although the Aged Care Clinical Mentoring Model has been tested as an effective model to bring positive changes in nursing homes in a high-income country, factors affecting the adaptation of the model in nursing homes in low- and middle-income countries are unknown. The carefully planned intervention protocol enables the project team to consider enablers and barriers when adapting the Model. Therefore, strategies and resources will be in place to manage challenges while demonstrating best practice in this study. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Prospectively registered via Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), ChiCTR-IOC-17013109 , Registered on 25 October 2017.
Project description:The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual's pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed.This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-90?years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n?=?57) participated in the social health program "Sumida TAKE10!" which is an educational program incorporating the "TAKE10!® for Older Adults" program, once every 2?weeks for 3?months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35) was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS), dietary variety score (DVS), and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence score.Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed), FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and exercise remained unchanged in both groups, and no significant difference in improvement rate was seen between the groups. Self-rated health was significantly increased in the intervention group. Appetite and TMIG Index of Competence score were unchanged in both groups.The social health program resulted in improved dietary habits, as measured by food intake frequency, FFS, and DVS, and may improve self-rated health among community-dwelling older adults.UMIN000007357.
Project description:Nursing home bed-hold policies provide continuity of care for Medicaid beneficiaries by paying nursing homes to reserve beds so residents can return to their facility of occupancy following an acute hospitalization. In 2001, Michigan implemented bed-hold policies in nursing homes. We investigated the impact of these policies on mortality and hospitalizations using 1999-2004 quarterly data from nursing homes in Michigan and nursing homes in 11 states that did not implement such policies. Synthetic Control has been used to estimate the effects of policies by accounting for changes over time unrelated to the intervention. Synthetic Control is intended for scalar continuous outcome at each period, and assumes a single treated unit and multiple control units. We propose a Bayesian procedure to overcome these limitations. It imputes the outcomes of nursing homes in Michigan if they were not exposed to the policy by matching to non-exposed nursing homes that are associated with the exposed ones in the pre-policy period. Because sampling from a Bayesian model is computationally challenging, we describe an approximation procedure that can be implemented using existing software. Our approach can be applied to other studies that examine the impact of policies.
Project description:Objectives:Changing the culture in nursing homes in South Korea comes with challenges, and the key issues of resident-centered care have been described. This study aims to describe health personnel's experience in providing resident-centered care in nursing homes. Methods:Qualitative data were collected through individual and focus group interviews consisting of registered nurses (n = 4), certified nurse assistants (n = 2), and long-term caregivers (n = 12) working at nursing homes in South Korea. The participants (n = 18) completed the interviews from May to June 2018, and all interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by employing the content analysis method. Results:Five main categories are conceptualized: (1) residents' participation in decision making, (2) the sharing of the history and story of residents, (3) the recognition of facility- or task-based attitudes, (4) the guarantee of private time and space for residents, and (5) the need for standardized guidelines. Conclusions:Results corroborate that health personnel regard resident-centered care as a desirable nursing paradigm. However, facility- or task-centered care is the most effective in hectic situations. A standardized protocol on the application of resident-centered care based on the facility-tailored specification is unavailable. Therefore, health personnel's perception and practice of resident-centered care can differ. Efficient nursing intervention programs should be developed after clarifying facility culture.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hospitalization is a profound contributor to functional loss for older adults. Many modifiable risk factors (ie, weakness) may persist after hospitalization, representing portents of poor health, re-hospitalization, or death. Older adults frequently receive home health (HH) care after hospitalization to manage functional deficits that have worsened during hospital stays. However, how best to manage these deficits in HH settings has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE:The objective is to determine if a higher intensity, progressive, multi-component (PMC) intervention, initiated upon admission to HH after an acute hospitalization, improves objectively measured and self-reported physical function more than usual care (UC) physical therapy. DESIGN:This will be a 2-arm randomized controlled clinical trial. SETTING:The setting will be participant homes. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 200 older adults with deconditioning following acute hospitalization and referred for HH physical therapy will participate. INTERVENTION:Participants will be randomized to either a PMC treatment group or a UC group and receive 12 therapy visits over a 60-day period. PMC participants will perform lower extremity resistance training at 80% of a 1-repetition maximum, task-specific activities of daily living training, along with advanced gait and balance training. PMC groups will also receive nutritional supplementation and nursing support during transition from hospital to home. The UC group will receive standard of care HH interventions. MEASUREMENTS:Physical performance, self-reported function, fatigue, and health care utilization outcomes will be measured at baseline, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days, and 180 days. All measures will be assessed by blinded study personnel. LIMITATIONS:The limitation is an inability to blind treating therapists to study allocation. CONCLUSIONS:The authors hope to determine whether higher intensity, multi-component exercise interventions improve outcomes more than UC physical therapy for older adults recovering from acute hospitalization in HH settings.
Project description:The perspectives of nursing professionals might differ from those of older adults when it comes to care for older people. This cross-sectional study compares the views of older adults with the views of nursing professionals on the quality of care after a nationwide improvement program for care for older people was implemented (2008-2016) in the Netherlands.Questionnaire data were used from 385 nursing professionals (response rate 51%) that were part of the Nursing Staff Panel, a nationwide representative group of nursing staff, and working in home care, hospitals or general practices. Additionally, questionnaire data were used from 73 older adults (response rate 81%) who were involved in regional networks to discuss project proposals and to represent the voice of older adults in the nationwide improvement program. Participants were asked to evaluate care for older people with regard to collaboration between healthcare organizations and with regard to the tailored service, accessibility, and quality of care within their organizations and in the region in which they lived.A majority of older adults (54%) and nursing professionals (61%) felt that collaboration with others had improved over the last few years. Approximately one third of the older adults stated that care for older people was tailored to fit individual needs and was accessible most of the time or always, as opposed to approximately two thirds of the professionals. Moreover, 17% older adults thought that the quality of care was good, compared with 54% of the nursing professionals. 77% of the nursing professionals and 94% of the older adults thought that improvements were still needed in care for older people, for example better integration of the different aspects of care and a more patient-centered approach.Older adults who were involved in networks of the improvement program generally gave a less positive evaluation of aspects of care for older people and its development than nursing professionals. Considering differences in the perspectives of key stakeholders is relevant for the development and evaluation of nationwide improvement programs, for a correct interpretation of findings, and for making appropriate recommendations.
Project description:Definitive evidence that exercise interventions that improve gait also reduce disability is lacking. A task-oriented, motor sequence learning exercise intervention has been shown to reduce the energy cost of walking and improve gait speed, but whether the intervention also improves activity and participation has not been demonstrated.The objective of this study was to compare the impact of a task-oriented, motor sequence learning exercise (TO) intervention and the impact of an impairment-oriented, multicomponent exercise (IO) intervention on activity and participation outcomes in older adults with mobility limitations. The mediating effects of a change in the energy cost of walking on changes in activity and participation also were determined.This study was a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting The study was conducted in an ambulatory clinical research training center.The study participants were 47 older adults (mean age=77.2 years, SD=5.5) with slow and variable gait. Intervention The intervention was a 12-week, physical therapist-guided program of TO or IO.Measures of activity (gait speed over an instrumented walkway; daily physical activity measured with an accelerometer; confidence in walking determined with the Gait Efficacy Scale; and physical function determined with the total, basic lower-extremity, and advanced lower-extremity components of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument [Late-Life FDI]) and participation (disability limitation dimension and instrumental role [home and community task performance] domain components of the Late-Life FDI) were recorded before and after the intervention. The energy cost of walking was determined from the rate of oxygen consumption during self-paced treadmill walking at the physiological steady state standardized by walking speed. An adjusted comparison of activity and participation outcomes in the treatment arms was made by use of an analysis of covariance model, with baseline and change in energy cost of walking added to the model to test for mediation. Tests were used to determine the significance of the mediating effects.Activity improved in TO but not in IO for confidence in walking (Gait Efficacy Scale; mean adjusted difference=9.8 [SD=3.5]) and physical function (Late-Life FDI basic lower-extremity component; mean adjusted difference=3.5 [SD=1.7]). Improvements in TO were marginally greater than those in IO for gait speed, physical activity, and total physical function. Participation improved marginally more in TO than in IO for disability limitations and instrumental role.The older adults were randomized to the intervention group, but differences in baseline measures had to be accounted for in the analyses.A TO intervention that improved gait also led to improvements in some activity and participation outcomes in older adults with mobility limitations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hospitalized older persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias are at greater risk for functional decline and increased care dependency after discharge due to a combination of intrinsic factors, environmental, policy, and care practices that restrict physical and cognitive activity, lack of family involvement and limited staff knowledge of dementia care. We have developed a theory-based intervention, Family centered Function-focused Care, that incorporates an educational empowerment model for family caregivers (FCGs) provided within a social-ecological framework to promote specialized care to patients with dementia during hospitalization and the 60-day post-acute period. Primary aims are to test the efficacy of the intervention in improving physical and cognitive recovery in hospitalized persons living with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) and improving FCG preparedness and experiences. METHOD:We will implement Family centered Function-focused Care in a cluster-randomized trial of 438 patient/FCG dyads in six hospital units randomized within three hospitals. We hypothesize that patients who receive the intervention will demonstrate better physical function, less delirium occurrence and severity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and depression compared to those in the control condition (Education-only). We also hypothesize that FCGs enrolled in Family centered Function-focused Care will experience increased preparedness for caregiving, and less strain, burden, and desire to institutionalize, as compared to FCGs the control group. We will also examine the costs and relative cost savings associated with the intervention and will evaluate the cultural appropriateness of Family centered Function-focused Care for families from diverse backgrounds. DISCUSSION:Our theory-based intervention makes use of real-world applicable approaches in a novel and innovative way to change the paradigm of how we currently look at acute care and post-acute transitions in persons with ADRD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03046121 . Registered on 8 February 2017.