HilD induces expression of a novel Salmonella Typhimurium invasion factor, YobH, through a regulatory cascade involving SprB.
ABSTRACT: HilD is an AraC-like transcriptional regulator encoded in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), which actives transcription of many genes within and outside SPI-1 that are mainly required for invasion of Salmonella into host cells. HilD controls expression of target genes directly or by acting through distinct regulators; three different regulatory cascades headed by HilD have been described to date. Here, by analyzing the effect of HilD on the yobH gene in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), we further define an additional regulatory cascade mediated by HilD, which was revealed by previous genome-wide analyses. In this regulatory cascade, HilD acts through SprB, a LuxR-like regulator encoded in SPI-1, to induce expression of virulence genes. Our data show that HilD induces expression of sprB by directly counteracting H-NS-mediated repression on the promoter region upstream of this gene. Then, SprB directly activates expression of several genes including yobH, slrP and ugtL. Interestingly, we found that YobH, a protein of only 79 amino acids, is required for invasion of S. Typhimurium into HeLa cells and mouse macrophages. Thus, our results reveal a novel S. Typhimurium invasion factor and provide more evidence supporting the HilD-SprB regulatory cascade.
Project description:Using RNAseq, the goal of the study is to investigate transcription factor regulation of virulence genes in 14028s Salmonella Typhimurium grown in SPI-1-inducing conditions. Transcription factors were cloned into pBAD24. RNA levels were compared in 14028s Salmonella Typhimurium with the transcription factor-encoding gene deleted, carrying either empty pBAD24, or pBAD24 expressing the transcription factor corresponding to the deletion. The Transcription factors analyzed are HilA, HilC, HilD, SprB, InvF, RtsA and RtsB.
Project description:When Salmonella is grown in the nutrient-rich lysogeny broth (LB), the AraC-like transcriptional regulator HilD positively controls the expression of genes required for Salmonella invasion of host cells, such as the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) genes. However, in minimal media, the two-component system PhoP/Q activates the expression of genes necessary for Salmonella replication inside host cells, such as the SPI-2 genes. Recently, we found that the SL1344_1872 hypothetical gene, located in a S. Typhimurium genomic island, is co-expressed with the SPI-1 genes. In this study we demonstrate that HilD induces indirectly the expression of SL1344_1872 when S. Typhimurium is grown in LB; therefore, we named SL1344_1872 as grhD1 for gene regulated by HilD. Furthermore, we found that PhoP positively controls the expression of grhD1, independently of HilD, when S. Typhimurium is grown in LB or N-minimal medium. Moreover, we demonstrate that the grhD1 gene is required for the invasion of S. Typhimurium into epithelial cells, macrophages and fibroblasts, as well as for the intestinal inflammatory response caused by S. Typhimurium in mice. Thus, our results reveal a novel virulence factor of Salmonella, whose expression is positively and independently controlled by the HilD and PhoP transcriptional regulators.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a major intestinal pathogen of both humans and animals. Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1)-encoded virulence genes are required for S. Typhimurium invasion. While oxygen (O2) limitation is an important signal for SPI-1 induction under host conditions, how the signal is received and integrated to the central SPI-1 regulatory system in S. Typhimurium is not clear. Here, we report a signal transduction pathway that activates SPI-1 expression in response to low O2. A novel regulator encoded within SPI-14 (STM14_1008), named LoiA (low oxygen induced factor A), directly binds to the promoter and activates transcription of hilD, leading to the activation of hilA (the master activator of SPI-1). Deletion of loiA significantly decreased the transcription of hilA, hilD and other representative SPI-1 genes (sipB, spaO, invH, prgH and invF) under low O2 conditions. The response of LoiA to the low O2 signal is mediated by the ArcB/ArcA two-component system. Deletion of either arcA or arcB significantly decreased transcription of loiA under low O2 conditions. We also confirmed that SPI-14 contributes to S. Typhimurium virulence by affecting invasion, and that loiA is the virulence determinant of SPI-14. Mice infection assays showed that S. Typhimurium virulence was severely attenuated by deletion of either the entire SPI-14 region or the single loiA gene after oral infection, while the virulence was not affected by either deletion after intraperitoneal infection. The signal transduction pathway described represents an important mechanism for S. Typhimurium to sense and respond to low O2 conditions of the host intestinal tract for invasion. SPI-14-encoded loiA is an essential element of this pathway that integrates the low O2 signal into the SPI-1 regulatory system. Acquisition of SPI-14 is therefore crucial for the evolution of S. Typhimurium as an intestinal pathogen.
Project description:The acquisition of new genetic traits by horizontal gene transfer and their incorporation into preexisting regulatory networks have been essential events in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. An example of successful assimilation of virulence traits is Salmonella enterica, which acquired, at distinct evolutionary times, Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), required for efficient invasion of the intestinal epithelium and intestinal disease, and SPI-2, essential for Salmonella replication and survival within macrophages and the progression of a systemic infection. A positive regulatory cascade mainly composed of HilD, HilA, and InvF, encoded in SPI-1, controls the expression of SPI-1 genes, whereas the two-component regulatory system SsrA/B, encoded in SPI-2, controls expression of SPI-2 genes. In this study, we report a previously undescribed transcriptional cross-talk between SPI-1 and SPI-2, where the SPI-1-encoded regulator HilD is essential for the activation of both the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons but at different times during the stationary phase of growth in Luria-Bertani medium. Our data indicate that HilD counteracts the H-NS-mediated repression exerted on the OmpR-dependent activation of the ssrAB operon by specifically interacting with its regulatory region. In contrast, HilD is not required for SPI-2 regulon expression under the in vitro growth conditions that are thought to resemble the intracellular environment. Our results suggest that two independent SPI-2 activation pathways evolved to take advantage of the SPI-2-encoded information at different niches and, in consequence, in response to different growth conditions.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) encodes a type III secretion system required for invasion of host gut epithelial cells. Expression of SPI-1 virulence genes is controlled by a complex hierarchy of transcription factors encoded within and outside SPI-1. The master regulator of SPI-1, HilA, is itself regulated by three homologous transcription factors, HilD, HilC, and RtsA. HilD activates transcription of hilA and other target genes in response to environmental conditions associated with the intestinal microenvironment of the host. We have mapped the binding of HilD across the S. Typhimurium genome using chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq). Thus, we have identified 17 regions bound by HilD, including 11 novel targets. The majority of HilD targets are located outside SPI-1. We demonstrate transcription activation of 8 genes by HilD; four of these genes have not been previously described as being regulated by HilD, including lpxR, which encodes a lipid A deacylase important for immune evasion. We also show that HilD-activated genes are frequently activated by HilC and RtsA, indicating extensive overlap of the HilD, HilC, and RtsA regulons.
Project description:Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI1) and SPI4 have previously been shown to be jointly regulated. We report that SPI1 and SPI4 gene expression is linked through a transcriptional activator, SprB, encoded within SPI1 and regulated by HilA. SprB directly activates SPI4 gene expression and weakly represses SPI1 gene expression through HilD.
Project description:HilD is a regulator of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) virulence genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. To identify novel HilD-regulated genes, we mapped the genome-wide association of HilD in S. Typhimurium under SPI-1-inducing conditions (high salt, low aeration) using ChIP-seq. HilD was C-terminally tagged with 3 FLAG tags in strain 14028s.
Project description:The evolution of bacterial pathogenicity, heavily influenced by horizontal gene transfer, provides new virulence factors and regulatory connections that alter bacterial phenotypes. Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) are chromosomal regions that were acquired at different evolutionary times and are essential for Salmonella virulence. In the intestine of mammalian hosts, Salmonella expresses the SPI-1 genes that mediate its invasion to the gut epithelium. Once inside the cells, Salmonella down-regulates the SPI-1 genes and induces the expression of the SPI-2 genes, which favor its intracellular replication. The mechanism by which the invasion machinery is deactivated following successful invasion of host cells is not known. Here, we show that the SPI-2 encoded transcriptional regulator SsrB, which positively controls SPI-2, acts as a dual regulator that represses expression of SPI-1 during intracellular stages of infection. The mechanism of this SPI-1 repression by SsrB was direct and acts upon the hilD and hilA regulatory genes. The phenotypic effect of this molecular switch activity was a significant reduction in invasion ability of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium while promoting the expression of genes required for intracellular survival. During mouse infections, Salmonella mutants lacking SsrB had high levels of hilA (SPI-1) transcriptional activity whereas introducing a constitutively active SsrB led to significant hilA repression. Thus, our results reveal a novel SsrB-mediated mechanism of transcriptional crosstalk between SPI-1 and SPI-2 that helps Salmonella transition to the intracellular lifestyle.
Project description:Invasion of epithelial cells by Salmonella enterica requires expression of genes located in the pathogenicity island I (SPI-1). The expression of SPI-1 genes is very tightly regulated and activated only under specific conditions. Most studies have focused on the regulatory pathways that induce SPI-1 expression. Here, we describe a new regulatory circuit involving CRP-cAMP, a widely established metabolic regulator, in silencing of SPI-1 genes under non-permissive conditions. In CRP-cAMP-deficient strains we detected a strong upregulation of SPI-1 genes in the mid-logarithmic growth phase. Genetic analyses revealed that CRP-cAMP modulates the level of HilD, the master regulator of Salmonella invasion. This regulation occurs at the post-transcriptional level and requires the presence of a newly identified regulatory motif within the hilD 3'UTR. We further demonstrate that in Salmonella the Hfq-dependent sRNA Spot 42 is under the transcriptional repression of CRP-cAMP and, when this transcriptional repression is relieved, Spot 42 exerts a positive effect on hilD expression. In vivo and in vitro assays indicate that Spot 42 targets, through its unstructured region III, the 3'UTR of the hilD transcript. Together, our results highlight the biological relevance of the hilD 3'UTR as a hub for post-transcriptional control of Salmonella invasion gene expression.
Project description:Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) play key roles in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica. Previously, we showed that when Salmonella grows in Luria-Bertani medium, HilD, encoded in SPI-1, first induces the expression of hilA, located in SPI-1, and subsequently of the ssrAB operon, located in SPI-2. These genes code for HilA and the SsrA/B two-component system, the positive regulators of the SPI-1 and SPI-2 regulons respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that CsrA, a global regulatory RNA binding protein, post-transcriptionally regulates hilD expression by directly binding near the Shine-Dalgarno and translation initiation codon sequences of the hilD mRNA, preventing its translation and leading to its accelerated turnover. Negative regulation is counteracted by the global SirA/BarA two-component system, which directly activates the expression of CsrB and CsrC, two non-coding regulatory RNAs that sequester CsrA, thereby preventing it from binding to its target mRNAs. Our results illustrate the integration of global and specific regulators into a multifactorial regulatory cascade controlling the expression of virulence genes acquired by horizontal transfer events.