A comprehensive transcriptome data of normal and Nosema ceranae-stressed midguts of Apis mellifera ligustica workers.
ABSTRACT: Honeybees are pivotal pollinators of crops and wild flora, and of great importance in supporting critical ecosystem balance. Nosema ceranae, a unicellular fungal parasite that infects midgut epithelial cells of honeybees, can dramatically reduce honeybee population and productivity. Here, midguts of Apis mellifera ligustica workers at 7 d and 10 d post inoculation (dpi) with sucrose solution (Ac7CK and Ac10CK) and midguts at 7 dpi and 10 dpi with sucrose solution containing N. ceranae spores (Ac7T and Ac10T) were sequenced using strand-specific cDNA library construction and next-generation sequencing. A total of 1956129858 raw reads were gained in this article, and after quality control, 1946489304 high-quality clean reads with a mean Q30 of 93.82% were obtained. The rRNA-removed clean reads were then aligned to the reference genome of Apis mellifera with TopHat2. For more insight please see "Genome-wide identification of long non-coding RNAs and their regulatory networks involved in Apis mellifera ligustica response to Nosema ceranae infection" . Raw data were deposited in NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database under the BioProject number PRJNA406998. These data can be used for comparative analysis to identify differentially expressed coding RNAs and non-coding RNAs involved in A. m. ligustica responses to N. ceranae stress, and for investigation of molecular mechanisms regulating host N. ceranae -response.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a diverse class of transcripts that structurally resemble mRNAs but do not encode proteins, and lncRNAs have been proven to play pivotal roles in a wide range of biological processes in animals and plants. However, knowledge of expression patterns and potential roles of honeybee lncRNA response to Nosema ceranae infection is completely unknown. Here, we performed whole transcriptome strand-specific RNA sequencing of normal midguts of Apis mellifera ligustica workers (Am7CK, Am10CK) and N. ceranae-inoculated midguts (Am7T, Am10T), followed by comprehensive analyses using bioinformatic and molecular approaches. A total of 6353 A. m. ligustica lncRNAs were identified, including 4749 conserved lncRNAs and 1604 novel lncRNAs. These lncRNAs had minimal sequence similarities with other known lncRNAs in other species; however, their structural features were similar to counterparts in mammals and plants, including shorter exon and intron length, lower exon number, and lower expression level, compared with protein-coding transcripts. Further, 111 and 146 N. ceranae-responsive lncRNAs were identified from midguts at 7-days post-inoculation (dpi) and 10 dpi compared with control midguts. Twelve differentially expressed lncRNAs (DElncRNAs) were shared by Am7CK vs. Am7T and Am10CK vs. Am10T comparison groups, while the numbers of unique DElncRNAs were 99 and 134, respectively. Functional annotation and pathway analysis showed that the DElncRNAs may regulate the expression of neighboring genes by acting in cis and trans fashion. Moreover, we discovered 27 lncRNAs harboring eight known miRNA precursors and 513 lncRNAs harboring 2257 novel miRNA precursors. Additionally, hundreds of DElncRNAs and their target miRNAs were found to form complex competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks, suggesting that these DElncRNAs may act as miRNA sponges. Furthermore, DElncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks were constructed and investigated, the results demonstrated that a portion of the DElncRNAs were likely to participate in regulating the host material and energy metabolism as well as cellular and humoral immune host responses to N. ceranae invasion. Our findings revealed here offer not only a rich genetic resource for further investigation of the functional roles of lncRNAs involved in the A. m. ligustica response to N. ceranae infection, but also a novel insight into understanding the host-pathogen interaction during honeybee microsporidiosis.
Project description:Nosema ceranae is a widespread fungal pathogen of honeybees, which is infective to all castes in the colony, including queens, drones and workers. Nosemosis caused by N. ceranae poses a big challenge for apiculture all over the world. Here, midguts of normal and N. ceranae-infected Apis cerana cerana workers at 7 and 10 days post infection were sequenced utilizing small RNA sequencing (sRNA-seq) technology. Totally, more than 150.54 Mb raw reads were produced in this article, and over 144.26 Mb high-quality clean reads with a mean ratio of 95.83% were obtained after strict filtering and quality control. For more insight please see "Comparative identification of microRNAs in Apis cerana cerana workers' midguts responding to Nosema ceranae invasion" (Chen et al., 2019). Raw data are available in NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database under the BioProject number PRJNA487111. Our data can be used for investigating differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) and piRNAs and their regulatory roles engaged in A. c. cerana response to N. ceranae infection, and for offering potential candidates for uncovering the molecular mechanisms regulating eastern honeybee-microsporidian interactions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nosemosis of European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is present in bee colonies worldwide. Until recently, Nosema apis had been regarded as the causative agent of the disease, that causes heavy economic losses in apicultures. Nosema ceranae is an emerging microsporidian parasite of European honeybees, A. mellifera, but its distribution is not well known. Previously, nosemosis in honeybees in Iran was attributed exclusively to N. apis. METHODS:Six Nosema positive samples (determined from light microscopy of spores) of adult worker bees from one province of Iran (Savadkouh- Mazandaran, northern Iran) were tested to determine Nosema species using previously- developed PCR primers of the 16 S rRNA gene. As it is difficult to distinguish N. ceranae and N. apis morphologically, a PCR assay based on 16 S ribosomal RNA has been used to differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae. RESULTS:Only N. ceranae was found in all samples, indicating that this species present in Iran apiaries. CONCLUSION:This is the first report of N. ceranae in colonies of A. mellifera in Iran. It seems that intensive surveys are needed to determine the distribution and prevalence of N. ceranae in different regions of Iran.
Project description:Honeybees, <i>Apis mellifera</i>, are important pollinators of many economically important crops. However, one of the reasons for their decline is pathogenic infection. Nosema disease and American foulbrood (AFB) disease are the most common bee pathogens that propagate in the gut of honeybees. This study investigated the impact of gut-propagating pathogens, including <i>Nosema ceranae</i> and <i>Paenibacillus larvae,</i> on bacterial communities in the gut of <i>A. mellifera</i> using 454-pyrosequencing. Pyrosequencing results showed that <i>N. ceranae</i> was implicated in the elimination of <i>Serratia</i> and the dramatic increase in <i>Snodgrassella</i> and <i>Bartonella</i> in adult bees' guts, while bacterial communities of <i>P. larvae-</i>infected larvae were not affected by the infection. The results indicated that only <i>N. ceranae</i> had an impact on some core bacteria in the gut of <i>A. mellifera</i> through increasing core gut bacteria, therefore leading to the induction of dysbiosis in the bees' gut.
Project description:Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae are the two main microsporidian parasites causing nosematosis in the honey bee Apis mellifera. The aim of the present study is to investigate the presence of Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae in the area of Bulgaria. The 16S (SSU) rDNA gene region was chosen for analysis. A duplex PCR assay was performed on 108 honey bee samples from three different parts of the country (South, North and West Bulgaria). The results showed that the samples from the northern part of the country were with the highest prevalence (77.2%) for Nosema ceranae while those from the mountainous parts (the Rodopa Mountains, South Bulgaria) were with the lowest rate (13.9%). Infection with Nosema apis alone and co-infection N. apis/N. ceranae were not detected in any samples. These findings suggest that Nosema ceranae is the dominant species in the Bulgarian honey bee. It is not known when the introduction of Nosema ceranae in Bulgaria has occurred, but as in the rest of the world, this species has become the dominant one in Bulgarian Apis mellifera. In conclusion, this is the first report for molecular detection of Nosema infection of honey bee in Bulgaria. The results showed that N. ceranae is the main Nosema species in Bulgaria.
Project description:Apoptosis is not only pivotal for development, but also for pathogen defence in multicellular organisms. Although numerous intracellular pathogens are known to interfere with the host's apoptotic machinery to overcome this defence, its importance for host-parasite coevolution has been neglected. We conducted three inoculation experiments to investigate in the apoptotic respond during infection with the intracellular gut pathogen Nosema ceranae, which is considered as potential global threat to the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and other bee pollinators, in sensitive and tolerant honeybees. To explore apoptotic processes in the gut epithelium, we visualised apoptotic cells using TUNEL assays and measured the relative expression levels of subset of candidate genes involved in the apoptotic machinery using qPCR. Our results suggest that N. ceranae reduces apoptosis in sensitive honeybees by enhancing inhibitor of apoptosis protein-(iap)-2 gene transcription. Interestingly, this seems not be the case in Nosema tolerant honeybees. We propose that these tolerant honeybees are able to escape the manipulation of apoptosis by N. ceranae, which may have evolved a mechanism to regulate an anti-apoptotic gene as key adaptation for improved host invasion.
Project description:China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies, which produce the highest quantity of honey and royal jelly in the world; however, the presence of honey bee pathogens and parasites has never been rigorously identified in Chinese apiaries. We thus conducted a molecular survey of honey bee RNA viruses, Nosema microsporidia, protozoan parasites, and tracheal mites associated with nonnative Apis mellifera ligustica and native Apis cerana cerana colonies in China. We found the presence of black queen cell virus (BQCV), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), and sacbrood virus (SBV), but not that of acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV) or Kashmir bee virus (KBV). DWV was the most prevalent in the tested samples. Phylogenies of Chinese viral isolates demonstrated that genetically heterogeneous populations of BQCV, CBPV, DWV, and A. cerana-infecting SBV, and relatively homogenous populations of IAPV and A. meliifera-infecting new strain of SBV with single origins, are spread in Chinese apiaries. Similar to previous observations in many countries, Nosema ceranae, but not Nosema apis, was prevalent in the tested samples. Crithidia mellificae, but not Apicystis bombi was found in five samples, including one A. c. cerana colony, demonstrating that C. mellificae is capable of infecting multiple honey bee species. Based on kinetoplast-encoded cytochrome b sequences, the C. mellificae isolate from A. c. cerana represents a novel haplotype with 19 nucleotide differences from the Chinese and Japanese isolates from A. m. ligustica. This suggests that A. c. cerana is the native host for this specific haplotype. The tracheal mite, Acarapis woodi, was detected in one A. m. ligustica colony. Our results demonstrate that honey bee RNA viruses, N. ceranae, C. mellificae, and tracheal mites are present in Chinese apiaries, and some might be originated from native Asian honey bees.
Project description:Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are constantly subjected to many biotic stressors including parasites. This study examined honeybees infected with Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae). N. ceranae infection increases the bees energy requirements and may contribute to their decreased survival. RNA-seq was used to investigate gene expression at days 5, 10 and 15 Post Infection (P.I) with N. ceranae. The expression levels of genes, isoforms, alternative transcription start sites (TSS) and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation suggesting that bees use a range of tactics to cope with the stress of N. ceranae infection. N. ceranae infection may cause reduced immune function in the bees by: (i)disturbing the host amino acids metabolism (ii) down-regulating expression of antimicrobial peptides (iii) down-regulation of cuticle coatings and (iv) down-regulation of odorant binding proteins.
Project description:European <i>Apis mellifera</i> and Asian <i>Apis cerana</i> honeybees are essential crop pollinators. Microbiome studies can provide complex information on health and fitness of these insects in relation to environmental changes, and plant availability. Amplicon sequencing of variable regions of the 16S rRNA from bacteria and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) regions from fungi and plants allow identification of the metabiome. These methods provide a tool for monitoring otherwise uncultured microbes isolated from the gut of the honeybees. They also help monitor the composition of the gut fungi and, intriguingly, pollen collected by the insect. Here, we present data from amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA from bacteria and ITS2 regions from fungi and plants derived from honeybees collected at various time points from anthropogenic landscapes such as urban areas in Poland, UK, Spain, Greece, and Thailand. We have analysed microbial content of honeybee intestine as well as fungi and pollens. Furthermore, isolated DNA was used as the template for screening pathogens: <i>Nosema apis</i>, <i>N. ceranae</i>, <i>N. bombi</i>, tracheal mite (<i>Acarapis woodi</i>), any organism in the parasitic order Trypanosomatida, including Crithidia spp. (i.e., <i>Crithidia mellificae</i>), neogregarines including <i>Mattesia</i> and <i>Apicystis</i> spp. (i.e., <i>Apicistis bombi</i>). We conclude that differences between samples were mainly influenced by the bacteria, plant pollen and fungi, respectively. Moreover, honeybees feeding on a sugar based diet were more prone to fungal pathogens (<i>Nosema ceranae</i>) and neogregarines. In most samples <i>Nosema</i> sp. and neogregarines parasitized the host bee at the same time. A higher load of fungi, and bacteria groups such as Firmicutes (<i>Lactobacillus</i>); <b><i>γ</i></b>-proteobacteria, Neisseriaceae, and other unidentified bacteria was observed for <i>Nosema ceranae</i> and neogregarine infected honeybees. Healthy honeybees had a higher load of plant pollen, and bacteria groups such as: <i>Orbales</i>, <i>Gilliamella</i>, <i>Snodgrassella</i>, and Enterobacteriaceae. Finally, the period when honeybees switch to the winter generation (longer-lived forager honeybees) is the most sensitive to diet perturbations, and hence pathogen attack, for the whole beekeeping season. It is possible that evolutionary adaptation of bees fails to benefit them in the modern anthropomorphised environment.
Project description:Here, a comparative transcriptome investigation was conducted based on high-quality deep sequencing data from the midguts of <i>Apis cerana cerana</i> workers at 7 d post-inoculation (dpi) and 10 dpi with <i>Nosema ceranae</i> and corresponding un-inoculated midguts. PCR identification and microscopic observation of paraffin sections confirmed the effective infection of <i>A. c. cerana</i> worker by <i>N. ceranae</i>. In total, 1127 and 957 <i>N. ceranae</i>-responsive genes were identified in the infected midguts at 7 dpi and 10 dpi, respectively. RT-qPCR results validated the reliability of our transcriptome data. GO categorization indicated the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were respectively engaged in 34 and 33 functional terms associated with biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions. Additionally, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that DEGs at 7 dpi and 10 dpi could be enriched in 231 and 226 pathways, respectively. Moreover, DEGs in workers' midguts at both 7 dpi and 10 dpi were involved in six cellular immune pathways such as autophagy and phagosome and three humoral immune pathways such as the Toll/Imd signaling pathway and Jak-STAT signaling pathway. In addition, one up-regulated gene (XM_017055397.1) was enriched in the NF-<i>κ</i>B signaling pathway in the workers' midgut at 10 dpi. Further investigation suggested the majority of these DEGs were engaged in only one immune pathway, while a small number of DEGs were simultaneously involved in two immune pathways. These results together demonstrated that the overall gene expression profile in host midgut was altered by <i>N. ceranae</i> infection and some of the host immune pathways were induced to activation during fungal infection, whereas some others were suppressed via host-pathogen interaction. Our findings offer a basis for clarification of the mechanism underlying the immune response of <i>A. c. cerana</i> workers to <i>N. ceranae</i> infection, but also provide novel insights into eastern honeybee-microsporodian interaction.