Detection of CTX-M-1 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase among ceftiofur-resistant Salmonella enterica clinical isolates of poultry.
ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) conferred by cefotaximases (blaCTX-M) is a growing concern in the United States. Among food-producing animals, poultry are a major reservoir of ESC-resistant Salmonella. A retrospective study was carried out to further characterize 38 ceftiofur-resistant clinical Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry during 2007-2018. Of the isolates tested, 31 displayed resistance to ceftriaxone and harbored blaCMY-2, whereas 7 isolates demonstrated resistance or reduced susceptibility to cefepime in addition to ceftriaxone resistance. These 7 isolates displayed extended-spectrum ?-lactamase activity, harbored blaCTX-M-1, and were recovered only from recent poultry diagnostic submissions made in 2011-2018 as opposed to the 31 isolates that were recovered in 2007-2018. Further characterization of the blaCTX-M-1 gene determined that it was located on conjugative IncN/ST1 and IncI1/ST87 plasmids in the isolates from commercial turkeys and broilers, respectively. These plasmids have been responsible for extensive spread of blaCTX-M-1 in livestock, poultry, and humans in Europe. Potential transfer of IncN and IncI1 plasmids and/or nontyphoidal Salmonella carrying these plasmids through the food chain, or by other means to humans, may result in treatment failures. Our study demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ceftiofur-resistant S. enterica isolates detected by veterinary diagnostic laboratories to identify the sources of blaCTX-M-1 and to mitigate the spread of ESC-resistant Salmonella in the poultry production pyramid.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) in Escherichia coli and other Enterobacterales from turkeys in Canada and characterize the associated resistance determinants. Pooled fecal samples were collected in 77 turkey farms across British Columbia, Québec, and Ontario. Isolates were obtained with and without selective enrichment cultures and compared to isolates from diagnostic submissions of suspected colibacillosis cases in Ontario. Isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF and susceptibility to ESCs was assessed by disk diffusion. The presence of blaCMY, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and blaSHV was tested by PCR. Transformation experiments were used to characterize blaCMY plasmids. Genome sequencing with short and long reads was performed on a representative sample of blaCTX-M-positive isolates to assess isolates relatedness and characterize blaCTX-M plasmids. For the positive enrichment cultures (67% of total samples), 93% (587/610) were identified as E. coli, with only a few other Enterobacterales species identified. The frequency of ESC resistance was low in E. coli isolates from diagnostic submission (4%) and fecal samples without selective enrichment (5%). Of the ESC-resistant Enterobacterales isolates from selective enrichments, 71%, 18%, 14%, and 8% were positive for blaCMY, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively. IncI1 followed by IncK were the main incompatibility groups identified for blaCMY plasmids. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was found repeatedly on IncI1 plasmids of the pMLST type 3, while blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-55, and blaCTX-M-65 were associated with a variety of IncF plasmids. Clonal spread of strains carrying blaCTX-M genes between turkey farms was observed, as well as the presence of an epidemic blaCTX-M-1 plasmid in unrelated E. coli strains. In conclusion, Enterobacterales resistant to ESCs were still widespread at low concentration in turkey feces two years after the cessation of ceftiofur use. Although blaCMY-2 is the main ESC resistance determinant in E. coli from Canadian turkeys, blaCTX-M genes also occur which are often carried by multidrug resistance plasmids. Both clonal spread and horizontal gene transfer are involved in parallel in the spread of blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacterales from Canadian turkeys.
Project description:We report the genetic characterization of 15 Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) and 4 isolates of K. oxytoca (KO) from clinical cases in dogs and cats and showing extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC) resistance. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and co-resistances were investigated. Among KP isolates, ST101 clone was predominant (8/15, 53%), followed by ST15 (4/15, 27%). ST11 and ST340, belonging to Clonal Complex (CC)11, were detected in 2012 (3/15, 20%). MLST on KP isolates corresponded well with PFGE results, with 11 different PFGE patterns observed, including two clusters of two (ST340) and four (ST101) indistinguishable isolates, respectively. All isolates harbored at least one ESBL or AmpC gene, all carried on transferable plasmids (IncR, IncFII, IncI1, IncN), and 16/19 were positive for PMQR genes (qnr family or aac(6')-Ib-cr). The most frequent ESBL was CTX-M-15 (11/19, 58%), detected in all KP ST101, in one KP ST15 and in both KP ST340. blaCTX-M-15 was carried on IncR plasmids in all but one KP isolate. All KP ST15 isolates harbored different ESC resistance genes and different plasmids, and presented the non-transferable blaSHV-28 gene, in association with blaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-1 (on IncR, or on IncN), blaSHV-2a (on IncR) or blaCMY-2 genes (on IncI1). KO isolates were positive for blaCTX-M-9 gene (on IncHI2), or for the blaSHV-12 and blaDHA-1 genes (on IncL/M). They were all positive for qnr genes, and one also for the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene. All Klebsiella isolates showed multiresistance towards aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, trimethoprim and amphenicols, mediated by strA/B, aadA2, aadB, ant (2")-Ia, aac(6')-Ib, sul, tet, dfr and cat genes in various combinations. The emergence in pets of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella with ESBL, AmpC and PMQR determinants, poses further and serious challenges in companion animal therapy and raise concerns for possible bi-directional transmission between pets and humans, especially at household level.
Project description:This study characterized cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg strains from humans, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry to assess the molecular relationships of isolates from these sources in Québec in 2012. Isolates were collected as part of the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS). All isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR for CMY-2, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). A total of 113 S Heidelberg isolates from humans (n = 51), abattoir poultry (n = 18), and retail poultry (n = 44) were studied. All cefoxitin-resistant isolates (n = 65) were also resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin, ceftiofur, and ceftriaxone, and all contained the CMY-2 gene. PFGE analysis showed that 111/113 (98.2%) isolates clustered together with ?90% similarity. Core genome analysis using WGS identified 13 small clusters of isolates with 0 to 4 single nucleotide variations (SNVs), consisting of cefoxitin-resistant and -susceptible human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry isolates. CMY-2 plasmids from cefoxitin-resistant isolates all belonged to incompatibility group I1. Analysis of IncI1 plasmid sequences revealed high identity (95 to 99%) to a previously described plasmid (pCVM29188_101) found in Salmonella Kentucky. When compared to pCVM29188_101, all sequenced cefoxitin-resistant isolates were found to carry 1 of 10 possible variant plasmids. Transmission of S Heidelberg may be occurring between human, abattoir poultry, and retail poultry sources, and transmission of a common CMY-2 plasmid may be occurring among S Heidelberg strains with variable genetic backgrounds.
Project description:Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States. Although salmonellosis is usually self-limiting, severe infections typically require antimicrobial treatment, and ceftriaxone, an extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC), is commonly used in both adults and children. Surveillance conducted by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) has shown a recent increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from food animals at slaughter, retail meat, and humans. ESC resistance among Salmonella in the United States is usually mediated by a plasmid-encoded bla(CMY) ?-lactamase. In 2009, we identified 47 ESC-resistant bla(CMY)-positive Heidelberg isolates from humans (n=18), food animals at slaughter (n=16), and retail meats (n=13) associated with a spike in the prevalence of this serovar. Almost 90% (26/29) of the animal and meat isolates were isolated from chicken carcasses or retail chicken meat. We screened NARMS isolates for the presence of bla(CMY), determined whether the gene was plasmid-encoded, examined pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns to assess the genetic diversities of the isolates, and categorized the bla(CMY) plasmids by plasmid incompatibility groups and plasmid multi-locus sequence typing (pMLST). All 47 bla(CMY) genes were found to be plasmid encoded. Incompatibility/replicon typing demonstrated that 41 were IncI1 plasmids, 40 of which only conferred bla(CMY)-associated resistance. Six were IncA/C plasmids that carried additional resistance genes. pMLST of the IncI1-bla(CMY) plasmids showed that 27 (65.8%) were sequence type (ST) 12, the most common ST among bla(CMY)-IncI1 plasmids from Heidelberg isolated from humans. Ten plasmids had a new ST profile, ST66, a type very similar to ST12. This work showed that the 2009 increase in ESC resistance among Salmonella Heidelberg was caused mainly by the dissemination of bla(CMY) on IncI1 and IncA/C plasmids in a variety of genetic backgrounds, and is likely not the result of clonal expansion.
Project description:Thirty-nine fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates carrying fosA3 were obtained from pigs, chickens, dairy cows, and staff in four northeastern provinces of China between June 2015 and April 2016. The fosA3 gene was colocated with blaCTX-M genes on conjugative plasmids of the incompatibility groups IncN (n = 12), IncN-F33:A-:B-(n = 2), IncF33:A-:B-(n = 14), IncF14:A-:B-(n = 2), and IncI1/sequence type 136 (ST136) (n = 9). Four different genetic contexts of fosA3 were detected among the 39 E. coli isolates. Three potential epidemic plasmids circulated among E. coli strains from this region.
Project description:To understand the underlying evolution process of F33:A-:B- plasmids among Enterobacteriaceae isolates of various origins in China, the complete sequences of 17 blaCTX-M-harboring F33:A-:B- plasmids obtained from Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from different sources (animals, animal-derived food, and human clinics) in China were determined. F33:A-:B- plasmids shared similar plasmid backbones comprising replication, leading, and conjugative transfer regions and differed by the numbers of repeats in yddA and traD and by the presence of group II intron, except that pHNAH9 lacked a large segment of the leading and transfer regions. The variable regions of F33:A-B- plasmids were distinct and were inserted downstream of the addiction system pemI/pemK, identified as the integration hot spot among F33:A-B- plasmids. The variable region contained resistance genes and mobile elements or contained segments from other types of plasmids, such as IncI1, IncN1, and IncX1. Three plasmids encoding CTX-M-65 were very similar to our previously described pHN7A8 plasmid. Four CTX-M-55-producing plasmids contained multidrug resistance regions related to that of F2:A-B- plasmid pHK23a from Hong Kong. Five plasmids with IncN and/or IncX replication regions and IncI1-backbone fragments had variable regions related to those of pE80 and p42-2. The remaining five plasmids with IncN replicons and an IncI1 segment also possessed closely related variable regions. The diversity in variable regions was presumably associated with rearrangements, insertions, and/or deletions mediated by mobile elements, such as IS26 and IS1294IMPORTANCE Worldwide spread of antibiotic resistance genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolates is of great concern. F33:A-:B- plasmids are important vectors of resistance genes, such as blaCTX-M-55/-65, blaNDM-1, fosA3, and rmtB, among E. coli isolates from various sources in China. We determined and compared the complete sequences of 17 F33:A-:B- plasmids from various sources. These plasmids appear to have evolved from the same ancestor by mobile element-mediated rearrangement, acquisition, and/or loss of resistance modules and similar IncN1, IncI1, and/or IncX1 plasmid backbone segments. Our findings highlight the evolutionary potential of F33:A-:B- plasmids as efficient vectors to capture and diffuse clinically relevant resistance genes.
Project description:Resistance to extended-spectrum ?-lactams in Salmonella, in particular, in serotypes such as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis that are frequently associated with clinical infections, is a serious public health concern. In this study, phenotypic characterization of 433 clinical S. Enteritidis strains obtained from a nationwide collection of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention during the period from 2005 to 2010 depicted a trend of increasing resistance to ceftriaxone from 2008 onwards. Seventeen (4%) of the strains were found to be resistant to ceftriaxone, 7% were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, and 0.7% were found to be resistant to both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Most of the ceftriaxone-resistant S. Enteritidis strains (15/17) were genetically unrelated and originated from Henan Province. The complete sequence of an IncI1 plasmid, pSE115, which belonged to a novel sequence type, was obtained. This 87,255-bp IncI1 plasmid was found to harbor a blaCTX-M-14 gene in a novel multidrug resistance region (MRR) within the tra locus. Although the majority of strains were also found to contain conjugative IncI1 plasmids with a size similar to that of pSE115 (?90 kb) and harbor a variety of blaCTX-M group 1 and group 9 elements, the novel MRR site at the tra locus in pSE115 was not detectable in the other IncI1 plasmids. The findings from this study show that cephalosporin resistance in S. Enteritidis strains collected in China was mainly due to the dissemination of IncI1 plasmids carrying blaCTX-M, resembling the situation in which IncI1 plasmids serve as major vectors of blaCTX-M variants in other members of the Enterobacteriaceae.
Project description:Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) confer resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, a major class of clinical antimicrobial drugs. We used genomic analysis to investigate whether domestic food animals, retail meat, and pets were reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection in Canada. Of 30,303 Salmonella isolates tested during 2012-2016, we detected 95 ESBL producers. ESBL serotypes and alleles were mostly different between humans (n = 54) and animals/meat (n = 41). Two exceptions were bla<sub>SHV-2</sub> and bla<sub>CTX-M-1</sub> IncI1 plasmids<sub>,</sub> which were found in both sources. A subclade of S. enterica serovar Heidelberg isolates carrying the same IncI1-bla<sub>SHV-2</sub> plasmid differed by only 1-7 single nucleotide variants. The most common ESBL producer in humans was Salmonella Infantis carrying bla<sub>CTX-M-65</sub>, which has since emerged in poultry in other countries. There were few instances of similar isolates and plasmids, suggesting that domestic animals and retail meat might have been minor reservoirs of ESBL-producing Salmonella for human infection.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Escherichia coli producing ESBL/AmpC enzymes are unwanted in animal production chains as they may pose a risk to human and animal health. Molecular characterization of plasmids and strains carrying genes that encode these enzymes is essential to understand their local and global spread.<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate the diversity of genes, plasmids and strains in ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli from the Colombian poultry chain isolated within the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (Coipars).<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 541 non-clinical E. coli strains from epidemiologically independent samples and randomly isolated between 2008 and 2013 within the Coipars program were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Poultry isolates resistant to cefotaxime (MIC ? 4 mg/L) were screened for ESBL/AmpC genes including blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaCMY and blaOXA. Plasmid and strain characterization was performed for a selection of the ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates. Plasmids were purified and transformed into E. coli DH10B cells or transferred by conjugation to E. coli W3110. When applicable, PCR Based Replicon Typing (PBRT), plasmid Multi Locus Sequence Typing (pMLST), plasmid Double Locus Sequence Typing (pDLST) and/or plasmid Replicon Sequence Typing (pRST) was performed on resulting transformants and conjugants. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) was used for strain characterization.<h4>Results</h4>In total, 132 of 541 isolates were resistant to cefotaxime and 122 were found to carry ESBL/AmpC genes. Ninety-two harboured blaCMY-2 (75%), fourteen blaSHV-12 (11%), three blaSHV-5 (2%), five blaCTX-M-2 (4%), one blaCTX-M-15 (1%), one blaCTX-M-8 (1%), four a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12 (4%) and two a combination of blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-5 (2%). A selection of 39 ESBL/AmpC-producing isolates was characterized at the plasmid and strain level. ESBL/AmpC genes from 36 isolates were transferable by transformation or conjugation of which 22 were located on IncI1 plasmids. These IncI1 plasmids harboured predominantly blaCMY-2 (16/22), and to a lesser extend blaSHV-12 (5/22) and blaCTX-M-8 (1/22). Other plasmid families associated with ESBL/AmpC-genes were IncK (4/33), IncHI2 (3/33), IncA/C (2/33), Inc?/O (1/33) and a non-typeable replicon (1/33). Subtyping of IncI1 and IncHI2 demonstrated IncI1/ST12 was predominantly associated with blaCMY-2 (12/16) and IncHI2/ST7 with blaCTX-M-2 (2/3). Finally, 31 different STs were detected among the 39 selected isolates.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins in E. coli from Colombian poultry is mainly caused by blaCMY-2 and blaSHV-12. The high diversity of strain Sequence Types and the dissemination of homogeneous IncI1/ST12 plasmids suggest that spread of the resistance is mainly mediated by horizontal gene transfer.
Project description:We sequenced 35 Salmonella enterica isolates carrying incompatibility group I1 (IncI1) plasmids from different serotypes to study their genotypic characteristics. The isolates originated from food animals (n = 32) and human patients (n = 3). All isolates carried IncI1 plasmids, and many had additional plasmids detected along with virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes.