Effects of different acupuncture treatment methods on mild cognitive impairment: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate state between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, which is the world's most common form of dementia. It is important to identify early and easily available interventions to delay the progression of MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Acupuncture has been reported to improve the clinical outcomes of MCI treatment. Acupuncture is a complex intervention, involving both specific and non-specific factors associated with therapeutic benefits. Therefore, we intend to obtain basic data for developing an optimal acupuncture treatment for MCI by comparing the effects of different acupuncture treatment methods on cognitive function in MCI patients. METHODS:This study will be a prospective, outcome-assessor-blinded, parallel-arm, single-center (DongShin University Gwangju Korean Medicine Hospital, Republic of Korea), randomized controlled clinical trial. Thirty-two participants with MCI will be randomized in equal numbers to four groups (basic acupuncture (BA), acupoint specificity (AS), needle duration (ND), or electroacupuncture (EA)) and receive acupuncture treatment once per day, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The BA and ND groups will receive acupuncture treatment for 30 and 20 min, respectively, at Baihui (GV20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Fengchi (GB20), and Shenting (GV24). The EA group will receive electroacupuncture treatment at the same acupoints for 30 min. The AS group will receive acupuncture treatment at GV20, EX-HN1, GB20, GV24, and Taixi (KI3) for 30 min. The outcome measured will be scores on the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale, the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, the Korean Activities of Daily Living scale, the Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and the European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level scale. All scores will be recorded before intervention, 8 weeks after the first intervention, and 12 weeks after completing the intervention. DISCUSSION:Four acupuncture protocols will be assessed and compared as potential MCI treatments. This study is expected to provide data to be used in developing an optimal acupuncture method for MCI treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Research Information Service, KCT0003430 . Registered on 16 January 2019. http://cris.nih.go.kr ).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as an intermediate stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and early and easily available interventions to delay the progress of MCI to AD are necessary. Feasible complementary and alternative therapies such as electroacupuncture (EA), exercise, and cognitive training have shown some beneficial effects on MCI and AD. Here we report the protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of EA combined with computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (EA-CCR) for the treatment of MCI. METHODS:The study will be a prospective, outcome assessor-blinded, parallel-arm, single-center (DongShin University Gwangju Korean Medicine Hospital, Republic of Korea), pilot randomized controlled clinical trial with a 1:1 allocation ratio. Participants with MCI will be randomized to a computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (CCR) or an EA-CCR group (n = 18 each). The CCR group will receive RehaCom cognitive rehabilitation once (30 min) a day, 3 days per week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) for 8 weeks. The EA-CCR group will receive EA at Baihui (GV20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Fengchi (GB20), and Shenting (GV24) in addition to RehaCom cognitive rehabilitation once (EA:30 min, CCR:30 min) a day, 3 days per week (excluding Saturday and Sunday) for 8 weeks. The primary outcome will be an improvement in cognitive function assessed using the Korean version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale. Scores for the Korean version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Korean Activities of Daily Living scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale, and European Quality of Life Five Dimension Five Level Scale will be recorded as secondary outcome measures. All scores will be recorded at baseline (before intervention), 8 weeks after the first intervention (i.e., at the end of the intervention), and 12 weeks after completion of the intervention. DISCUSSION:The study is expected to provide preliminary evidence regarding the efficacy, safety, and usefulness of EA-CCR for the treatment of MCI. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Korea Clinical Information Service, cris.nih.go.kr, KCT0003415 . Registered on 4 January 2019. Retrospectively registered, http://cris.nih.go.kr .
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is defined as a decline in cognitive state with preservation of activities of daily living. Medications such as donepezil and rivastigmine have been commonly prescribed for MCI, but their use is controversial. Acupuncture has been widely used in Korea and has been shown to improve cognitive function. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture for MCI and investigate the effect of acupuncture on structural and functional brain changes in patients with MCI.<h4>Methods</h4>This study is a randomized, assessor-blinded, sham-controlled trial. Fifty participants with MCI will be randomly assigned to the acupuncture group (n?=?25) or sham acupuncture group (n?=?25). The acupuncture group will receive acupuncture treatment at nine acupuncture points (GV20, EX-HN1, bilateral LI4, and ST36) twice a week for 12?weeks. The sham acupuncture group will receive sham acupuncture treatment at the same points with non-penetrating sham needles. Both groups will be restricted from all other treatments for the improvement of cognitive function. The primary outcome measure is the Digit Span Test (DST). The secondary outcome measures are the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-K), Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery-II (SNSB-II), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), working memory (WM) task performance score, and structural/functional brain changes. Outcomes will be assessed at screening, baseline, 4 and 8?weeks, and after the end of treatment. We will also observe adverse events. In the statistical analysis, a full analysis set and per-protocol analysis will be performed.<h4>Discussion</h4>This randomized clinical trial aims to examine the efficacy of acupuncture treatment for MCI. Neuropsychological tests, psychological inventories for measuring depression and anxiety, and magnetic resonance imaging will be performed to investigate the underlying neurological mechanisms and the association between cognition, emotion, and brain networks following acupuncture treatment. The results of the trial will provide evidence supporting the efficacy of acupuncture and also add to the neurobiological understanding of acupuncture treatment for MCI.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Clinical Research Information Service, KCT0002896 . Registered on 25 May 2018.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) involves a neuromodulatory effect using electrical stimulation and has been widely used due to its safety and convenience. It has been used for treating tinnitus for decades. Acupuncture has also been used for tinnitus and several research studies have shown that acupuncture can improve a certain kind of tinnitus by stimulating the somatosensory system. Moreover, several studies have shown the efficacy of electroacupuncture, which is a combination of acupuncture and electrical stimulation, for tinnitus. However, the comparative effectiveness of TENS, manual acupuncture, and electroacupuncture for the treatment of tinnitus has not been determined previously. Herein, we design a randomized, non-blind clinical trial to investigate and compare the effects and safety of TENS, manual acupuncture, and electroacupuncture for tinnitus.<h4>Methods</h4>After screening, 45 patients are randomly assigned to three groups: (1) patients in the TENS group are treated at four sites (tender points of masseter and the sternocleidomastoid muscle, in front of tragus, and mastoid process); (2) the manual acupuncture group patients are treated at 11 acupoints (TE21, SI19, GB2, TE22, ST7, TE17, GB20 of tinnitus affected side, and GB20, TE05, KI3 of both sides); (3) electroacupuncture group patients are treated by using acupuncture as in the manual acupuncture group and electrical stimulation at TE21, SI19, TE17, and GB20. Patients are treated for ten sessions, twice a week. The primary outcome measurement is the change of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score between visit 1 and visit 10. The secondary outcome measurements are the response rate of THI, change in visual analogue scale associated with the loudness and annoyance of tinnitus, pure-tone audiometry and speech discrimination, and changes in parameters of heart rate variability.<h4>Discussion</h4>The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of TENS, manual acupuncture, and electroacupuncture in the auricular area on tinnitus. If the specific treatment shows a significant effect compared to other treatments, it could have potential for use in clinical practice as a primary treatment.<h4>Trial registration</h4>Clinical Research Information Service (CRIS), KCT0002117 . Registered October 21, 2016. Retrospectively registered.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for the treatment of primary insomnia. DESIGN:Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. SETTING:A university-based sleep clinic. PARTICIPANTS:Community sample of 60 Chinese adult volunteers who report having insomnia 3 or more nights per week, whose symptoms meet the DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia for at least 3 months, and who have an Insomnia Severity Index total score of at least 15. Participants were screened with polysomnography and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV prior to randomization. INTERVENTION:Electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3), Baihui (GV20), bilateral ear Shenmen, Sishencong (EX-HN1), and Anmian (EX) 3 times per week for 3 weeks or placebo acupuncture using Streitberger needles at the same points. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Self-reported questionnaires, 1-week sleep diaries, and 3-day actigraphy were collected at baseline and 1 week after treatment. The Insomnia Severity Index was used as the primary outcome measure. Both groups showed significant improvement compared with the pretreatment baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that there were significantly greater improvements in sleep efficiency by sleep diary and actigraphy in the electroacupuncture group. However, no significant between-group differences were observed in the Insomnia Severity Index and other outcome measures. The proportions of subjects having less than 30 minutes of wake after sleep onset and a sleep efficiency of at least 85% at the posttreatment visit were significantly higher in the electroacupuncture group. All adverse events were mild in severity. CONCLUSION:We found a slight advantage of electroacupuncture over placebo acupuncture in the short-term treatment of primary insomnia. Because of some limitations of the current study, further studies are necessary to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture for insomnia.
Project description:Vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND), manifested mainly as mild impairment of concentration and executive function, is the early phase of vascular dementia (VD). Currently, there is no specific treatment for VCIND. We hypothesize that electrical acupuncture can improve the mental and motor functions of patients with VCIND. Thus, we designed this randomized controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing the therapeutic effect of electrical acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in patients with VCIND.In this single-center 3-year study, 120 eligible patients will be recruited and randomly assigned to receive electrical acupuncture treatment (n?=?60) or sham acupuncture (n?=?60) for 8 consecutive weeks (24 sessions in total), with the same acupoint prescription (DU20, EX-HN3, DU24, DU17, DU26, EX-HN1, HT7, PC6, GB20, SP6). The primary assessment is the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The secondary assessments are the Modified Barthel Index and Event-Related Potential. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, endpoint, and follow-up at 8 and 24 weeks after the end of treatment.If the outcome confirms the effectiveness and safety of electrical acupuncture in treating VCIND, this treatment is expected to be promoted in clinical practice to treat such patients.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry identifier: ChiCTR-IIR-17011513 ; Registered on 27 May 2017.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) for postoperative pain after laparoscopic appendectomy compared with sham electroacupuncture (SEA) and no acupuncture treatment. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study is a protocol for a three-arm, randomised, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of acupuncture treatment), controlled, parallel trial. 138 participants diagnosed with appendicitis and scheduled for laparoscopic appendectomy will be randomly assigned to the EA group (n=46), SEA group (n=46) or control group (n=46). The EA group will receive acupuncture treatment at both regional and distal acupuncture points with electrostimulation. The SEA group will receive sham acupuncture treatment with mock electrostimulation. Both EA and SEA groups will receive a total of four treatments 1?hour preoperative, 1?hour postoperative and during the morning and afternoon the day after surgery with the same routine postoperative pain control. The control group will receive only routine postoperative pain control. The primary outcome is the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 24?hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes are the PI-NRS, analgesic consumption, opioid-related side effects, time to first passing flatus, quality of life and adverse events evaluated 6, 12, 24 and 36?hours and 7 days after surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was planned in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and the Korean Good Clinical Practice Guidelines to protect the participants and was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University Medical Center (KMC IRB-1427-02). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001328).
Project description:Acupuncture has been practiced to treat neuropsychiatric disorders for a thousand years in China. Prevention of disease by acupuncture and moxibustion treatment, guided by the theory of Chinese acupuncture, gradually draws growing attention nowadays and has been investigated in the role of the prevention and treatment of mental disorders such as AD. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological action remains greatly invalidated. Here, we sought to observe whether preventive electroacupuncture during the aging process could alleviate learning and memory deficits in D-galactose-induced aged rats. We found that preventive electroacupuncture at GV20-BL23 acupoints during aging attenuated the hippocampal loss of dendritic spines, ameliorated neuronal microtubule injuries, and increased the expressions of postsynaptic PSD95 and presynaptic SYN, two important synapse-associated proteins involved in synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, we observed an inhibition of GSK3?/mTOR pathway activity accompanied by a decrease in tau phosphorylation level and prompted autophagy activity induced by preventive electroacupuncture. Our results suggested that preventive electroacupuncture can prevent and alleviate memory deficits and ameliorate synapse and neuronal microtubule damage in aging rats, which was probably via the inhibition of GSK3?/mTOR signaling pathway. It may provide new insights for the identification of prevention strategies of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Electroacupuncture has been used for treatment in patients with overactive bladder. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for treating overactive bladder of postmenopausal women. METHODS/DESIGN:This is a multicenter, randomized controlled, parallel clinical trial. Two hundred ninety participants with overactive bladder syndrome will be recruited from Dongguk University Bundang Oriental Hospital and Cheonan Korean Medicine Hospital of Daejeon University and randomly allocated into one of two groups in a 1:1 ratio. One group will receive electroacupuncture (EA) and the other acupuncture (AC). The allocation will be concealed from both participants and assessors. The study period will be about 10 weeks, including 6 weeks of electroacupuncture or acupuncture treatment and a four week follow-up period. Both EA group and AT group will undergo acupuncture at 7 fixed points, and the EA group will undergo electronic stimulation at 6 points. The primary outcome will be the average number of micturitions per 24 h based on a 3-day bladder diary. The secondary outcome will comprise the 3-day bladder diary, the overactive bladder symptom score and the results of the King's health questionnaire. DISCUSSION:The results of this trial will provide information regarding the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for treating overactive bladder in postmenopausal women. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03260907 . Registered on 24 August 2017.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs in approximately 30% to 40% of patients who receive chemotherapy; however, standardized treatment for CIPN has not yet been developed. Acupuncture is widely used to treat CIPN in Korea, but its efficacy has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to review the current literature on the efficacy of acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) in treating CIPN. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We will perform a literature review using the relevant databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Databases (AMED), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), as well as Korean databases, including the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), DBpia, and Korean studies Information Service System (KISS). Randomized controlled trials describing treatment of CIPN symptoms with acupuncture or EA will be included. The primary outcomes will be scores on a visual analog scale and a numeric rating scale for neuropathic pain. We will also assess the risk of bias by evaluating the available studies using the tools of the Cochrane Collaboration and carry out a meta-analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approvals and patient consent are not necessary because the meta-analysis will be based on published research. We will submit our meta-analysis to a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018111509.
Project description:Background:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by high prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a specific type of TBI leading to prolonged consciousness impairment and disability. There is still no standard treatment for DAI, so we introduced traditional Chinese medicine into the treatment of these patients. Case summaries:Three patients had TBI after traffic accidents. Their Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in the intensive care unit (ICU) were E1VEM2-3, E1VEM2-3, and E1VEM2 respectively. All of them were diagnosed with DAI based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of continuing consciousness disturbances, their families agreed to combine traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine treatments through inpatient consultation in Taoyuan General hospital. Two patients took Buyang Huanwu Decoction, and one Tianma Gouteng Decoction twice a day. All of them received 20 min of acupuncture treatments 5 times per week. Acupuncture points included Baihui (GV20), Sishencong (EX-HN1), Shuigou (GV26), Hegu (LI4), and Taichong (LR3). All of them started Traditional Chinese medicine treatment within 2 weeks after TBI. The GCS of all three patients recovered to E4M5V6. Conclusions:The early addition of traditional Chinese medicine treatments to Western medical care can improve the prognosis of patients with diffuse axonal injury.