Ancient complement and lineage-specific evolution of the Sec7 ARF GEF proteins in eukaryotes.
ABSTRACT: Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are the initiators of signaling by every regulatory GTPase, which in turn act to regulate a wide array of essential cellular processes. To date, each family of GTPases is activated by distinct families of GEFs. Bidirectional membrane trafficking is regulated by ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases and the development throughout eukaryotic evolution of increasingly complex systems of such traffic required the acquisition of a functionally diverse cohort of ARF GEFs to control it. We performed phylogenetic analyses of ARF GEFs in eukaryotes, defined by the presence of the Sec7 domain, and found three subfamilies (BIG, GBF1, and cytohesins) to have been present in the ancestor of all eukaryotes. The four other subfamilies (EFA6/PSD, IQSEC7/BRAG, FBX8, and TBS) are opisthokont, holozoan, metazoan, and alveolate/haptophyte specific, respectively, and each is derived from cytohesins. We also identified a cytohesin-derived subfamily, termed ankyrin repeat-containing cytohesin, that independently evolved in amoebozoans and members of the SAR and haptophyte clades. Building on evolutionary data for the ARF family GTPases and their GTPase--activating proteins allowed the generation of hypotheses about ARF GEF protein function(s) as well as a better understanding of the origins and evolution of cellular complexity in eukaryotes.
Project description:Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA6), brefeldin A-resistant Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factor (BRAG), and cytohesin subfamilies activate small GTPases of the Arf family in endocytic events. These ArfGEFs carry a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain in tandem with their catalytic Sec7 domain, which is autoinhibitory and supports a positive feedback loop in cytohesins but not in BRAGs, and has an as-yet unknown role in EFA6 regulation. In this study, we analyzed how EFA6A is regulated by its PH and C terminus (Ct) domains by reconstituting its GDP/GTP exchange activity on membranes. We found that EFA6 has a previously unappreciated high efficiency toward Arf1 on membranes and that, similar to BRAGs, its PH domain is not autoinhibitory and strongly potentiates nucleotide exchange on anionic liposomes. However, in striking contrast to both cytohesins and BRAGs, EFA6 is regulated by a negative feedback loop, which is mediated by an allosteric interaction of Arf6-GTP with the PH-Ct domain of EFA6 and monitors the activation of Arf1 and Arf6 differentially. These observations reveal that EFA6, BRAG, and cytohesins have unanticipated commonalities associated with divergent regulatory regimes. An important implication is that EFA6 and cytohesins may combine in a mixed negative-positive feedback loop. By allowing EFA6 to sustain a pool of dormant Arf6-GTP, such a circuit would fulfill the absolute requirement of cytohesins for activation by Arf-GTP before amplification of their GEF activity by their positive feedback loop.
Project description:Membrane dynamic processes require Arf GTPase activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with a Sec7 domain. Cytohesin family Arf GEFs function in signaling and cell migration through Arf GTPase activation on the plasma membrane and endosomes. In this study, the structural organization of two cytohesins (Grp1 and ARNO) was investigated in solution by size exclusion-small angle X-ray scattering and negative stain-electron microscopy and on membranes by dynamic light scattering, hydrogen-deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry and guanosine diphosphate (GDP)/guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange assays. The results suggest that cytohesins form elongated dimers with a central coiled coil and membrane-binding pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains at opposite ends. The dimers display significant conformational heterogeneity, with a preference for compact to intermediate conformations. Phosphoinositide-dependent membrane recruitment is mediated by one PH domain at a time and alters the conformational dynamics to prime allosteric activation by Arf-GTP. A structural model for membrane targeting and allosteric activation of full-length cytohesin dimers is discussed.
Project description:Arf GTPases assemble protein complexes on membranes to carry out major functions in cellular traffic. An essential step is their activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), whose Sec7 domain stimulates GDP/GTP exchange. ArfGEFs form 2 major families: ArfGEFs with DCB, HUS and HDS domains (GBF1 and BIG1/BIG2 in humans), which act at the Golgi; and ArfGEFs with a C-terminal PH domain (cytohesin, EFA6 and BRAG), which function at the plasma membrane and endosomes. In addition, pathogenic bacteria encode an ArfGEF with a unique membrane-binding domain. Here we review the allosteric regulation of Arf GTPases and their GEFs at the membrane interface. Membranes contribute several regulatory layers: at the GTPase level, where activation by GTP is coupled to membrane recruitment by a built-in structural device; at the Sec7 domain, which manipulates this device to ensure that Arf-GTP is attached to membranes; and at the level of non-catalytic ArfGEF domains, which form direct or GTPase-mediated interactions with membranes that enable a spectacular diversity of regulatory regimes. Notably, we show here that membranes increase the efficiency of a large ArfGEF (human BIG1) by 32-fold by interacting directly with its N-terminal DCB and HUS domains. The diversity of allosteric regulatory regimes suggests that ArfGEFs can function in cascades and circuits to modulate the shape, amplitude and duration of Arf signals in cells. Because Arf-like GTPases feature autoinhibitory elements similar to those of Arf GTPases, we propose that their activation also requires allosteric interactions of these elements with membranes or other proteins.
Project description:Cytohesins are Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that regulate membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. We report here that GRP-1, the sole Caenorhabditis elegans cytohesin, controls the asymmetric divisions of certain neuroblasts that divide to produce a larger neuronal precursor or neuron and a smaller cell fated to die. In the Q neuroblast lineage, loss of GRP-1 led to the production of daughter cells that are more similar in size and to the transformation of the normally apoptotic daughter into its sister, resulting in the production of extra neurons. Genetic interactions suggest that GRP-1 functions with the previously described Arf GAP CNT-2 and two other Arf GEFs, EFA-6 and BRIS-1, to regulate the activity of Arf GTPases. In agreement with this model, we show that GRP-1's GEF activity, mediated by its SEC7 domain, is necessary for the posterior Q cell (Q.p) neuroblast division and that both GRP-1 and CNT-2 function in the Q.posterior Q daughter cell (Q.p) to promote its asymmetry. Although functional GFP-tagged GRP-1 proteins localized to the nucleus, the extra cell defects were rescued by targeting the Arf GEF activity of GRP-1 to the plasma membrane, suggesting that GRP-1 acts at the plasma membrane. The detection of endogenous GRP-1 protein at cytokinesis remnants, or midbodies, is consistent with GRP-1 functioning at the plasma membrane and perhaps at the cytokinetic furrow to promote the asymmetry of the divisions that require its function.
Project description:Arf GTPases regulate membrane trafficking and actin dynamics. Grp1, ARNO, and Cytohesin-1 comprise a family of phosphoinositide-dependent Arf GTPase exchange factors with a Sec7-pleckstrin homology (PH) domain tandem. Here, we report that the exchange activity of the Sec7 domain is potently autoinhibited by conserved elements proximal to the PH domain. The crystal structure of the Grp1 Sec7-PH tandem reveals a pseudosubstrate mechanism of autoinhibition in which the linker region between domains and a C-terminal amphipathic helix physically block the docking sites for the switch regions of Arf GTPases. Mutations within either element result in partial or complete activation. Critical determinants of autoinhibition also contribute to insulin-stimulated plasma membrane recruitment. Autoinhibition can be largely reversed by binding of active Arf6 to Grp1 and by phosphorylation of tandem PKC sites in Cytohesin-1. These observations suggest that Grp1 family GEFs are autoregulated by mechanisms that depend on plasma membrane recruitment for activation.
Project description:In this investigation, we report identification and characterization of a 95 kDa postsynaptic density protein (PSD-95)/discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain-containing protein termed tamalin, also recently named GRP1-associated scaffold protein (GRASP), that interacts with group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The yeast two-hybrid system and in vitro pull-down assays indicated that the PDZ domain-containing, amino-terminal half of tamalin directly binds to the class I PDZ-binding motif of group 1 mGluRs. The C-terminal half of tamalin also bound to cytohesins, the members of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) specific for the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of small GTP-binding proteins. Tamalin mRNA is expressed predominantly in the telencephalic region and highly overlaps with the expression of group 1 mGluR mRNAs. Both tamalin and cytohesin-2 were enriched and codistributed with mGluR1a in postsynaptic membrane fractions. Importantly, recombinant and native mGluR1a/tamalin/cytohesin-2 complexes were coimmunoprecipitated from transfected COS-7 cells and rat brain tissue, respectively. Transfection of tamalin and mutant tamalin lacking a cytohesin-binding domain caused an increase and decrease in cell-surface expression of mGluR1a in COS-7 cells, respectively. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of tamalin and dominant-negative tamalin facilitated and reduced the neuritic distribution of endogenous mGluR5 in cultured hippocampal neurons, respectively. The results indicate that tamalin plays a key role in the association of group 1 mGluRs with the ARF-specific GEF proteins and contributes to intracellular trafficking and the macromolecular organization of group 1 mGluRs at synapses.
Project description:In eukaryotes, GTP-bound ARF GTPases promote intracellular membrane traffic by mediating the recruitment of coat proteins, which in turn sort cargo proteins into the forming membrane vesicles. Mammals employ several classes of ARF GTPases which are activated by different ARF guanine-nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs). In contrast, flowering plants only encode evolutionarily conserved ARF1 GTPases (class I) but not the other classes II and III known from mammals, as suggested by phylogenetic analysis of ARF family members across the five major clades of eukaryotes. Instead, flowering plants express plant-specific putative ARF GTPases such as ARFA and ARFB, in addition to evolutionarily conserved ARF-LIKE (ARL) proteins. Here we show that all eight ARF-GEFs of Arabidopsis interact with the same ARF1 GTPase, whereas only a subset of post-Golgi ARF-GEFs also interacts with ARFA, as assayed by immunoprecipitation. Both ARF1 and ARFA were detected at the Golgi stacks and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) by both live-imaging with the confocal microscope and nano-gold labeling followed by EM analysis. ARFB representing another plant-specific putative ARF GTPase was detected at both the plasma membrane and the TGN. The activation-impaired form (T31N) of ARF1, but neither ARFA nor ARFB, interfered with development, although ARFA-T31N interfered, like ARF1-T31N, with the GDP-GTP exchange. Mutant plants lacking both ARFA and ARFB transcripts were viable, suggesting that ARF1 is sufficient for all essential trafficking pathways under laboratory conditions. Detailed imaging of molecular markers revealed that ARF1 mediated all known trafficking pathways whereas ARFA was not essential to any major pathway. In contrast, the hydrolysis-impaired form (Q71L) of both ARF1 and ARFA, but not ARFB, had deleterious effects on development and various trafficking pathways. However, the deleterious effects of ARFA-Q71L were abolished by ARFA-T31N inhibiting cognate ARF-GEFs, both in cis (ARFA-T31N,Q71L) and in trans (ARFA-T31N + ARFA-Q71L), suggesting indirect effects of ARFA-Q71L on ARF1-mediated trafficking. The deleterious effects of ARFA-Q71L were also suppressed by strong over-expression of ARF1, which was consistent with a subset of BIG1-4 ARF-GEFs interacting with both ARF1 and ARFA. Indeed, the SEC7 domain of BIG5 activated both ARF1 and ARFA whereas the SEC7 domain of BIG3 only activated ARF1. Furthermore, ARFA-T31N impaired root growth if ARF1-specific BIG3 was knocked out and only ARF1- and ARFA-activating BIG4 was functional. Activated ARF1 recruits different coat proteins to different endomembrane compartments, depending on its activation by different ARF-GEFs. Unlike ARF GTPases, ARF-GEFs not only localize at distinct compartments but also regulate specific trafficking pathways, suggesting that ARF-GEFs might play specific roles in traffic regulation beyond the activation of ARF1 by GDP-GTP exchange.
Project description:The Sec7 domain ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) are found in all eukaryotes, and are involved in membrane remodeling processes throughout the cell. This review is focused on members of the GBF/Gea and BIG/Sec7 subfamilies of Arf GEFs, all of which use the class I Arf proteins (Arf1-3) as substrates, and play a fundamental role in trafficking in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi and endosomal membrane systems. Members of the GBF/Gea and BIG/Sec7 subfamilies are large proteins on the order of 200 kDa, and they possess multiple homology domains. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that both of these subfamilies of Arf GEFs have members in at least five out of the six eukaryotic supergroups, and hence were likely present very early in eukaryotic evolution. The homology domains of the large Arf1 GEFs play important functional roles, and are involved in interactions with numerous protein partners. The large Arf1 GEFs have been implicated in several human diseases. They are crucial host factors for the replication of several viral pathogens, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, mouse hepatitis coronavirus, and hepatitis C virus. Mutations in the BIG2 Arf1 GEF have been linked to autosomal recessive periventricular heterotopia, a disorder of neuronal migration that leads to severe malformation of the cerebral cortex. Understanding the roles of the Arf1 GEFs in membrane dynamics is crucial to a full understanding of trafficking in the secretory and endosomal pathways, which in turn will provide essential insights into human diseases that arise from misregulation of these pathways.
Project description:Membrane dynamic processes including vesicle biogenesis depend on Arf guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) containing a catalytic Sec7 domain and a membrane-targeting module such as a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The catalytic output of cytohesin family Arf GEFs is controlled by autoinhibitory interactions that impede accessibility of the exchange site in the Sec7 domain. These restraints can be relieved through activator Arf-GTP binding to an allosteric site comprising the PH domain and proximal autoinhibitory elements (Sec7-PH linker and C-terminal helix). Small-angle X-ray scattering and negative-stain electron microscopy were used to investigate the structural organization and conformational dynamics of cytohesin-3 (Grp1) in autoinhibited and active states. The results support a model in which hinge dynamics in the autoinhibited state expose the activator site for Arf-GTP binding, while subsequent C-terminal helix unlatching and repositioning unleash conformational entropy in the Sec7-PH linker to drive exposure of the exchange site.
Project description:ARL4D is a developmentally regulated member of the ADP-ribosylation factor/ARF-like protein (ARF/ARL) family of Ras-related GTPases. Although the primary structure of ARL4D is very similar to that of other ARF/ARL molecules, its function remains unclear. Cytohesin-2/ARF nucleotide-binding-site opener (ARNO) is a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) for ARF, and, at the plasma membrane, it can activate ARF6 to regulate actin reorganization and membrane ruffling. We show here that ARL4D interacts with the C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) and polybasic c domains of cytohesin-2/ARNO in a GTP-dependent manner. Localization of ARL4D at the plasma membrane is GTP- and N-terminal myristoylation-dependent. ARL4D(Q80L), a putative active form of ARL4D, induced accumulation of cytohesin-2/ARNO at the plasma membrane. Consistent with a known action of cytohesin-2/ARNO, ARL4D(Q80L) increased GTP-bound ARF6 and induced disassembly of actin stress fibers. Expression of inactive cytohesin-2/ARNO(E156K) or small interfering RNA knockdown of cytohesin-2/ARNO blocked ARL4D-mediated disassembly of actin stress fibers. Similar to the results with cytohesin-2/ARNO or ARF6, reduction of ARL4D suppressed cell migration activity. Furthermore, ARL4D-induced translocation of cytohesin-2/ARNO did not require phosphoinositide 3-kinase activation. Together, these data demonstrate that ARL4D acts as a novel upstream regulator of cytohesin-2/ARNO to promote ARF6 activation and modulate actin remodeling.