Comparison of Functional Compounds and Micronutrients of Chicken Breast Meat by Breeds.
ABSTRACT: The concentrations of functional compounds and micronutrients of chicken breast from native chickens were compared with those from broiler. Totally 200 male chicks from a commercial native chicken (HH) and three newly bred native chicken strains (2A, 2C, and 2D) were reared for about 2 kg of final live weight up to 12 wk. After slaughtered, antioxidant dipeptides, reducing sugar, free amino acids, vitamins, and minerals of the breast muscles were analyzed with those from broilers with similar live weight. Mostly native chicken strains had higher contents of carnosine, anserine, and reducing sugar than the broiler. Especially HH implied the highest values of carnosine and anserine, and 2C did the highest of reducing sugar (p<0.05). Vitamin A contents between native chickens and broiler were not significantly different (p>0.05). The contents of ?-tocopherol were significantly higher in 2C than those of HH or broiler (p<0.05). Native chicken strains contained lower cholesterol levels than the broiler. Broiler had higher contents of P, Mg, and Na than native chickens (p<0.05), but it had lower content of Cu than HH or 2A. The savory free amino acids including glutamic acid was highest in 2A than the other native chickens and broiler (p<0.05). This study confirms that certain new strains of native chickens be a good source in terms of functional compounds and micronutrients which can be attractive health promoting nutritional quality factors.
Project description:Anserine (beta-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-L-histidine), a naturally occurring derivative of carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), is an abundant constituent of skeletal muscles and brain of many vertebrates. Although it has long been proposed to serve as a proton buffer, radicals scavenger and transglycating agent, its physiological function remains obscure. The formation of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferase which exhibits unknown molecular identity. In the present investigation, we have purified carnosine N-methyltransferase from chicken pectoral muscle about 640-fold until three major polypeptides of about 23, 26 and 37 kDa coeluting with the enzyme were identified in the preparation. Mass spectrometry analysis of these polypeptides resulted in an identification of histamine N-methyltransferase-like (HNMT-like) protein as the only meaningful candidate. Analysis of GenBank database records indicated that the hnmt-like gene might be a paralogue of histamine N-methyltransferase gene, while comparison of their protein sequences suggested that HNMT-like protein might have acquired a new activity. Chicken HNMT-like protein was expressed in COS-7 cells, purified to homogeneity, and shown to catalyze the formation of anserine as confirmed by both chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis. Both specificity and kinetic studies carried out on the native and recombinant enzyme were in agreement with published data. Particularly, several compounds structurally related to carnosine, including histamine and L-histidine, were tested as potential substrates for the enzyme, and carnosine was the only methyl group acceptor. The identification of the gene encoding carnosine N-methyltransferase might be beneficial for estimation of the biological functions of anserine.
Project description:Currently, soybean meal constitutes the main protein source for poultry production. However, the environmental and social issues related to soybean production are calling for more sustainable protein sources that can offset soybean requirements in animal production. Hermetia illucens larvae and the microalga spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) have proven to be effective alternatives to soybean meal for poultry production. In this study, the effect of 100% replacement of soy with partially defatted Hermetia illucens larvae and spirulina on the contents of selected endogenous bioactive (anserine, creatine and carnosine) and flavour-related (inosine and inosine-5´-monophosphate, IMP) compounds in chicken breast meat was evaluated. The results showed that the spirulina-based diet lowered the levels of anserine, carnosine and creatine compared to the control diet (3.3 vs. 4.1 mg/g, 0.15 vs. 0.72 mg/g and 1.49 vs. 2.49 mg/g, respectively) while IMP levels tended to be higher in spirulina-fed samples. Compared to the control group, Hermetia illucens-fed samples showed a lower content of bioactive peptides (anserine: 3.6 vs. 4.1 mg/g; carnosine: 0.39 vs. 0.72 mg/g; creatine: 2.03 vs. 2.49 mg/g), albeit to a lesser extent than the spirulina treatment group.
Project description:In order to evaluate the application potential of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heads and skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) heads; proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, carnosine, and anserine contents were analyzed in this study. Rainbow trout heads showed significantly higher protein (29.31 g/100 g FW, FW is abbreviation of fresh weight) and lipid (6.03 g/100 g FW) contents than skipjack tuna heads (18.47 g/100 g FW protein and 4.83 g/100 g FW lipid) (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads exhibited similar amino acid composition. Essential amino acids constituted more than 40% of total amino acids in both rainbow trout head and skipjack tuna head. The fatty acid profile was different between rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads. Rainbow trout heads mainly contained 38.64% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and 38.57% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), whereas skipjack tuna heads mainly contained 54.46% saturated fatty acids (SFAs). Skipjack tuna heads contained 4563 mg/kg FW anserine and 1761 mg/kg FW carnosine, which were both significantly higher than those of rainbow trout heads (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that both rainbow trout heads and skipjack tuna heads may be used as materials for recycling high-quality protein. Meanwhile, rainbow trout heads can be used to extract oil with high contents of unsaturated fatty acids, while skipjack tuna heads may be a source for obtaining carnosine and anserine.
Project description:Anserine (?-alanyl-N(Pi)-methyl-L-histidine), a methylated derivative of carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine), is an abundant constituent of vertebrate skeletal muscles. Although it has been suggested to serve as a proton buffer and radical scavenger, its physiological function remains mysterious. The formation of anserine is catalyzed by carnosine N-methyltransferase, recently identified in chicken as histamine N-methyltransferase-like (HNMT-like) protein. Although the HNMT-like gene is absent in mammalian genomes, the activity of carnosine N-methyltransferase was reported in most mammalian species. In the present investigation, we purified carnosine N-methyltransferase from rat muscles about 2600-fold. Three polypeptides of ? 45, 50, and 70 kDa coeluting with the enzyme activity were identified in the preparation. Mass spectrometry analysis of these polypeptides resulted in the identification of UPF0586 protein C9orf41 homolog as the only meaningful candidate. Rat UPF0586 and its yeast, chicken, and human orthologs were expressed in COS-7 cells and purified to homogeneity. Although all recombinant proteins catalyzed the formation of anserine, as confirmed by chromatographic and mass spectrometry analysis, rat UPF0586 was more active on carnosine than other orthologs. Confocal microscopy of HeLa cells expressing recombinant UPF5086 proteins revealed their presence in both cytosol and nucleus. Carnosine and Gly-His were the best substrates for all UPF0586 orthologs studied, although the enzymes also methylated other l-histidine-containing di- and tripeptides. Finally, cotransfection of COS-7 cells with rat or human UPF0586 and carnosine synthase transformed the cells into efficient anserine producers. We conclude that UPF0586 is mammalian carnosine N-methyltransferase and hypothesize that it may also serve as a peptide or protein methyltransferase in eukaryotes.
Project description:Chicken as a delicious food for a long history, and it is well known that excess fat deposition in broiler chickens will not only induced metabolic diseases, but also lead to adverse effect in the consumer's health. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a major active ingredient of Garcinia Cambogia extracts, had shown to suppress fat accumulation in animals and humans. While, the precise physiological mechanism of HCA has not yet been full clarified, especially its action in broiler chickens. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effect of (-)-HCA on lipid metabolism in broiler chickens.A total of 120 1-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allocated to four groups, with each group was repeated three times with 10 birds. Birds received a commercial diet supplemented with (-)-HCA at 0, 1000, 2000 or 3000 mg/kg, respectively, for a period of 4 weeks ad libitum.Body weight (BW) in the 2000 and 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) than that in control group. A significantly decreased of serum triglyceride (TG) and density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) content were observed in 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA group (P < 0.05). Broiler chickens supplmented with 2000 and 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA had pronouncedly higher hepatic lipase (HL) activity, hepatic glycogen and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) contents in liver (P < 0.05). Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) and thyroxin (T4) contents were significantly higher in 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Supplemental (-)-HCA markedly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) (P < 0.05) mRNA levels, while the mRNA abundance of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase?2 (AMPK?2) (P < 0.05) was significantly increased. In addition, ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) mRNA level (P < 0.05) was significantly decreased in broiler chickens supplemented with 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA. No differences was observed on carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I(CPT-I), while peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) mRNA level (P < 0.05) was significantly increased in broiler chickens supplemented with 2000 and 3000 mg/kg (-)-HCA.Supplemental (-)-HCA inhibited lipogenesis by inhibiting ACLY, SREBP-1c and FAS expression, and accelerated lipolysis through enhancing HL activity and PPAR? expression, which eventually led to the reduced abdominal fat deposition in broiler chickens. Graphical abstract Mechanism of (-)-HCA effect on hepatic lipids metabolism.
Project description:Carnosine is a bioactive food component with several potential health benefits for humans due to its physiological functions. Dietary supplementation with β-alanine or L-histidine can increase the carnosine content of skeletal muscles in chickens. Dietary supplementation with β-alanine or L-histidine has produced a slow-growing chicken variety with high carnosine content in the breast meat; however, the supplementation with L-histidine alone softens the meat toughness, which may affect consumers’ willingness to buy the meat. Gene expression is a key factor that influences meat quality. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that affect carnosine content and meat toughness would allow the production of more value-added slow-growing chickens. We compared global gene expression in chicken breast muscles with differing carnosine contents and meat toughness produced through dietary supplementation with β-alanine or L-histidine. We identified differentially expressed genes involved in regulating myosin, collagen, intramuscular fat, and calpain—factors that may affect meat tenderness. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the insulin-related and adipocytokine signaling pathways were altered by dietary supplementation with β-alanine or L-histidine. These data will be useful for future studies on carnosine content and meat toughness in slow-growing chickens. Overall design: A total of 15 samples consisting of five biological replicates of three feed trials: non-supplementation (control), β-alanine supplementation, and L-histidine supplementation.
Project description:It is generally held that the content of several free amino acids and dipeptides is closely related to the energy-supplying metabolism of skeletal muscles. Metabolic characteristics of muscles are involved in the variability of meat quality due to their ability to influence the patterns of energy metabolism not only in living animal but also during postmortem time. Within this context, this study aimed at establishing whether the concentration of histidine dipeptides can affect muscle postmortem metabolism, examining the glycolytic pathway of 3 chicken muscles (pectoralis major, extensor iliotibialis lateralis, and gastrocnemius internus as glycolytic, intermediate, and oxidative-type, respectively) selected based on their histidine dipeptides content and ultimate pH. Thus, a total of 8 carcasses were obtained from the same flock of broiler chickens (Ross 308 strain, females, 49 d of age, 2.8 kg body weight at slaughter) and selected immediately after evisceration from the line of a commercial processing plant. Meat samples of about 1 cm<sup>3</sup> were excised from bone-in muscles at 15, 60, 120, and 1,440 min postmortem, instantly frozen in liquid nitrogen and used for the determination of pH, glycolytic metabolites, buffering capacity as well as histidine dipeptides content through <sup>1</sup>H-NMR. Overall results suggest that glycolysis in leg muscles ceased already after 2 h postmortem, whereas in breast muscle continued until 24 h, when it exhibited significantly lower pH values (P < 0.05). However, considering its remarkable glycolytic potential, pectoralis major muscle should have exhibited a greater and faster acidification, suggesting that its higher (P < 0.05) histidine dipeptides' content might have prevented a potentially stronger acidification process. Accordingly, breast muscle also showed greater (P < 0.05) buffering ability in the pH range 6.0-7.0. Therefore, anserine and carnosine, being highly positively correlated with muscle's buffering capacity (P < 0.001), might play a role in regulating postmortem pH decline, thus exerting an effect on muscle metabolism during prerigor phase and the quality of the forthcoming meat. Overall results also suggest that total histidine dipeptides content along with muscular ultimate pH represent good indicators for the energy-supplying metabolism of chicken muscles.
Project description:In Japan, the majority of chicken meat is obtained from fast-growing broiler chickens. Because most Japanese chicken breeds have a low meat yield and egg production, many of these breeds are endangered. Recently, the palatability of meat and eggs of native chickens has been reevaluated in the Japanese market. Jidori, which means chicken from the local, is an indigenous local chicken that is more delicious, firmer in texture, and more expensive than the broiler chickens. Most Japanese consumers recognize that the meat of Jidori chicken is richer in flavor than that of the broiler chicken. However, the reason for this rich flavor of the meat of Jidori chicken has not been elucidated. Recently, we found that arachidonic acid (AA) (C20:4n-6), a polyunsaturated fatty acid, is associated with the rich flavor of the meat and eggs of Jidori chicken. The present paper summarizes the discovery of the involvement of AA in the flavor characteristic of the meat and eggs of chicken, and also the genetic regulation of the AA content in the meat and eggs of Jidori chicken.
Project description:Objective:In this study, we evaluated the nutritional value and antioxidant activity of black goat loin (BGL) and black goat rump (BGR) meat. Methods:We evaluated the proximate compositions, collagen and mineral contents, and fatty acid compositions of BGL and BGR with respect to their nutritional value. The levels of bioactive compounds such as L-carnitine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine, and anserine were also measured. The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of BGL and BGR. Results:BGR showed higher collagen, Fe, Ca, P, and Na contents than did BGL (p < 0.05). Notably, the Ca/P ratio was high in both BGR and BGL (1.82 and 1.54, respectively), thus satisfying the recommendation that the Ca/P ratio is between 1 and 2. BGL showed a significantly higher content of desirable fatty acids (stearic acid and total unsaturated fatty acids) than did BGR. In addition, the levels of creatine, carnosine, and anserine in BGL were higher than those in BGR (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the antioxidant activity between BGL and BGR, as assessed by FRAP [both 15.92 mM Trolox equivalent (TE) per gram of DM], ABTS (12.51 and 12.90 mM TE/g DM, respectively), and ORAC (101.25 and 99.06 mM TE/g DM, respectively) assays. Conclusion:This was a primary study conducted to evaluate the differences in nutritional value and antioxidant activity between loin and rump cuts of black goat meat. Our results provide fundamental knowledge that can help understand the properties of black goat meat.
Project description:A molecular study of intestinal samples from 21 broiler flocks with a history of enteritis revealed that 23.8% and 14.3% were positive for chicken astrovirus (CAstV) and avian rotavirus (ARV), respectively. CAstV and group A ARV were simultaneously detected in only one broiler flock. Birds in this group developed the significant intestinal lesions characterized by frothy contents, paleness, and thin intestinal walls. In this report we present an unusual case of runting stunting syndrome (RSS) with a history of high mortality and growth retardation in broiler chickens. We also make the first identification of CAstV and group A ARV in broiler chickens in Korea.