Phosphatidylcholine and its relation to apolipoproteins A-1 and B changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a cohort study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Phosphatidylcholine (PC), the most abundant of the phospholipids, has several metabolic functions in organs such as the liver and the intestine, important structural- and signaling functions in biological membranes, and might have a role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), an operation known to ameliorate metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that serum PC, as a reflection of phospholipid metabolism, changes after RYGB, and that changes are related to weight loss and possibly to changes in glucose metabolism (reflected in the HbA1c-level) as well as to changes in serum Apo A1, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio. METHODS:In a cohort of 220 RYGB patients, we studied changes in serum PC after RYGB in relation to serum Apo A1 and Apo B, the main apolipoproteins in HDL- and LDL/VLDL-particles, respectively, up to 2 years following RYGB-surgery. RESULTS:Serum PC reached its lowest levels 3 months postoperatively to later rebound to preoperative levels 24 months after RYGB. No difference was seen between patients with or without type 2 diabetes. Serum Apo A1 showed a similar pattern whereas serum Apo B concentrations stayed low after the initial decrease after RYGB. As a result, the Apo B / Apo A1 ratio constantly decreased during follow-up. There was a strong positive correlation between PC and Apo A1, and between PC and Apo B, but none between Apo A1 and Apo B. After RYGB surgery, both PC and Apo A1, but not Apo B, correlated positively to weight loss. In relation to total cholesterol, the molar ratio between serum PC and plasma cholesterol increased steadily after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that changes in PC and apolipoproteins after RYGB are highly dynamic, reflecting a large plasticity and capability of accommodating lipid metabolism including PC-, cholesterol- and apolipoprotein metabolism imposed by RYGB surgery, independent of glucose tolerance. We suggest that after RYGB and major weight loss, PC and Apo A1 might have a special role in the altered metabolism of lipoproteins.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:High-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) is inversely associated with incident cardiovascular events, independent of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Obesity is often characterized by impaired high-density lipoprotein function. However, the effects of different bariatric surgical techniques on CEC have not been compared. This study sought to determine the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on CEC. APPROACH AND RESULTS:We prospectively studied severely obese, nondiabetic, premenopausal Hispanic women not using lipid medications undergoing RYGB (n=31) or SG (n=36). Subjects were examined before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between surgical groups. Preoperative CEC correlated most strongly with Apo A1 (apolipoprotein A1) concentration but did not correlate with body mass index, waist:hip, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or measures of insulin resistance. After 6 months, SG produced superior response in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Apo A1 quantity, as well as global and non-ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1)-mediated CEC (P=0.048, P=0.018, respectively) versus RYGB. In multivariable regression models, only procedure type was predictive of changes in CEC (P=0.05). At 12 months after SG, CEC was equivalent to that of normal body mass index control subjects, whereas it remained impaired after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS:SG and RYGB produce similar weight loss, but contrasting effects on CEC. These findings may be relevant in discussions about the type of procedure that is most appropriate for a particular obese patient. Further study of the mechanisms underlying these changes may lead to improved understanding of the factors governing CEC and potential therapeutic interventions to maximally reduce cardiovascular disease risk in both obese and nonobese patients.
Project description:Few studies have examined the changes in lipoproteins over time and how inflammation is associated with lipoprotein concentrations among patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. One possible explanation for the association of low LDL cholesterol concentration and adverse outcomes is that inflammation reduces selected apolipoprotein concentrations.Serum samples were collected from a subsample of patients enrolled into the Comprehensive Dialysis Study every 3 months for up to 1 year. We examined the relation between temporal patterns in levels of inflammatory markers and changes in apolipoproteins (apo) A1 and B and the apo B/A1 ratio using linear mixed effects modeling and adjusting for potential confounders.We enrolled 266 participants from 56 dialysis facilities. The mean age was 62 years, 45% were women and 26% were black. Apo A1 was lower among patients with higher Quetelet's (body mass) index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Apo B was lower among older patients, patients with higher serum creatinine and patients with lower BMI. Over the course of a year, apo A1 changed inversely with serum concentrations of the acute phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and ?1 acid glycoprotein (?1AG), while apo B did not. Changes in ?1AG were more strongly associated with changes in apolipoprotein concentrations than were changes in CRP; increases in ?1AG were associated with decreases in apo A1 and increases in the apo B/A1 ratio.Changes in inflammatory markers were associated with changes in apo A1, but not apo B over 1 year, suggesting that reductions in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with inflammation, either of which could mediate cardiovascular risk, but not supporting a hypothesis linking increased risk of low levels of apo B containing lipoproteins to the risk associated with inflammation.
Project description:Background:Glucose metabolism links closely to cholesterol metabolism. Posttransplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) adversely affects posttransplant outcomes, but its risk factors in relation to cholesterol metabolism have not been fully delineated. The apolipoprotein B/A1 (Apo B/A1) ratio, which is associated with insulin resistance, has not been evaluated in kidney transplant recipients as a risk factor for PTDM. Objective:The objective of this study was to determine whether serum apolipoprotein profiles predict late PTDM, defined as a new onset diabetes occurring greater than 3 months posttransplant. Design:Retrospective chart review of a prevalent population of kidney transplant recipients. Setting:Large transplant center in Ontario, Canada. Patients:We identified 1104 previously nondiabetic adults who received a kidney transplant between January 1, 1998, and December 1, 2015, and were followed at 1 transplant center. Measurements:Recipients provided testing for serum apolipoprotein B (Apo B) and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) concentrations from 2010, either at 3 months posttransplant for new transplant recipients or the next clinic visit for prevalent recipients. Late PTDM defined using Canadian Diabetes Association criteria as occurring ?3 months posttransplant was recorded until May 1, 2016. Methods:All analyses were conducted with R, version 3.4.0 (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Comparisons were made using Student t test, Fisher exact test or chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier methodology with the logrank test, or Cox proportional hazards analysis as appropriate. Covariates for the multivariate Cox proportional hazards models of PTDM as the outcome variable were selected based on significance of the univariate associations and biological plausibility. Results:There were 53 incident late PTDM cases, or 1.71 cases per 100 patient-years. Incident late PTDM differed between the highest and lowest quartiles for Apo B/A1 ratio, 2.47 per 100 patient-years vs 0.88 per 100 patient-years (P = .005 for difference). In multiple Cox regression analysis, first measured serum Apo B/A1 concentration better predicted subsequent PTDM than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; hazard ratio [HR] = 7.80 per unit increase, P = .039 vs HR = 1.05 per unit increase, P = .774). Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations also did not predict PTDM (P = .136). By contrast to Apo B, Apo A1 was protective against PTDM in statin users (HR = 0.17 per unit increase, P = .016). Limitations:Posttransplant diabetes mellitus cases occurring before apolipoprotein testing was implemented were not included in the analysis. Conclusions:Apolipoproteins B and A1 better predict late PTDM than conventional markers of cholesterol metabolism.
Project description:HDL-phospholipids (HDL-PL) play an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most important phospholipid in RCT because it is the essential cholesterol-binding component of lipoproteins and is the acyl donor in the esterification of FC by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). FC efflux to sera is a positive anti-atherogenic function of HDL-PL. Although PC has long been recognized as an anti-atherogenic agent, development of new HDL therapies based on PC has been fraught with issues of efficacy, cost, and safety. Moreover, some methods to increase HDL-PC perturb HDL and release lipid-free apolipoproteins (apo) A-I. We developed a new method, HDL SPLn (SPLn) using a modified detergent removal method that obviates these concerns. SPLn can incorporate PC into HDL and increase HDL-PC>10-fold. This is achieved with no loss of apo A-I. According to size exclusion chromatography and native gradient gel electrophoresis, SPLn raises the HDL particle weight in a dose-dependent way, from approximately 120 to approximately 350kDa. Kinetic analysis of FC efflux to the resulting SPLn particles shows that K(m) and V(max) for SPLn HDL are lower and higher respectively than for native HDL. As a consequence, the catalytic efficiency, V(max)/K(m), increases by more than 400%. Clinically, small increases in serum HDL-PL are associated with significant and profound increases in FC efflux to serum. Treatment of relatively small amounts of plasma by SPLn is a potential method of improving at least one step in RCT.
Project description:In lung cancer (LC), alterations in redox balance are extensively observed and are a consequence of disease as well as co-occurrent with smoking. We previously demonstrated that metabolic disturbances such as trace element status and carbohydrate metabolism alterations are linked with redox status. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between the serum parameters of lipid metabolism and redox balance in LC patients. Serum parameters of lipid metabolism, i.e. total cholesterol (T-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), T-C:HDL-C ratio, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) and Apo-B:Apo-A1 ratio, as well as systemic redox status, i.e. total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), vitamin E (VE), vitamin C (VC), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes (CD), and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) were determined in 92 LC patients and 82 control subjects (CS). LC women had significantly lower T-C and LDL-C, and higher TG, while HDL-C, Apo-A1 and Apo-B were significantly decreased in LC patients regardless of sex, when compared to CS. LC men had alterations in the systemic total redox balance such as lower TAS and higher OSI than CS men. LC women had lower VC, but VE was decreased in LC patients, regardless of sex. We observed higher lipid peroxidation in LC patients expressed via higher 4-HNE and CD. Systemic redox disturbances were associated with serum lipid alterations: TOS and OSI were positively correlated with T-C:HDL-C ratio and Apo-B:Apo-A1 ratio and negatively with HDL-C. The parameters of lipid peroxidation CD and MDA were significantly associated with variables reflecting lipid disturbances. The observed correlations were strengthened by general overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and non-smoking status. In conclusion, parameters related to lipid alterations are associated with oxidative stress in LC patients. The largest contribution from lipid parameters was revealed for T-C:HDL-C ratio, HDL-C and Apo-B:Apo-A1 ratio, while the largest contribution from redox status was revealed for OSI and VE. Overweight, obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and non-smoking status intensified these relationships.
Project description:Aortic stenosis (AS) has different clinical phenotypes, including AS with or without concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD). It is unknown whether these phenotypes share the same risk factors. In particular, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] and apolipoproteins (Apo) are associated with AS, but it is unknown whether these associations differ among phenotypes. In this prospective analysis we examined the impact of Lp(a) and Apo in subgroups of patients with AS.We identified 336 patients (mean age at survey 56.7 years, 48% female) who underwent surgery for AS after a median 10.9 years (interquartile range 9.3 years), participants in 1 of 3 large population surveys. For each patient, 2 matched referents were allocated. Lp(a) and Apo were analyzed in the baseline samples. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate risks related to a 1 (ln) standard deviation increase in Lp(a) and the ratio of Apo B to Apo A1 (Apo B/A1 ratio). High levels of Lp(a) predicted surgery for AS in 203 patients with concomitant CAD (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals]) (1.29 [1.07-1.55]), but not in 132 patients without CAD (1.04 [0.83-1.29]) in the fully adjusted model. Similarly, a high Apo B/A1 ratio predicted surgery in patients with concomitant CAD (1.43 [1.16-1.76]) but not in those without CAD (0.87 [0.69-1.10]).High levels of Lp(a) and a high Apo B/A1 ratio were associated with surgery for AS in patients with concomitant CAD but not in those with isolated AS. This finding may lead to a new avenue of research for targeted risk factor interventions in this population.
Project description:This study is to explore the prognostic significance of serum lipid profiles in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). The study retrospectively enrolled 307 MM patients in Zhongshan Hospital, Shanghai, China, from 2007 to 2016. We evaluated the prognostic significance of the pre-diagnostic serum lipid profile [cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) and Apolipoprotein B (Apo B)]. Prognostic factors identified through univariate and multivariate analysis were used to construct a new model based on Lasso Cox regression. Results indicated that lipid levels showed significant difference between ISS stages: Apo A1, Apo B, Cholesterol and LDL levels were lower in late ISS stage. However, only Apo A1 showed statistically significance in overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and cause specific survival (CSS) (P=0.038, P=0.028, P=0.011) in univariate Cox regression. Patients with higher Apo A1 displayed longer OS (median OS, 67 months vs. 30 months; P<0.001). Also, Apo A1 was revealed to be an independent prognostic indicator through multivariate analysis. Combining the Apo A1 level, Zhongshan Score model was constructed with Lasso regression for prognosis prediction. This model exhibited higher accuracy than International Staging System (ISS) and Durie and Salmon (DS) system. In conclusion, among all the serum lipid profiles, serum Apo A1 is a powerful prognostic indicator for patients with MM.
Project description:After Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, the intestine undergoes structural and metabolic reprogramming and appears to enhance use of energetic fuels including glucose and amino acids (AAs), changes that may be related to the surgery's remarkable metabolic effects. Consistently, RYGB alters serum levels of AAs and other metabolites, perhaps reflecting mechanisms for metabolic improvement. To home in on the intestinal contribution, we performed metabolomic profiling in portal venous (PV) blood from lean, Long Evans rats after RYGB vs sham surgery. We found that one-carbon metabolism (OCM), nitrogen metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism were significantly enriched in PV blood. Nitrogen, OCM, and sphingolipid metabolism as well as ubiquinone biosynthesis were also overrepresented among metabolites uniquely affected in PV vs peripheral blood in RYGB-operated but not sham-operated animals. Peripheral blood demonstrated changes in AA metabolism, OCM, sphingolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Despite enrichment for many of the same pathways, the overall metabolite fingerprint of the 2 compartments did not correlate, highlighting a unique role for PV metabolomic profiling as a window into gut metabolism. AA metabolism and OCM were enriched in peripheral blood both from humans and lean rats after RYGB, demonstrating that these conserved pathways might represent mechanisms for clinical improvement elicited by the surgery in patients. Together, our data provide novel insight into RYGB's effects on the gut-liver axis and highlight a role for OCM as a key metabolic pathway affected by RYGB.
Project description:Studies in adults have reported associations of low circulating total 25-hydroxyvitamin D with increased cardiovascular disease and risk factors. Evidence of associations in children, however, is limited, and it is unknown whether associations with risk factors differ for each 25-hydroxyvitamin D analog [25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) (25[OH]D(2)) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) (25[OH]D(3))].The objective of the study was to compare associations of 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) with cardiovascular risk factors in children.The design of the study was a cross-sectional study of 4274 children (mean age 9.9 yr) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.The main outcomes included blood pressure, lipids [triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)], apolipoproteins (Apo-A1 and Apo-B), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, and IL-6.In confounder-adjusted models, 25(OH)D(2) was inversely associated with Apo-A1 (change per doubling of exposure: -0.74 mg/dl; 95% confidence interval -0.14, -0.04) and triglycerides (relative percentage change per doubling of exposure: -1.64%; -3.27, 0.01) and positively associated with C-reactive protein (8.42%; 3.40, 13.58) and IL-6 (5.75%; 1.83, 9.25). 25(OH)D(3) was positively associated with HDL-C (0.04 mmol/liter; 0.02, 0.06), Apo-A1 (1.96 mg/dl; 0.65, 3.24), and adiponectin (0.47 ?g/ml; 0.15, 0.79). There was statistical evidence that associations of 25(OH)D(2) and 25(OH)D(3) with HDL-C, Apo-A1, and IL-6 differed from each other (all P values for differences ?0.02).Higher circulating 25(OH)D(3) was associated with cardioprotective levels of HDL-C, Apo-A1, and adiponectin in children. Associations of 25(OH)D(2) with cardiovascular risk factors were in mixed directions. It is necessary to see whether these associations are replicated in large prospective studies.
Project description:Circulating apolipoprotein-defined lipoprotein subclasses (ADLS) and apolipoproteins predict vascular events in the general and type 2 diabetes populations, but data in T1D are limited. We examined associations of ADLS, serum apolipoproteins, and conventional lipids with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) measured contemporaneously and 6 years later in 417 T1D participants [men: n = 269, age 42 ± 6 y (mean ± SD); women: n = 148, age 39 ± 8 y] in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study, the follow-up of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Date were analyzed by multiple linear regression stratified by sex, and adjusted for time-averaged hemoglobin A1C, diabetes duration, hypertension, BMI, albuminuria, DCCT randomization, smoking, statin treatment, and ultrasound devices. In cross-sectional analyses, lipoprotein B (Lp-B), Lp-B:C, Lp-B:E+Lp-B:C:E, Apo-A-II, Apo-B, Apo-C-III-HP (heparin precipitate; i.e., Apo-C-III in Apo-B-containing lipoproteins), and Apo-E were positively associated with common and/or internal carotid IMT in men, but only Apo-C-III (total) was (positively) associated with internal carotid IMT in women. In prospective analyses, Lp-B, Apo-B, and Apo-C-III-HP were positively associated with common and/or internal carotid IMT in men, while Lp-A1:AII and Apo-A1 were inversely associated with internal carotid IMT in women. The only significant prospective association between conventional lipids and IMT was between triacylglycerols and internal carotid IMT in men. ADLS and apolipoprotein concentrations may provide sex-specific biomarkers and suggest mechanisms for IMT in people with T1D.