Two bifunctional inositol pyrophosphate kinases/phosphatases control plant phosphate homeostasis.
ABSTRACT: Many eukaryotic proteins regulating phosphate (Pi) homeostasis contain SPX domains that are receptors for inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsP), suggesting that PP-InsPs may regulate Pi homeostasis. Here we report that deletion of two diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinases VIH1/2 impairs plant growth and leads to constitutive Pi starvation responses. Deletion of phosphate starvation response transcription factors partially rescues vih1 vih2 mutant phenotypes, placing diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinases in plant Pi signal transduction cascades. VIH1/2 are bifunctional enzymes able to generate and break-down PP-InsPs. Mutations in the kinase active site lead to increased Pi levels and constitutive Pi starvation responses. ATP levels change significantly in different Pi growth conditions. ATP-Mg2+ concentrations shift the relative kinase and phosphatase activities of diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinases in vitro. Pi inhibits the phosphatase activity of the enzyme. Thus, VIH1 and VIH2 relay changes in cellular ATP and Pi concentrations to changes in PP-InsP levels, allowing plants to maintain sufficient Pi levels.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol phosphates (PP-InsPs) are an evolutionarily ancient group of signalling molecules that are essential to cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the detailed mechanisms of PP-InsP signalling begin to emerge, synthetic analogues of PP-InsPs containing stabilised mimics of the labile diphosphate group can provide valuable investigational tools. We synthesised 5-PCF2Am-InsP5 (1), a novel fluorinated phosphonate analogue of 5-PP-InsP5, and obtained an X-ray crystal structure of 1 in complex with diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 (PPIP5K2). 5-PCF2Am-InsP5 binds to the kinase domain of PPIP5K2 in a similar orientation to that of the natural substrate 5-PP-InsP5 and the PCF2Am structure can mimic many aspects of the diphosphate group in 5-PP-InsP5. We propose that 1, the structural and electronic properties of which are in some ways complementary to those of existing phosphonoacetate and methylenebisphosphonate analogues of 5-PP-InsP5, may be a useful addition to the expanding array of chemical tools for the investigation of signalling by PP-InsPs. The PCF2Am group may also deserve attention for wider application as a diphosphate mimic.
Project description:We synthesised analogues of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (PP-InsPs) in which the diphosphate is replaced by an ?-phosphonoacetic acid (PA) ester. Structural analysis revealed that 5-PA-InsP(5) mimics 5-PP-InsP(5) binding to the kinase domain of PPIP5K2; both molecules were phosphorylated by the enzyme. PA-InsPs are promising candidates for further studies into the biology of PP-InsPs.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol phosphates (PP-InsPs) are inositol phosphates (InsPs) that contain PP (diphosphate) groups. Converting a phosphate group in an InsP into a diphosphate has been reported to enhance affinity for some binding proteins. We synthesised 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2, the first diphosphate analogue of the intracellular signalling molecule InsP3, and examined its effects on InsP3 receptors, which are intracellular Ca2+ channels. 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 was indistinguishable from InsP3 in its ability to bind to and activate type 1 InsP3 receptors, indicating that the diphosphate modification of InsP3 affected neither affinity nor efficacy. Nevertheless, 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 is the most potent 1-phosphate modified analogue of InsP3 yet identified. PP-InsPs are generally hydrolysed by diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolases (DIPPs), but 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 was not readily metabolised by human DIPPs. Differential scanning fluorimetry showed that 1-PP-Ins(4,5)P2 stabilises DIPP proteins, but to a lesser extent than naturally occurring substrates 1-PP-InsP5 and 5-PP-InsP5. The non-hydrolysable InsP7 analogues 1-PCP-InsP5 and 5-PCP-InsP5 showed comparable stabilising abilities to their natural counterparts and may therefore be promising substrate analogues for co-crystallisation with DIPPs.
Project description:Schizosaccharomyces pombe Aps1 is an enzyme that degrades both diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap(n)A, n =5 or 6) and diphosphoinositol polyphosphates [diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-InsP(5)) and bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate ([PP](2)-InsP(4))] in vitro. The in vivo substrates of Aps1 are unknown. We report here the identification of Ap(5)A, PP-InsP(5), [PP](2)-InsP(4) and a novel diphosphoinositol polyphosphate ([PP](x)-InsP(x)) in S. pombe using HPLC methods. Ap(5)A was present at 0.06 pmol/mg of protein (approx. 4 nM). PP-InsP(5), [PP](x)-InsP(x) and [PP](2)-InsP(4) were present at 15 pmol/mg (approx. 1.1 microM), 15 pmol/mg (approx. 1.1 microM) and 30 pmol/mg (approx. 2.2 microM) respectively, while the intracellular concentration of InsP(6) was 0.5 nmol/mg of protein (approx. 36 microM). Disruption of aps1 resulted in a 52% decrease in Ap(6)A hydrolase activity in vitro, no detectable change in the intracellular Ap(5)A concentration, and 3-fold increased intracellular concentrations of PP-Ins P(5) and [PP](x)-InsP(x). Disruption of aps1 resulted in no detectable change in morphology or growth rate in minimal or rich media at 30 degrees C. Overexpression of aps1 via two different plasmids that resulted in 60% and 6-fold increases above wild-type enzymic activity in vitro caused no detectable changes in the intracellular concentrations of [PP](2)-InsP(4), [PP](x)-InsP(x) or PP-InsP(5), but paradoxical increases of approx. 2.5- and 55-fold respectively in the intracellular Ap(5)A concentration. Overexpression of aps1 also resulted in a reduced growth rate and in morphological changes, including swollen, rounded and multiseptate cells. No phenotypic changes or changes in intracellular Ap(5)A occurred upon overexpression of aps1 E93Q, which encodes a mutated Aps1 lacking significant enzymic activity. We conclude that Aps1 degrades PP-InsP(5) and [PP](x)-InsP(x) in vivo.
Project description:Inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) phosphorylate inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) to yield 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-[PP]-InsP(5) or InsP(7)). In this study, we report the characterization of a selective inhibitor, N(2)-(m-(trifluoromethy)lbenzyl) N(6)-(p-nitrobenzyl)purine (TNP), for these enzymes. TNP dose-dependently and selectively inhibited the activity of IP6K in vitro and inhibited InsP(7) and InsP(8) synthesis in vivo without affecting levels of other inositol phosphates. TNP did not inhibit either human or yeast Vip/PPIP5K, a newly described InsP(6)/InsP(7) 1/3-kinase. Overexpression of IP6K1, -2, or -3 in cells rescued TNP inhibition of InsP(7) synthesis. TNP had no effect on the activity of a large number of protein kinases, suggesting that it is selective for IP6Ks. TNP reversibly reduced InsP(7)/InsP(8) levels. TNP in combination with genetic studies was used to implicate the involvement of two pathways for synthesis of InsP(8) in yeast. TNP induced a fragmented vacuole phenotype in yeast, consistent with inhibition of Kcs1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae IP6K. In addition, it also inhibited insulin release from Min6 cells in a dose-dependent manner further implicating InsP(7) in this process. TNP thus provides a means of selectively and rapidly modulating cellular InsP(7) levels, providing a new and versatile tool to study the biological function and metabolic relationships of inositol pyrophosphates.
Project description:Diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 (PPIP5K2) is one of the mammalian PPIP5K isoforms responsible for synthesis of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (inositol pyrophosphates; PP-InsPs), regulatory molecules that function at the interface of cell signaling and organismic homeostasis. The development of drugs that inhibit PPIP5K2 could have both experimental and therapeutic applications. Here, we describe a synthetic strategy for producing naturally occurring 5-PP-InsP4, as well as several inositol polyphosphate analogs, and we study their interactions with PPIP5K2 using biochemical and structural approaches. These experiments uncover an additional ligand-binding site on the surface of PPIP5K2, adjacent to the catalytic pocket. This site facilitates substrate capture from the bulk phase, prior to transfer into the catalytic pocket. In addition to demonstrating a "catch-and-pass" reaction mechanism in a small molecule kinase, we demonstrate that binding of our analogs to the substrate capture site inhibits PPIP5K2. This work suggests that the substrate-binding site offers new opportunities for targeted drug design.
Project description:Inositol-based signaling molecules are central eukaryotic messengers and include the highly phosphorylated, diffusible inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) and inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs). Despite the essential cellular regulatory functions of InsPs and PP-InsPs (including telomere maintenance, phosphate sensing, cell migration, and insulin secretion), the majority of their protein targets remain unknown. Here, the development of InsP and PP-InsP affinity reagents is described to comprehensively annotate the interactome of these messenger molecules. By using the reagents as bait, >150 putative protein targets were discovered from a eukaryotic cell lysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Gene Ontology analysis of the binding partners revealed a significant overrepresentation of proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, glucose metabolism, ribosome biogenesis, and phosphorylation-based signal transduction pathways. Notably, we isolated and characterized additional substrates of protein pyrophosphorylation, a unique posttranslational modification mediated by the PP-InsPs. Our findings not only demonstrate that the PP-InsPs provide a central line of communication between signaling and metabolic networks, but also highlight the unusual ability of these molecules to access two distinct modes of action.
Project description:We have characterized the positional specificity of the mammalian and yeast VIP/diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase (PPIP5K) family of inositol phosphate kinases. We deployed a microscale metal dye detection protocol coupled to a high performance liquid chromatography system that was calibrated with synthetic and biologically synthesized standards of inositol pyrophosphates. In addition, we have directly analyzed the structures of biological inositol pyrophosphates using two-dimensional 1H-1H and 1H-31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Using these tools, we have determined that the mammalian and yeast VIP/PPIP5K family phosphorylates the 1/3-position of the inositol ring in vitro and in vivo. For example, the VIP/PPIP5K enzymes convert inositol hexakisphosphate to 1/3-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate. The latter compound has not previously been identified in any organism. We have also unequivocally determined that 1/3,5-(PP)2-IP4 is the isomeric structure of the bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate that is synthesized by yeasts and mammals, through a collaboration between the inositol hexakisphosphate kinase and VIP/PPIP5K enzymes. These data uncover phylogenetic variability within the crown taxa in the structures of inositol pyrophosphates. For example, in the Dictyostelids, the major bis-diphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate is 5,6-(PP)2-IP4 ( Laussmann, T., Eujen, R., Weisshuhn, C. M., Thiel, U., Falck, J. R., and Vogel, G. (1996) Biochem. J. 315, 715-725 ). Our study brings us closer to the goal of understanding the structure/function relationships that control specificity in the synthesis and biological actions of inositol pyrophosphates.
Project description:The phosphorylated inositol diphosphates, including the diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate regioisomers, play critical roles in signal transduction and cellular regulation. In particular, the IP(7) isomer 5-PP-Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5) is implicated in a nonenzymatic phosphate transfer converting a protein serine phosphate residue to a serine diphosphate. A scalable, practical new synthesis of 5-PP-Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5) is described that also allows access to a variety of IP(7) and IP(8) regioisomers. The identity of the synthetic 5-PP-Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5) was validated using IP6K1 to catalyze the conversion of IP(7) + ADP to ATP + IP(6).
Project description:Mammalian cells utilize multiple signaling mechanisms to protect against the osmotic stress that accompanies plasma membrane ion transport, solute uptake, and turnover of protein and carbohydrates (Schliess, F., and Haussinger, D. (2002) Biol. Chem. 383, 577-583). Recently, osmotic stress was found to increase synthesis of bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate ((PP)2-InsP4), a high energy inositol pyrophosphate (Pesesse, X., Choi, K., Zhang, T., and Shears, S. B. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 43378-43381). Here, we describe the purification from rat brain of a diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase (PPIP5K) that synthesizes (PP)2-InsP4. Partial amino acid sequence, obtained by mass spectrometry, matched the sequence of a 160-kDa rat protein containing a putative ATP-grasp kinase domain. BLAST searches uncovered two human isoforms (PPIP5K1 (160 kDa) and PPIP5K2 (138 kDa)). Recombinant human PPIP5K1, expressed in Escherichia coli, was found to phosphorylate diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (PP-InsP5) to (PP)2-InsP4 (Vmax = 8.3 nmol/mg of protein/min; Km = 0.34 microM). Overexpression in human embryonic kidney cells of either PPIP5K1 or PPIP5K2 substantially increased levels of (PP)2-InsP4, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead PPIP5K1(D332A) mutant had no effect. PPIP5K1 and PPIP5K2 were more active against PP-InsP5 than InsP6, both in vitro and in vivo. Analysis by confocal immunofluorescence showed PPIP5K1 to be distributed throughout the cytoplasm but excluded from the nucleus. Immunopurification of overexpressed PPIP5K1 from osmotically stressed HEK cells (0.2 M sorbitol; 30 min) revealed a persistent, 3.9 +/- 0.4-fold activation when compared with control cells. PPIP5Ks are likely to be important signaling enzymes.