Glioblastoma Recurrence and the Role of O6-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Promoter Methylation.
ABSTRACT: Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is often attributed to acquired resistance to the standard chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ). Promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) has been associated with sensitivity to TMZ, whereas increased expression of MGMT has been associated with TMZ resistance. Clinical studies have observed a downward shift in MGMT methylation percentage from primary to recurrent stage tumors; however, the evolutionary processes that drive this shift and more generally the emergence and growth of TMZ-resistant tumor subpopulations are still poorly understood. Here, we develop a mathematical model, parameterized using clinical and experimental data, to investigate the role of MGMT methylation in TMZ resistance during the standard treatment regimen for GBM-surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. We first found that the observed downward shift in MGMT promoter methylation status between detection and recurrence cannot be explained solely by evolutionary selection. Next, our model suggests that TMZ has an inhibitory effect on maintenance methylation of MGMT after cell division. Finally, incorporating this inhibitory effect, we study the optimal number of TMZ doses per adjuvant cycle for patients with GBM with high and low levels of MGMT methylation at diagnosis.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant type of primary brain tumor with a very poor prognosis. The actual standard protocol of treatment for GBM patients consists of radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide (TMZ). However, the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment is limited due to tumor recurrence and TMZ resistance. Recently isolated, glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are thought to represent the population of tumorigenic cells responsible for GBM resistance and recurrence following surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, MGMT (O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase) methylation is considered as one of the principal mechanisms contributing to TMZ sensitivity of GBM. In this study we have isolated GSCs from 10 adult GBM patients and investigated the relationship between MGMT methylation status and Temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity of these lines grown either in stem-like or differentiation promoting conditions. Sensitivity to TMZ was significantly associated with MGMT methylation status in cells committed to differentiation but not in stem-like cells. In addition, patients harboring highly methylated MGMT promoters had a longer overall survival. These results reveal the importance of the differentiation process when considering the predictive value of MGMT status in GSCs for clinical response to TMZ.
Project description:Background and objective:Promoter status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been widely established as a clinically relevant factor in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, in addition to varied therapy schedule, the prognosis of GBM patients is also affected by variations of age, race, primary or recurrent tumor. This study comprehensively investigated the association between MGMT promoter status and prognosis in overall GBM patients and in different GBM subtype including new diagnosed patients, recurrent patients and elderly patients. Methods:A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases to identify literatures (published from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2017) that evaluated the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and prognosis of GBM patients. Results:Totally, 66 studies including 7,886 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall GBM patients with a methylated status of MGMT receiving temozolomide (TMZ)-containing treatment had better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) [OS: hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.52, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.017; PFS: HR?=?0.48, 95% CI 0.40-0.57, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.014], but no significant advantage on OS or PFS in GBM patients with TMZ-free treatment was observed (OS: HR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p?=?0.08, Bon?=?1; PFS: HR?=?0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.02, p?=?0.068, Bon?=?0.748). These different impacts of MGMT status on OS were similar in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM. Among patients receiving TMZ-free treatment, survival benefit in Asian patients was not observed anymore after Bonferroni correction (Asian OS: HR?=?0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24, I2?=?0%; PFS: HR?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.94, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24). No benefit was observed in Caucasian receiving TMZ-free therapy regardless of Bonferroni adjustment. Conclusion:The meta-analysis highlights the universal predictive value of MGMT methylation in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM patients. For elderly methylated GBM patients, TMZ alone therapy might be a more suitable option than radiotherapy alone therapy. Future clinical trials should be designed in order to optimize therapeutics in different GBM subpopulation.
Project description:Concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) followed by adjuvant TMZ is standard treatment for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), although the relative contribution of concurrent versus adjuvant TMZ is unknown. In this study, the efficacy of TMZ/RT was tested with a panel of 20 primary GBM xenografts.Mice with intracranial xenografts were treated with TMZ, RT, TMZ/RT, or placebo. Survival ratio for a given treatment/line was defined as the ratio of median survival for treatment vs. placebo.The median survival ratio was significantly higher for O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylated tumors versus unmethylated tumors following treatment with TMZ (median survival ratio, 3.6 vs. 1.5, respectively; p = 0.008) or TMZ/RT (5.7 vs. 2.3, respectively; p = 0.001) but not RT alone (1.7 vs. 1.6; p = 0.47). In an analysis of variance, MGMT methylation status and p53 mutation status were significantly associated with treatment response. When we analyzed the additional survival benefit conferred specifically by combined therapy, only a subset (5 of 11) of MGMT methylated tumors derived substantial additional benefit from combined therapy, while none of the MGMT unmethylated tumors did. Consistent with a true radiosensitizing effect of TMZ, sequential treatment in which RT (week 1) was followed by TMZ (week 2) proved significantly less effective than TMZ followed by RT or concurrent TMZ/RT (survival ratios of 4.0, 9.6 and 12.9, respectively; p < 0.0001).Concurrent treatment with TMZ and RT provides significant survival benefit only in a subset of MGMT methylated tumors and provides superior antitumor activity relative to sequential administration of RT and TMZ.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant high-grade glioma with a poor clinical outcome. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line GBM chemotherapy; however, patients commonly develop resistance to its effects.We investigated the antitumor activity of CAT3 in TMZ-resistant glioblastoma cell lines U251/TMZ and T98G. Orthotopic and subcutaneous mice tumor models were used to investigate the effects of various treatment regimes.We found that PF403, the active metabolite of CAT3, inhibited proliferation of both cell lines. PF403 repressed the Hedgehog signaling pathway in the U251/TMZ cell line, reduced O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression, and abolished the effects of the Shh pathway. Moreover, PF403 blocked the Hedgehog signaling pathway in T98G MGMT-expressing cells and downregulated the expression of MGMT. CAT3 suppressed growth in the U251/TMZ orthotopic and T98G subcutaneous xenograft tumor models in vivo. We also demonstrated that inhibition of the Hedgehog pathway by PF403 counteracted TMZ resistance and enhanced the antitumor activity of TMZ in vitro and in vivo.These results indicate that CAT3 is a potential therapeutic agent for TMZ-resistant GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent currently used as first-line therapy for gliomas treatment due to its DNA-damaging effect. However, drug resistance occurs, preventing multi-cycle use of this chemotherapeutic agent. One of the major mechanisms of cancer drug resistance is enhanced activity of a DNA repair enzyme, O(6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), which counteracts chemotherapy-induced DNA alkylation and is a key component of chemoresistance. MGMT repairs TMZ-induced DNA lesions, O(6)-meG, by transferring the alkyl group from guanine to a cysteine residue. This review provides an overview of recent advances in the field, with particular emphasis on the inhibitors of MGMT and underlying mechanisms. Literature search was performed through PubMed and all relevant articles were reviewed, with particular attention to MGMT, its role in TMZ-resistant gliomas, effects of MGMT inhibitors and the underlying mechanisms. Several strategies are currently being pursued to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TMZ via inhibition of MGMT to reduce chemoresistance and improve overall survival. MGMT may be a promising target for the treatment of TMZ-resistant gliomas.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumour with a median overall survival of 15 months. To treat GBM, patients currently undergo a surgical resection followed by exposure to radiotherapy and concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. However, this protocol often leads to treatment failure, with drug resistance being the main reason behind this. To date, many studies highlight the role of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in conferring drug resistance. The mechanism through which MGMT confers resistance is not well studied-particularly in terms of computational models. With only a few reasonable biological assumptions, we were able to show that even a minimal model of MGMT expression could robustly explain TMZ-mediated drug resistance. In particular, we showed that for a wide range of parameter values constrained by novel cell growth and viability assays, a model accounting for only stochastic gene expression of MGMT coupled with cell growth, division, partitioning and death was able to exhibit phenotypic selection of GBM cells expressing MGMT in response to TMZ. Furthermore, we found this selection allowed the cells to pass their acquired phenotypic resistance onto daughter cells in a stable manner (as long as TMZ is provided). This suggests that stochastic gene expression alone is enough to explain the development of chemotherapeutic resistance.
Project description:Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity is a hallmark of glioblastoma (GBM) that facilitates recurrence, treatment resistance, and worse prognosis. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is a significant prognostic marker for Temozolomide (TMZ) resistance in GBM patients. YKL-40 is a molecular marker for the mesenchymal subtype of GBMs and is responsible for TMZ resistance. However, underlying mechanisms by which MGMT epigenetics impacts patient outcomes and the function of YKL-40 are not fully determined. Herein, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments, six human IDH1/2 wild-type glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) were established and studied to further determine a potential interaction of YKL-40 and MGMT promoter methylation. We demonstrated that YKL-40 functioned differently in human IDH1/2 wild-type GSCs. In MGMT promoter-methylated (MGMT-m) GSCs, it acted as a tumor suppressor gene. On the other hand, in MGMT promoter-unmethylated (MGMT-um) GSCs, it promoted tumorigenesis. Notably, the reason that YKL-40 played different roles in GSCs could not be interpreted by the molecular classification of each GSCs, but is a function of MGMT promoter methylation status and involves the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway. YKL-40 mediated TMZ sensitivity by activating DNA damage responses (DDRs) in MGMT-m GSCs, and it mediated resistance to TMZ by inhibiting DDRs in MGMT-um GSCs. Our report demonstrated that MGMT promoter methylation status might influence a gene's function in human cancer. Moreover, our data also highlight the point that gene function should be investigated not only according to the molecular tumor classification, but also the epigenetic signature.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) is surrogate of intrinsic resistance to temozolomide (TMZ). However, mechanisms associated with adaptive resistance evolution of glioblastoma (GBM) relative to MGMT methylation remain unclear. We hereby report a paradoxical yet translational epigenetic regulation of plasticity towards adaptive resistance in GBM. Based on an adaptive resistance model of GBM cells with differential MGMT methylation profiles, MGMT-hypermethylation enhanced genetic and phenotypic plasticity towards adaptive resistance to TMZ while MGMT hypomethylation limited plasticity. The resulting model-associated adaptive resistance gene signature negatively correlated with GBM patient survival. XAF1, a tumor suppressor protein, paradoxically emerged as a mediator of differential plasticities towards adaptive resistance to TMZ through epigenetic regulation. XAF1 promoted resistance both in-vitro and in-vivo. Furthermore, XAF1 expression negatively correlated with XAF1 promoter methylation status, and negatively correlate with GBM patient survival. Collectively, XAF1 appears to have a pradoxical yet translational role in GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent chemotherapy drug used as a first-line treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). O6-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs DNA damage induced by TMZ; hence, elevated MGMT levels usually correlate with TMZ resistance. MGMT promoter methylation is a key regulatory mechanism for MGMT expression and is important in overcoming TMZ therapy resistance. To date, little is known about how MGMT expression is regulated beyond promoter methylation. In this work, we show an alternative mechanism by which MGMT levels are regulated independent of its promoter methylation status. We found that inhibition of the histone deacetylase HDAC8 by either HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI34051 or HDAC8 shRNA decreases MGMT levels in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, the proteasome receptor ADRM1 participates in this MGMT regulation by interacting with HDAC8. Interestingly, this interaction is disrupted by TMZ exclusively in TMZ sensitive cells, suggesting that this MGMT regulatory pathway might be inactivated in TMZ resistant cells. Consequently, HDAC8 inhibition in GBM cell lines increases DNA damage and cell cycle arrest and, eventually, decreases cell viability, likely due to the decrease in MGMT protein levels.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all gliomas. The current standard of care includes surgery followed by concomitant radiation and chemotherapy with the DNA alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). O?-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs the most cytotoxic of lesions generated by TMZ, O?-methylguanine. Methylation of the MGMT promoter in GBM correlates with increased therapeutic sensitivity to alkylating agent therapy. However, several aspects of TMZ sensitivity are not explained by MGMT promoter methylation. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that the base excision repair enzyme alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase (APNG), which repairs the cytotoxic lesions N³-methyladenine and N?-methylguanine, may contribute to TMZ resistance. Silencing of APNG in established and primary TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines endogenously expressing MGMT and APNG attenuated repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage and enhanced apoptosis. Reintroducing expression of APNG in TMZ-sensitive GBM lines conferred resistance to TMZ in vitro and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition, resistance was enhanced with coexpression of MGMT. Evaluation of APNG protein levels in several clinical datasets demonstrated that in patients, high nuclear APNG expression correlated with poorer overall survival compared with patients lacking APNG expression. Loss of APNG expression in a subset of patients was also associated with increased APNG promoter methylation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that APNG contributes to TMZ resistance in GBM and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.