Cardioprotection by the mitochondrial unfolded protein response requires ATF5.
ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is a cytoprotective signaling pathway triggered by mitochondrial dysfunction. UPRmt activation upregulates chaperones, proteases, antioxidants, and glycolysis at the gene level to restore proteostasis and cell energetics. Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a proposed mediator of the mammalian UPRmt. Herein, we hypothesized pharmacological UPRmt activation may protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in an ATF5-dependent manner. Accordingly, in vivo administration of the UPRmt inducers oligomycin or doxycycline 6 h before ex vivo I/R injury (perfused heart) was cardioprotective in wild-type but not global Atf5-/- mice. Acute ex vivo UPRmt activation was not cardioprotective, and loss of ATF5 did not impact baseline I/R injury without UPRmt induction. In vivo UPRmt induction significantly upregulated many known UPRmt-linked genes (cardiac quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis), and RNA-Seq revealed an UPRmt-induced ATF5-dependent gene set, which may contribute to cardioprotection. This is the first in vivo proof of a role for ATF5 in the mammalian UPRmt and the first demonstration that UPRmt is a cardioprotective drug target.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cardioprotection can be induced by drugs that activate the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). UPRmt protection is dependent on activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5). This is the first in vivo evidence for a role of ATF5 in the mammalian UPRmt.
Project description:The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ) is characterized by the transcriptional induction of mitochondrial chaperone and protease genes in response to impaired mitochondrial proteostasis and is regulated by ATF5 and CHOP in mammalian cells. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying the UPRmt are currently unclear. Here, we show that HSF1 is required for activation of mitochondrial chaperone genes, including HSP60, HSP10, and mtHSP70, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts during inhibition of matrix chaperone TRAP1, protease Lon, or electron transfer complex 1 activity. HSF1 bound constitutively to mitochondrial chaperone gene promoters, and we observed that its occupancy was remarkably enhanced at different levels during the UPRmt . Furthermore, HSF1 supported the maintenance of mitochondrial function under the same conditions. These results demonstrate that HSF1 is required for induction of mitochondrial chaperones during the UPRmt , and thus, it may be one of the guardians of mitochondrial function under conditions of impaired mitochondrial proteostasis.
Project description:Mitochondrial dysfunction is pervasive in human pathologies such as neurodegeneration, diabetes, cancer, and pathogen infections as well as during normal aging. Cells sense and respond to mitochondrial dysfunction by activating a protective transcriptional program known as the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which includes genes that promote mitochondrial protein homeostasis and the recovery of defective organelles [1, 2]. Work in Caenorhabditis elegans has shown that the UPR(mt) is regulated by the transcription factor ATFS-1, which is regulated by organelle partitioning. Normally, ATFS-1 accumulates within mitochondria, but during respiratory chain dysfunction, high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), or mitochondrial protein folding stress, a percentage of ATFS-1 accumulates in the cytosol and traffics to the nucleus where it activates the UPR(mt) . While similar transcriptional responses have been described in mammals [3, 4], how the UPR(mt) is regulated remains unclear. Here, we describe a mammalian transcription factor, ATF5, which is regulated similarly to ATFS-1 and induces a similar transcriptional response. ATF5 expression can rescue UPR(mt) signaling in atfs-1-deficient worms requiring the same UPR(mt) promoter element identified in C. elegans. Furthermore, mammalian cells require ATF5 to maintain mitochondrial activity during mitochondrial stress and promote organelle recovery. Combined, these data suggest that regulation of the UPR(mt) is conserved from worms to mammals.
Project description:Mutation in the transmembrane protein 65 gene (TMEM65) results in mitochondrial dysfunction and a severe mitochondrial encephalomyopathy phenotype. However, neither the function of TMEM65 nor the cellular responses to its depletion have been fully elucidated. Hence, we knocked down TMEM65 in human cultured cells and analyzed the resulting cellular responses. Depletion of TMEM65 led to a mild increase in ROS generation and upregulation of the mRNA levels of oxidative stress suppressors, such as NFE2L2 and SESN3, indicating that TMEM65 knockdown induced an oxidative stress response. A mild induction of apoptosis was also observed upon depletion of TMEM65. Depletion of TMEM65 upregulated protein levels of the mitochondrial chaperone HSPD1 and mitochondrial protease LONP1, indicating that mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) was induced in response to TMEM65 depletion. Additionally, we found that the mitochondrial protein import receptor TOMM22 and HSPA9 (mitochondrial Hsp70), were also upregulated in TMEM65-depleted cells. Notably, the depletion of TMEM65 did not lead to upregulation of TOMM22 in an ATF5-dependent manner, although upregulation of LONP1 reportedly occurs in an ATF5-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings suggest that depletion of TMEM65 causes mild oxidative stress and apoptosis, induces UPRmt, and upregulates protein expression of mitochondrial protein import receptor TOMM22 in an ATF5-independent manner. Highlights • Depletion of TMEM65 leads to oxidative stress.• Depletion of TMEM65 induces UPRmt.• Depletion of TMEM65 upregulate TOMM22.
Project description:The mitochondrial DNA m.3243A > G mutation is well-known to cause a variety of clinical phenotypes, including diabetes, deafness, and osteoporosis. Here, we report isolation and expansion of urine-derived stem cells (USCs) from patients carrying the m.3243A > G mutation, which demonstrate bimodal heteroplasmy. USCs with high levels of m.3243A > G mutation displayed abnormal mitochondrial morphology and function, as well as elevated ATF5-dependent mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR<sup>mt</sup>), together with reduced Wnt/β-catenin signaling and osteogenic potentials. Knockdown of ATF5 in mutant USCs suppressed UPR<sup>mt</sup>, improved mitochondrial function, restored expression of GSK3B and WNT7B, and rescued osteogenic potentials. These results suggest that ATF5-dependent UPR<sup>mt</sup> could be a core disease mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and osteoporosis related to the m.3243A > G mutation, and therefore could be a novel putative therapeutic target for this genetic disorder.
Project description:The ability to detect, respond and adapt to mitochondrial stress ensures the development and survival of organisms. Caenorhabditis elegans responds to mitochondrial stress by activating the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to buffer the mitochondrial folding environment, rewire the metabolic state, and promote innate immunity and lifespan extension. Here we show that HDA-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian histone deacetylase (HDAC) is required for mitochondrial stress-mediated activation of UPRmt. HDA-1 interacts and coordinates with the genome organizer DVE-1 to induce the transcription of a broad spectrum of UPRmt, innate immune response and metabolic reprogramming genes. In rhesus monkey and human tissues, HDAC1/2 transcript levels correlate with the expression of UPRmt genes. Knocking down or pharmacological inhibition of HDAC1/2 disrupts the activation of the UPRmt and the mitochondrial network in mammalian cells. Our results underscore an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of HDAC1/2 in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis and regulating longevity.
Project description:Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) balances organelle adaptation and elimination, and mechanistic crosstalk between the underlying molecular processes affects subsequent stress outcomes. FUNDC1 (FUN14 domain containing 1) is a mammalian mitophagy receptor that responds to hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) stress. Here, we provide evidence that FNDC-1 is the <i>C. elegans</i> ortholog of FUNDC1, and that its loss protects against injury in a worm model of HR. This protection depends upon ATFS-1, a transcription factor that is central to the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Global mRNA and metabolite profiling suggest that <i>atfs-1</i>-dependent stress responses and metabolic remodeling occur in response to the loss of <i>fndc-1</i>. These data support a role for FNDC-1 in non-hypoxic MQC, and further suggest that these changes are prophylactic in relation to subsequent HR. Our results highlight functional coordination between mitochondrial adaptation and elimination that organizes stress responses and metabolic rewiring to protect against HR injury.<b>Abbreviations:</b> AL: autolysosome; AP: autophagosome; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; HR: hypoxia-reperfusion; IR: ischemia-reperfusion; lof: loss of function; MQC: mitochondrial quality control; PCA: principle component analysis; PPP: pentonse phosphate pathway; proK (proteinase K);UPRmt: mitochondrial unfolded protein response; RNAi: RNA interference.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is activated when misfolded proteins accumulate within mitochondria and leads to increased expression of mitochondrial chaperones and proteases to maintain protein quality and mitochondrial function. Cardiac mitochondria are essential for contractile function and regulation of cell viability, while mitochondrial dysfunction characterizes heart failure. The role of the UPRmt in the heart is unclear. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to: 1) identify conditions that activate the UPRmt in the heart; and 2) study the relationship among the UPRmt, mitochondrial function, and cardiac contractile function. METHODS:Cultured cardiac myocytes were subjected to different stresses in vitro. Mice were subjected to chronic pressure overload. Tissues and blood biomarkers were studied in patients with aortic stenosis. RESULTS:Diverse neurohumoral or mitochondrial stresses transiently induced the UPRmt in cultured cardiomyocytes. The UPRmt was also induced in the hearts of mice subjected to chronic hemodynamic overload. Boosting the UPRmt with nicotinamide riboside (which augments NAD+ pools) in cardiomyocytes in vitro or hearts in vivo significantly mitigated the reductions in mitochondrial oxygen consumption induced by these stresses. In mice subjected to pressure overload, nicotinamide riboside reduced cardiomyocyte death and contractile dysfunction. Myocardial tissue from patients with aortic stenosis also showed evidence of UPRmt activation, which correlated with reduced tissue cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis and lower plasma levels of biomarkers of cardiac damage (high-sensitivity troponin T) and dysfunction (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide). CONCLUSIONS:These results identify the induction of the UPRmt in the mammalian (including human) heart exposed to pathological stresses. Enhancement of the UPRmt ameliorates mitochondrial and contractile dysfunction, suggesting that it may serve an important protective role in the stressed heart.
Project description:The stress response and cell survival are necessary for normal pancreatic β-cell function, glucose homeostasis, and prevention of diabetes. The homeodomain transcription factor and human diabetes gene pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1 (Pdx1) regulates β-cell survival and endoplasmic reticulum stress susceptibility, in part through direct regulation of activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4). Here we show that Atf5, a close but less-studied relative of Atf4, is also a target of Pdx1 and is critical for β-cell survival under stress conditions. Pdx1 deficiency led to decreased Atf5 transcript, and primary islet ChIP-sequencing localized PDX1 to the Atf5 promoter, implicating Atf5 as a PDX1 target. Atf5 expression was stress inducible and enriched in β cells. Importantly, Atf5 deficiency decreased survival under stress conditions. Loss-of-function and chromatin occupancy experiments positioned Atf5 downstream of and parallel to Atf4 in the regulation of eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4ebp1), a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway component that inhibits protein translation. Accordingly, Atf5 deficiency attenuated stress suppression of global translation, likely enhancing the susceptibility of β cells to stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, we identify ATF5 as a member of the transcriptional network governing pancreatic β-cell survival during stress.
Project description:The mitochondrial matrix is unique in that it must integrate folding and assembly of proteins derived from nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In C. elegans, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) senses matrix protein misfolding and induces a program of nuclear gene expression, including mitochondrial chaperonins, to promote mitochondrial proteostasis. While misfolded mitochondrial matrix-localized ornithine trans-carbamylase (OTC) induces chaperonin expression, our understanding of mammalian UPRmt is rudimentary, reflecting a lack of acute triggers for UPRmt activation. This limitation has prevented analysis of the cellular responses to matrix protein misfolding and the effects of UPRmt on mitochondrial translation to control protein folding loads. Here, we combine pharmacological inhibitors of matrix-localized HSP90/TRAP1 or LON protease, which promote chaperonin expression, with global transcriptional and proteomic analysis to reveal an extensive and acute response of human cells to UPRmt. This response involved widespread induction of nuclear genes, including matrix-localized proteins involved in folding, pre-RNA processing and translation. Functional studies revealed rapid but reversible translation inhibition in mitochondria occurring concurrently with defects in pre-RNA processing due to transcriptional repression and LON-dependent turnover of the mitochondrial pre-RNA processing nuclease MRPP3. This study reveals that acute mitochondrial protein folding stress activates both increased chaperone availability within the matrix and reduced matrix-localized protein synthesis through translational inhibition, and provides a framework for further dissection of mammalian UPRmt. triplicate experiment of 2 conditions (untreated, GTPP treatment)
Project description:The mitochondrial matrix is unique in that it must integrate folding and assembly of proteins derived from nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. In C. elegans, the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) senses matrix protein misfolding and induces a program of nuclear gene expression, including mitochondrial chaperonins, to promote mitochondrial proteostasis. While misfolded mitochondrial matrix-localized ornithine trans-carbamylase (OTC) induces chaperonin expression, our understanding of mammalian UPRmt is rudimentary, reflecting a lack of acute triggers for UPRmt activation. This limitation has prevented analysis of the cellular responses to matrix protein misfolding and the effects of UPRmt on mitochondrial translation to control protein folding loads. Here, we combine pharmacological inhibitors of matrix-localized HSP90/TRAP1 or LON protease, which promote chaperonin expression, with global transcriptional and proteomic analysis to reveal an extensive and acute response of human cells to UPRmt. This response involved widespread induction of nuclear genes, including matrix-localized proteins involved in folding, pre-RNA processing and translation. Functional studies revealed rapid but reversible translation inhibition in mitochondria occurring concurrently with defects in pre-RNA processing due to transcriptional repression and LON-dependent turnover of the mitochondrial pre-RNA processing nuclease MRPP3. This study reveals that acute mitochondrial protein folding stress activates both increased chaperone availability within the matrix and reduced matrix-localized protein synthesis through translational inhibition, and provides a framework for further dissection of mammalian UPRmt. triplicate experiment of 3 conditions (untreated, GTPP treatment, CDDO treatment)