Cardiac μ-opioid receptor contributes to opioid-induced cardioprotection in chronic heart failure.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The therapeutic potential of cardiac μ-opioid receptors in ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury during opioid-modulating diseases, such as heart failure, is unknown. We aimed to explore the changes of cardiac μ-opioid receptor expression during heart failure, and its role in opioid-induced cardioprotection. METHODS:Rats received doxorubicin (DOX) or were subjected to coronary artery ligation to induce heart failure, or received normal saline (NS) as control. Hearts from NS or DOX rats were isolated and subjected to myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in an in vitro perfusion system. The opioid [D-Ala,2N-MePhe,4 Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO), with a high μ-opioid receptor specificity, morphine, and remifentanil were administrated before I/R with or without opioid receptor antagonists, or an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. RESULTS:Cardiac μ-opioid receptor mRNA concentrations were 3.2 times elevated in DOX-treated rats compared with NS rats, while cardiac μ-opioid receptor protein concentrations showed 6.1- and 3.5-fold increases in DOX-treated and post-infarcted rats, respectively. DAMGO reduced I/R-caused infarct size, expressed as the ratio of area at risk, from 0.50 (0.04) to 0.25 (0.03) in failing rat hearts, but had no effect on infarct size in control hearts. DAMGO promoted phosphorylation of ERK and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β only in failing hearts. DAMGO-mediated cardioprotection was blocked by an ERK inhibitor. The μ-opioid receptor antagonist D-Pen-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTOP) prevented morphine- and remifentanil-induced cardioprotection and phosphorylation of ERK and GSK-3β in failing hearts. In contrast, δ- and κ-opioid receptor selective antagonists were less potent than CTOP in the failing hearts. CONCLUSIONS:Cardiac μ-opioid receptors were substantially up-regulated during heart failure, which increased DAMGO-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury.
Project description:We have previously shown that the balance of electrically evoked descending brainstem control of spinal nociceptive reflexes undergoes a switch from excitation to inhibition in preadolescent rats. Here we show that the same developmental switch occurs when μ-opioid receptor agonists are microinjected into the rostroventral medulla (RVM). Microinjections of the μ-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) into the RVM of lightly anaesthetised adult rats produced a dose-dependent decrease in mechanical nociceptive hindlimb reflex electromyographic activity. However, in preadolescent (postnatal day 21 [P21]) rats, the same doses of DAMGO produced reflex facilitation. RVM microinjection of δ-opioid receptor or GABA(A) receptor agonists, on the other hand, caused reflex depression at both ages. The μ-opioid receptor-mediated descending facilitation is tonically active in naive preadolescent rats, as microinjection of the μ-opioid receptor antagonist D-Phe-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Orn-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH(2) (CTOP) into the RVM at this age decreases spinal nociceptive reflexes while having no effect in adults. To test whether tonic opioid central activity is required for the preadolescent switch in RVM descending control, naloxone hydrochloride was delivered continuously from subcutaneous osmotic mini-pumps for 7-day periods, at various postnatal stages. Blockade of tonic opioidergic activity from P21 to P28, but not at earlier or later ages, prevented the normal development of descending RVM inhibitory control of spinal nociceptive reflexes. Enhancing opioidergic activity with chronic morphine over P7 to P14 accelerated this development. These results show that descending facilitation of spinal nociception in young animals is mediated by μ-opioid receptor pathways in the RVM. Furthermore, the developmental transition from RVM descending facilitation to inhibition of pain is determined by activity in central opioid networks at a critical period of periadolescence.
Project description:Chronic opioids induce synaptic plasticity, a major neuronal adaptation. Astrocyte activation in synaptogenesis may play a critical role in opioid tolerance, withdrawal, and dependence. Thrombospondins 1 and 2 (TSP1/2) are astrocyte-secreted matricellular glycoproteins that promote neurite outgrowth as well as dendritic spine and synapse formation, all of which are inhibited by chronic μ opioids. In prior studies, we discovered that the mechanism of TSP1 regulation by μ opioids in astrocytes involves crosstalk between three different classes of receptors, μ opioid receptor, EGFR and TGFβR. Moreover, TGFβ1 stimulated TSP1 expression via EGFR and ERK/MAPK activation, indicating that EGFR is a signaling hub for opioid and TGFβ1 actions. Using various selective antagonists, and inhibitors, here we compared the mechanisms of chronic opioid regulation of TSP1/2 isoform expression in vivo and in immortalized rat cortical astrocytes. TSP1/2 release from astrocytes was also monitored. Acute and chronic μ opioids, morphine, and the prototypic μ ligand, DAMGO, modulated TSP2 protein levels. TSP2 but not TSP1 protein content was up-regulated by acute (3 h) morphine or DAMGO by an ERK/MAPK dependent mechanism. Paradoxically, TSP2 protein levels were altered neither by TGFβ1 nor by astrocytic neurotrophic factors, EGF, CNTF, and BMP4. TSP1/2 immunofluorescence was increased in astrocytes subjected to scratch-wounding, suggesting TSPs may be useful markers for the "reactive" state of these cells and potentially for different types of injury. Previously, we determined that chronic morphine attenuated both neurite outgrowth and synapse formation in cocultures of primary astrocytes and neurons under similar temporal conditions that μ opioids reduced TSP1 protein levels in astrocytes. Here we found that, after the same 8 day treatment, morphine or DAMGO diminished TSP2 protein levels in astrocytes. Therefore, μ opioids may deter synaptogenesis via both TSP1/2 isoforms, but by distinct mechanisms.
Project description:1DMe, a neuropeptide FF (NPFF) analogue, has been shown to produce antinociception and to enhance morphine analgesia in rats after intrathecal administration. To determine whether 1DMe could correct hyperalgesia and restore morphine efficacy in mononeuropathic (MN) and diabetic (D) rats we examined the spinal effect of 1DMe in MN and D rats without and after spinal blockade of mu- and delta-opioid receptors with CTOP and naltrindole, respectively. The influence of 1DMe on morphine-induced antinociception was assessed in the two models using isobolographic analysis. Whereas 1DMe intrathecally injected (0.1, 1, 7.5 microg rat(-1)) was ineffective in normal (N) rats, it suppressed mechanical hyperalgesia (decrease in paw pressure-induced vocalisation thresholds) in both MN and D rats. This effect was completely cancelled by CTOP (10 microg rat(-1)) and naltrindole (1 microg rat(-1)) suggesting that it requires the simultaneous availability of mu- and delta-opioid receptors. The combinations of morphine: 1DMe (80.6:19.4% and 99.8:0.2%, in MN and D rats, respectively) followed by isobolographic analysis, showed a superadditive interaction, relative to the antinociceptive effect of single doses, in D rats only. In N rats, the combination of morphine: 1DMe (0.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.: 1 microg rat(-1), i.t., ineffective doses) resulted in a weak short-lasting antinociceptive effect. These results show a different efficacy of 1DMe according to the pain model used, suggesting that the pro-opioid effects of the NPFF in neuropathic pain are only weak, which should contribute to hyperalgesia and to the impaired efficacy of morphine.
Project description:Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) is the most common and effective weight loss procedure for severe obesity. However, a significant increase in addictive behaviors and new-onset substance use disorder (SUD) are sometimes observed post-surgery. The endogenous opioid system is known to play a major role in motivated behavior and reward, as well as the abuse of substances, including alcohol, tobacco, opioids and highly palatable foods. Here, we examined the effects of RYGB on mu-opioid receptor levels in the brain. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: standard diet with sham surgery (control), ad libitum high-energy high-fat (HF) diet with sham surgery, calorie restricted HF diet with sham surgery (Sham-FR), or HF diet with RYGB surgery. Control and HF groups were fed their respective diets for 8 weeks, with surgery performed on the eighth week. After 9 weeks on their respective diets post-surgery, animals were sacrificed for mu-opioid receptor autoradiography using the [3H] [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4-Gly5-ol]- enkephalin (DAMGO) ligand. Rats with RYGB showed reduced DAMGO binding in the central amygdala compared to sham-operated HF diet controls, and in the hypothalamus compared to high-fat fed Sham-FR. Diet alone did not change [3H] DAMGO binding in any region. These findings show that RYGB surgery, independent of diet or caloric restriction, decreases mu opioid signaling in specific regions important for stress and energy regulation. Thus, RYGB surgery may lead to greater stress sensitivity via downregulated mu opioid signaling in the central amygdala, which may contribute to the observed increased risk in some subjects for addictive behavior.
Project description:Ligand-dependent differences in the regulation and internalization of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) have been linked to the severity of adverse effects that limit opiate use in pain management. MOR activation by morphine or [d-Ala2,N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]enkephalin (DAMGO) causes differences in spatiotemporal signaling dependent on MOR distribution at the plasma membrane. Morphine stimulation of MOR activates a Gαi/o-Gβγ-protein kinase C (PKC) α phosphorylation pathway that limits MOR distribution and is associated with a sustained increase in cytosolic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. In contrast, DAMGO causes a redistribution of the MOR at the plasma membrane (before receptor internalization) that facilitates transient activation of cytosolic and nuclear ERK. Here, we used proximity biotinylation proteomics to dissect the different protein-interaction networks that underlie the spatiotemporal signaling of morphine and DAMGO. We found that DAMGO, but not morphine, activates Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). Both Rac1 and nuclear ERK activity depended on the scaffolding proteins IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein-1 (IQGAP1) and Crk-like (CRKL) protein. In contrast, morphine increased the proximity of the MOR to desmosomal proteins, which form specialized and highly-ordered membrane domains. Knockdown of two desmosomal proteins, junction plakoglobin or desmocolin-1, switched the morphine spatiotemporal signaling profile to mimic that of DAMGO, resulting in a transient increase in nuclear ERK activity. The identification of the MOR-interaction networks that control differential spatiotemporal signaling reported here is an important step toward understanding how signal compartmentalization contributes to opioid-induced responses, including anti-nociception and the development of tolerance and dependence.
Project description:Significant opioid-dependent changes occur during the fourth postnatal week in supraspinal sites (rostroventral medulla [RVM], periaqueductal grey [PAG]) that are involved in the descending control of spinal excitability via the dorsal horn (DH). Here we report developmentally regulated changes in the opioidergic signalling within the PAG and DH, which further increase our understanding of pain processing during early life. Microinjection of the ?-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist DAMGO (30 ng) into the PAG of Sprague-Dawley rats increased spinal excitability and lowered mechanical threshold to noxious stimuli in postnatal day (P)21 rats, but had inhibitory effects in adults and lacked efficacy in P10 pups. A tonic opioidergic tone within the PAG was revealed in adult rats by intra-PAG microinjection of CTOP (120 ng, MOR antagonist), which lowered mechanical thresholds and increased spinal reflex excitability. Spinal administration of DAMGO inhibited spinal excitability in all ages, yet the magnitude of this was greater in younger animals than in adults. The expression of MOR and related peptides were also investigated using TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We found that pro-opiomelanocortin peaked at P21 in the ventral PAG, and MOR increased significantly in the DH as the animals aged. Enkephalin mRNA transcripts preceded the increase in enkephalin immunoreactive fibres in the superficial dorsal horn from P21 onwards. These results illustrate that profound differences in the endogenous opioidergic signalling system occur throughout postnatal development.
Project description:1. There is evidence for interactions between mu and delta opioid systems both in vitro and in vivo. This work examines the hypothesis that interaction between these two receptors can occur intracellularly at the level of G protein in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. 2. The [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding assay was used to measure G protein activation following agonist occupation of opioid receptors. The agonists DAMGO (EC(50), 45 nM) and SNC80 (EC(50), 32 nM) were found to be completely selective for stimulation of [(35)S]-GTP gamma S binding through mu and delta opioid receptors respectively. Maximal stimulation of [(35)S]-GTP gamma S binding produced by SNC80 was 57% of that seen with DAMGO. When combined with a maximally effective concentration of DAMGO, SNC80 caused no additional [(35)S]-GTP gamma S binding. This effect was also seen when measured at the level of adenylyl cyclase. 3. Receptor activation increased the dissociation of pre-bound [(35)S]-GTP gamma S. In addition, the delta agonist SNC80 promoted the dissociation of [(35)S]-GTP gamma S from G proteins initially labelled using the mu agonist DAMGO. Conversely, DAMGO promoted the dissociation of [(35)S]-GTP gamma S from G proteins initially labelled using SNC80. 4. Tolerance to DAMGO and SNC80 in membranes from cells exposed to agonist for 18 h was homologous and there was no evidence for alteration in G protein activity. 5. The findings support the hypothesis that mu- and delta-opioid receptors share a common G protein pool, possibly through a close organization of the two receptors and G protein at the plasma membrane.
Project description:This study presents a direct comparison of the ligand binding and signaling profiles of a mammalian and non-mammalian mu opioid receptor. Opioid ligand binding and agonist potencies were determined for an amphibian (Rana pipiens) mu opioid receptor (rpMOR) and the human mu opioid receptor (hMOR) in transfected, intact Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Identical conditions were employed such that statistically meaningful differences between the two receptors could be determined. Identifying these differences is an important first step in understanding how evolutionary changes affect ligand binding and signaling in vertebrate opioid receptors. As expected, the rank of opioid ligand affinity for rpMOR and hMOR was consistent with the ligands' previously characterized type-selectivity. However, most of the opioid ligands tested had significant differences in affinity for rpMOR and hMOR. For example, the mu-selective agonist, DAMGO ([d-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin), had a 10.9-fold greater affinity (K(i)) for hMOR (K(i)=268 nM) than rpMOR (K(i)=2914 nM). In addition, differences in signaling between these receptors were found by measuring inhibition of cAMP accumulation by morphine or DAMGO. DAMGO was significantly more potent (13.6-fold) in CHO cells expressing hMOR versus those expressing rpMOR. In addition, a significantly greater maximal inhibition was elicited by both opioid agonists in cells expressing hMOR. In summary, this study supports an ongoing effort to better understand how vertebrate evolution has shaped opioid receptor properties and function.
Project description:Chronic opioid treatment leads to agonist-specific effects at the mu opioid receptor. The molecular mechanisms resulting from chronic opioid exposure include desensitization, internalization and down-regulation of membrane-bound mu opioid receptors (MOP). The purpose of this study was to compare the cellular regulation of guinea pig, human and rat MOP expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, following exposure to two clinically important opioids, morphine and methadone. MOP expressing CHO cells were treated in culture with methadone or morphine for up to 48 h. Radioligand diprenorphine and [D-AIa(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO)-stimulated GTP gamma S binding assays were carried out using paired control and opioid-exposed CHO cells. Methadone induced downregulation of the mu opioid receptor, while morphine induced desensitization of the receptor for all three species. Furthermore, morphine predominantly decreased the potency of DAMGO to stimulate GTP gamma S binding, whereas methadone primarily reduced its efficacy. Changes in DAMGO potency and efficacy differed among species and depended on the opioid used to treat the cells. Our results showed similarities between guinea pig and human MOP for morphine-induced desensitization, but identified differences between the two for methadone-induced desensitization. In contrast, human and rat MOP differed in response to morphine treatment, but were not distinct in their response to methadone treatment. The guinea pig is an excellent and established animal model to study opioid effects, but its molecular opioid pharmacology has not been investigated thus far. These results can assist in understanding species differences in the effects of opioid ligands activating the mu opioid receptor.
Project description:Activation of G(i)/G(o)-coupled opioid receptors increases [Ca2+]i (intracellular free-Ca2+ concentration), but only if there is concomitant G(q)-coupled receptor activation. This G(i)/G(o)-coupled receptor-mediated [Ca2+]i increase does not appear to result from further production of Ins P3 [Ins(1,4,5) P3] in SH-SY5Y cells. In the present study, fast-scanning confocal microscopy revealed that activation of mu-opioid receptors alone by 1 muM DAMGO ([L-Ala, NMe-Phe, Gly-ol]-enkephalin) did not stimulate the Ins P3-dependent elementary Ca2+-signalling events (Ca2+ puffs), whereas DAMGO did evoke Ca2+ puffs when applied during concomitant activation of M3 muscarinic receptors with 1 muM carbachol. We next determined whether mu-opioid receptor activation might increase [Ca2+]i by sensitizing the Ins P3 receptor to Ins P3. DAMGO did not potentiate the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i increase evoked by flash photolysis of the caged Ins P3 receptor agonist, caged 2,3-isopropylidene-Ins P3, whereas the Ins P3 receptor sensitizing agent, thimerosal (10 muM), did potentiate this response. DAMGO also did not prolong the rate of decay of the increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by flash photolysis of caged 2,3-isopropylidene-Ins P3. Furthermore, DAMGO did not increase [Ca2+]i in the presence of the cell-membrane-permeable Ins P3 receptor agonist, Ins P3 hexakis(butyryloxymethyl) ester. Therefore it appears that mu-opioid receptors do not increase [Ca2+]i through either Ins P3 receptor sensitization, enhancing the releasable pool of Ca2+ or inhibition of Ca2+ removal from the cytoplasm.