A nano-liposome formulation of the PARP inhibitor Talazoparib enhances treatment efficacy and modulates immune cell populations in mammary tumors of BRCA-deficient mice.
ABSTRACT: Two recently approved PARP inhibitors provide an important new therapeutic option for patients with BRCA-mutated metastatic breast cancer. PARP inhibitors significantly prolong progression-free survival in patients, but conventional oral delivery of PARP inhibitors is hindered by limited bioavailability and off-target toxicities, thus compromising the therapeutic benefits and quality of life for patients. Here, we developed a new delivery system, in which the PARP inhibitor Talazoparib is encapsulated in the bilayer of a nano-liposome, to overcome these limitations. Methods: Nano-Talazoparib (NanoTLZ) was characterized both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy and toxicity of Nano-Talazoparib (NanoTLZ) were evaluated in BRCA-deficient mice. The regulation of NanoTLZ on gene transcription and immunomodulation were further investigated in spontaneous BRCA-deficient tumors. Results: NanoTLZ significantly (p<0.05) prolonged the overall survival of BRCA-deficient mice compared to all of the other experimental groups, including saline control, empty nanoparticles, and free Talazoparib groups (oral and i.v.). Moreover, NanoTLZ was better tolerated than treatment with free Talazoparib, with no significant weight lost or alopecia as was observed with the free drug. After 5 doses, NanoTLZ altered the expression of over 140 genes and induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell proliferation in the tumor. In addition, NanoTLZ favorably modulated immune cell populations in vivo and significantly (p<0.05) decreased the percentage of myeloid derived suppressor cells in both the tumor and spleen compared to control groups. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that delivering nanoformulated Talazoparib not only enhances treatment efficacy but also reduces off-target toxicities in BRCA-deficient mice; the same potential is predicted for patients with BRCA-deficient breast cancer.
Project description:We report the gene expression profile in BRCA deficient tumors after treatment with saline, nanoparticle-formulated Talazoparib and free Talazoparib Overall design: To study the regulation of gene expression after treatment with the PARP inhibitor Talazoparib in BRCA deficient breast cancer, Brca1Co/Co;MMTV-Cre;p53+/- mice were used in this study. Treatment was started when a tumor was 4-5 mm in diameter. Tumors from Brca1Co/Co;MMTV-Cre;p53+/- mice treated with saline, free Talazoparib (i.v.), or NanoTLZ for five doses (0.33mg/kg, three times a week) were harvested. Three samples were collected for each group. Total RNA was isolated using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). The RNA integrity number (RIN) was detected using the Aligent Bioanalyzer at the MSU Research Technology Support Facility (RTSF) Genomics Core facility. RNAseq and the bioinformatics analysis were performed by Novogene (Sacramento, CA).
Project description:Approximately 5-10% of all patients diagnosed with breast cancer have germline BRCA1/2 mutations, which make their disease more susceptible to DNA-damaging agents and a new class of drugs known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. Talazoparib is a new PARP inhibitor that has been recently approved for use in patients with metastatic breast cancer with germline BRCA mutations after a phase III trial showed superior progression-free survival when compared to standard chemotherapy. In this review, we analyze the development of talazoparib as well as its safety profile and the potential role of the combination therapy with standard cytotoxic drugs and with novel therapies.
Project description:Genetic complexity and DNA damage repair defects are common in different cancer types and can induce tumor-specific vulnerabilities. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors exploit defects in the DNA repair pathway through synthetic lethality and have emerged as promising anticancer therapies, especially in tumors harboring deleterious germline or somatic breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA) mutations. However, the utility of PARP inhibitors could be expanded beyond germline BRCA1/2 mutated cancers by causing DNA damage with cytotoxic agents in the presence of a DNA repair inhibitor. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PARP inhibitors include olaparib, rucaparib, and niraparib, while veliparib is in the late stage of clinical development. Talazoparib inhibits PARP catalytic activity, trapping PARP1/2 on damaged DNA, and it has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of metastatic germline BRCA1/2 mutated breast cancers in October 2018. The talazoparib side effect profile more closely resembles traditional chemotherapeutics rather than other clinically approved PARP inhibitors. In this review, we discuss the scientific evidence that has emerged from both experimental and clinical studies in the development of talazoparib. Future directions will include optimizing combination therapy with chemotherapy, immunotherapies and targeted therapies, and in developing and validating biomarkers for patient selection and stratification, particularly in malignancies with 'BRCAness'.
Project description:Talazoparib, a potent PARP inhibitor, induces synthetic lethality in BRCA-deficient cancers making it an attractive candidate for ovarian cancer treatment. However, its potency lends itself to side effects associated more closely with traditional chemotherapeutics than other clinically approved PARP inhbitors. We sought to formulate Talazoparib in a nanoparticle delivery system, which allows the drug to be administered intraperitoneally. This was done to specifically target peritoneal dissemination of late stage metastatic ovarian cancer and increase talazoparib's therapeutic efficacy while minimizing toxic side effects. NanoTalazoparib was developed and characterized with regard to its size, loading, and surface charge. Talazoparib and NanoTalazoparib were tested on a panel of murine and human BRCA cell lines and the dose response was compared to Olaparib's, the currently used PARP inhibitor. Therapeutic efficacy was tested in vivo in a Brca peritoneal cancer model that mimics late stage disseminated disease. NanoTalazoparib has a diameter of about 70 nm with a neutral surface charge and ~75% encapsulation efficiency, which slowly releases the drug over several hours. Dose response analysis indicated that the murine cell lines with conditional BRCA1/2, PTEN, and TP53 deletions had the lowest IC50s. NanoTalazoparib administered on a schedule of three doses weekly slowed disease progression and resulted in significantly less mice with ascites at the end point compared to controls. These results indicate that the slow release nanoformulation, NanoTalazoparib, effectively delivers PARP inhibitor therapy to the peritoneal cavity for disseminated cancer treatment. The ability to decrease ascites formation with the introduction of intraperitoneal NanoTalazoparib suggests this treatment may be an effective way to treat ovarian cancer-associated ascites and slow disease progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In the EMBRACA phase III study (NCT01945775), talazoparib was associated with a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT) in germline BRCA1/2-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). Herein, the safety profile of talazoparib is explored in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Overall, 412 patients received ?1 dose of talazoparib (n =?286) or PCT (n =?126). Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated, including timing, duration, and potential overlap of selected AEs. The relationship between talazoparib plasma exposure and grade ?3 anemia was analyzed. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models assessed the impact of dose reductions on PFS. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with common AEs and health resource utilization (HRU) were assessed in both treatment arms. RESULTS:The most common AEs with talazoparib were hematologic (195 [68.2%] patients) and typically occurred within the first 3-4 months of receiving talazoparib. Grade 3-4 anemia lasted approximately 7?days for both arms. Overlapping grade 3-4 hematologic AEs were infrequent with talazoparib. Higher talazoparib exposure was associated with grade ?3 anemia. Permanent discontinuation of talazoparib due to hematologic AEs was low (<2%). A total of 150 (52.4%) patients receiving talazoparib had AEs associated with dose reduction. Hematologic toxicities were managed by supportive care medication (including transfusion) and dose modifications. Among patients with anemia or nausea and/or vomiting AEs, PROs favored talazoparib. After accounting for the treatment-emergent period, talazoparib was generally associated with a lower rate of hospitalization and supportive care medication use compared with chemotherapy. CONCLUSION:Talazoparib was associated with superior efficacy, favorable PROs, and lower HRU rate versus chemotherapy in gBRCA-mutated ABC. Toxicities were manageable with talazoparib dose modification and supportive care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Talazoparib was generally well tolerated in patients with germline BRCA-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in the EMBRACA trial. Common toxicities with talazoparib were primarily hematologic and infrequently resulted in permanent drug discontinuation (<2% of patients discontinued talazoparib due to hematologic toxicity). Hematologic toxicities typically occurred during the first 3-4 months of treatment and were managed by dose modifications and supportive care measures. A significant efficacy benefit, improved patient-reported outcomes, lower rate of health resource utilization and a tolerable safety profile support incorporating talazoparib into routine management of germline BRCA-mutated locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE:Inhibitors of PARP, an enzyme involved in base excision repair, have demonstrated single-agent activity against tumors deficient in homologous repair processes. Ewing sarcoma cells are also sensitive to PARP inhibitors, although the mechanism is not understood. Here, we evaluated the stereo-selective PARP inhibitor, talazoparib (BMN 673), combined with temozolomide or topotecan. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Talazoparib was tested in vitro in combination with temozolomide (0.3-1,000 ?mol/L) or topotecan (0.03-100 nmol/L) and in vivo at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg administered twice daily for 5 days combined with temozolomide (30 mg/kg/daily x 5; combination A) or 0.25 mg/kg administered twice daily for 5 days combined with temozolomide (12 mg/kg/daily x 5; combination B). Pharmacodynamic studies were undertaken after 1 or 5 days of treatment. RESULTS:In vitro talazoparib potentiated the toxicity of temozolomide up to 85-fold, with marked potentiation in Ewing sarcoma and leukemia lines (30-50-fold). There was less potentiation for topotecan. In vivo, talazoparib potentiated the toxicity of temozolomide, and combination A and combination B represent the MTDs when combined with low-dose or high-dose talazoparib, respectively. Both combinations demonstrated significant synergism against 5 of 10 Ewing sarcoma xenografts. The combination demonstrated modest activity against most other xenograft models. Pharmacodynamic studies showed a treatment-induced complete loss of PARP only in tumor models sensitive to either talazoparib alone or talazoparib plus temozolomide. CONCLUSIONS:The high level of activity observed for talazoparib plus temozolomide in Ewing sarcoma xenografts makes this an interesting combination to consider for pediatric evaluation.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Talazoparib has demonstrated efficacy in patients with <i>BRCA</i>-positive metastatic breast cancer. This study evaluated the pathologic response of talazoparib alone for 6 months in patients with a known germline <i>BRCA</i> pathogenic variant (g<i>BRCA</i>-positive) and operable breast cancer.<h4>Methods</h4>Eligibility included 1 cm or larger invasive tumor and g<i>BRCA</i>-positive disease. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive tumors were excluded. Twenty patients underwent a pretreatment biopsy, 6 months of once per day oral talazoparib (1 mg), followed by definitive surgery. Patients received adjuvant therapy at physician's discretion. The primary end point was residual cancer burden (RCB). With 20 patients, the RCB-0 plus RCB-I response rate can be estimated with a 95% CI with half width less than 20%.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty patients were enrolled from August 2016 to September 2017. Median age was 38 years (range, 23 to 58 years); 16 patients were g<i>BRCA</i>1 positive and 4 patients were g<i>BRCA</i>2 positive. Fifteen patients had triple-negative breast cancer (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor < 10%), and five had hormone receptor-positive disease. Five patients had clinical stage I disease, 12 had stage II, and three had stage III, including one patient with inflammatory breast carcinoma and one with metaplastic chondrosarcomatous carcinoma. One patient chose to receive chemotherapy before surgery and was not included in RCB analyses. RCB-0 (pathologic complete response) rate was 53% and RCB-0/I was 63%. Eight patients (40%) had grade 3 anemia and required a transfusion, three patients had grade 3 neutropenia, and 1 patient had grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Common grade 1 or 2 toxicities were nausea, fatigue, neutropenia, alopecia, dizziness, and dyspnea. Toxicities were managed by dose reduction and transfusions. Nine patients required dose reduction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Neoadjuvant single-agent oral talazoparib once per day for 6 months without chemotherapy produced substantial RCB-0 rate with manageable toxicity. The substantive pathologic response to single-agent talazoparib supports the larger, ongoing neoadjuvant trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03499353).
Project description:This study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of enrolling breast cancer patients on a single-agent-targeted therapy trial before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Specifically, we evaluated talazoparib in patients harboring a deleterious BRCA mutation (BRCA+). Patients with a germline BRCA mutation and ?1?cm, HER2-negative primary tumors were eligible. Study participants underwent a pretreatment biopsy, 2 months of talazoparib, off-study core biopsy, anthracycline, and taxane-based chemotherapy?±?carboplatin, followed by surgery. Volumetric changes in tumor size were determined by ultrasound at 1 and 2 months of therapy. Success was defined as 20 patients accrued within 2 years and <33% experienced a grade 4 toxicity. The study was stopped early after 13 patients (BRCA1?+?n?=?10; BRCA2?+?n?=?3) were accrued within 8 months with no grade 4 toxicities and only one patient requiring dose reduction due to grade 3 neutropenia. The median age was 40 years (range 25-55) and clinical stage included I (n?=?2), II (n?=?9), and III (n?=?2). Most tumors (n?=?9) were hormone receptor-negative, and one of these was metaplastic. Decreases in tumor volume occurred in all patients following 2 months of talazoparib; the median was 88% (range 30-98%). Common toxicities were neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, dizziness, and fatigue. Single-agent-targeted therapy trials are feasible in BRCA+ patients. Given the rapid rate of accrual, profound response and favorable toxicity profile, the feasibility study was modified into a phase II study to determine pathologic complete response rates after 4-6 months of single-agent talazoparib.
Project description:We recently discovered mutation signatures reminiscent of BRCA deficiency in the vast majority of a set of primary osteosarcomas (OS). In the current study, we therefore investigated the sensitivity of a panel of OS cell lines to the poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor talazoparib alone and in combination with several chemotherapeutic drugs (i.e. temozolomide (TMZ), SN-38, doxorubicin, cisplatin, methotrexate (MTX), etoposide/carboplatin). Here, we identified an association between homologous recombination (HR) repair deficiency and the response of OS cell lines to talazoparib. All OS cell lines with molecular features characteristic of BRCA1/2 mutant tumors (so-called "BRCAness"), such as disruptive gains in PTEN or FANCD2 and/or losses of ATM, BAP1, BARD1 or CHEK2, were susceptible to talazoparib-induced reduction of cell viability (i.e. MG63, ZK-58,, SaOS-2 and MNNG-HOS). Consistent with their high sensitivity to talazoparib, MG63 and ZK-58 cells scored positive in a DNA-based measure of genomic instability (i.e. homologous recombination deficiency (HRD)-loss of heterozygosity (LOH) score). In contrast, U2OS cells that carry a heterozygous BRCA2 mutation and therefore most likely have one intact BRCA2 allele left proved to be resistant to talazoparib. Furthermore, we identified TMZ as the most potent chemotherapeutic drug together with talazoparib to synergistically reduce cell viability, as confirmed by calculation of combination index (CI) values, and to suppress long-term clonogenic survival. Mechanistically, talazoparib and TMZ cooperated to induce apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by activation of BAX and BAK, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase activation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-dependent cell death. Genetic silencing of BAX and BAK or pharmacological inhibition of caspases by zVAD.fmk significantly rescued OS cells from talazoparib/TMZ-induced apoptosis. These findings have important implications for the development of novel treatment strategies using PARP inhibitors alone or together with chemotherapy in a subset of OS with features of BRCAness.
Project description:In this article, we report the design, synthesis, photodynamic properties, and in vitro evaluation of photoactivatable prodrug for the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitor Talazoparib. In order to yield a photoactivatable, inactive prodrug, photoactivatable protecting groups (PPGs) were employed to mask the key pharmacophore of Talazoparib. Our study confirmed the good stability and photolytic effect of prodrugs. A PARP-1 enzyme inhibition assay and PARylation experiment showed that the inhibitory activity of the prodrug was reduced 380 times and more than 658 times, respectively, which proved that the prodrug's expected activity was lost after PPG protection. In BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cell lines, the inhibitory activity of the compound was significantly restored after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The results indicate that the photoactivatable prodrug strategy is an interesting approach for studying PARP inhibitors. Meanwhile, the described photoactivatable prodrug also provided a new biological tool for the mechanism research of PARP.