OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand, important immune checkpoints in cancer.
ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy has shown promising results in cancer treatment. Research shows that most patients might be resistant to these therapies. So, new immune therapies are needed. OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand (OX40L), costimulatory molecules, express on different types of immune cells. The interaction between OX40 and OX40L (OX40/OX40L) induces the expansion and proliferation of T cells and decreases the immunosuppression of regulatory T (Treg) cells to enhance the immune response to the specific antigen. For the important role OX40 takes in the process of immunity, many clinical trials are focusing on OX40 to find out whether it may have active effects in clinical cancer treatment. The results of clinical trials are still not enough. So, we reviewed the OX40 and its ligand (OX40L) function in cancer, clinical trials with OX40/OX40L and the correlation between OX40/OX40L and other immune checkpoints to add more ideas to tumor feasible treatment.
Project description:Interleukin-2 (IL-2) transgenic Ewing sarcoma cells can induce tumor specific T and NK cell responses and reduce tumor growth in vivo and in vitro. Nevertheless, the efficiency of this stimulation is not high enough to inhibit tumor growth completely. In addition to recognition of the cognate antigen, optimal T-cell stimulation requires signals from so-called co-stimulatory molecules. Several members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily have been identified as co-stimulatory molecules that can augment antitumor immune responses. OX40 (CD134) and OX40 ligand (OX40L?=?CD252; also known as tumor necrosis factor ligand family member 4) is one example of such receptor/ligand pair with co-stimulatory function. In the present investigation, we generated OX40L transgenic Ewing sarcoma cells and tested their immunostimulatory activity in vitro. OX40L transgenic Ewing sarcoma cells showed preserved expression of Ewing sarcoma-associated (anti)gens including lipase member I, cyclin D1 (CCND1), cytochrome P450 family member 26B1 (CYP26B1), and the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-friend leukemia virus integration 1 (EWSR1-FLI1) oncogene. OX40L-expressing tumor cells showed a trend for enhanced immune stimulation against Ewing sarcoma cells in combination with IL-2 and stimulation of CD137. Our data suggest that inclusion of the OX40/OX40L pathway of co-stimulation might improve immunotherapy strategies for the treatment of Ewing sarcoma.
Project description:The T cell co-stimulatory molecule OX40 and its cognate ligand OX40L have attracted broad research interest as a therapeutic target in T cell-mediated diseases. Accumulating preclinical evidence highlights the therapeutic efficacy of both agonist and blockade of the OX40-OX40L interaction. Despite this progress, many questions about the immuno-modulator roles of OX40 on T cell function remain unanswered. In this review we summarize the impact of the OX40-OX40L interaction on T cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, Treg, Tfh, and CD8+ T cells, to gain a comprehensive understanding of anti-OX40 mAb-based therapies. The potential therapeutic application of the OX40-OX40L interaction in autoimmunity diseases and cancer immunotherapy are further discussed; OX40-OX40L blockade may ameliorate autoantigen-specific T cell responses and reduce immune activity in autoimmunity diseases. We also explore the rationale of targeting OX40-OX40L interactions in cancer immunotherapy. Ligation of OX40 with targeted agonist anti-OX40 mAbs conveys activating signals to T cells. When combined with other therapeutic treatments, such as anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 blockade, cytokines, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy, the anti-tumor activity of agonist anti-OX40 treatment will be further enhanced. These data collectively suggest great potential for OX40-mediated therapies.
Project description:The OX40 receptor is preferentially expressed by T cells, and its cognate ligand OX40L is primarily expressed by antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells following activation by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). TSLP is released by the bronchial epithelium, airway smooth muscle, and some inflammatory cells in response to numerous insults such as allergens, viruses, and physical damage. OX40L is a costimulatory molecule that plays a sentinel role in the adaptive immune response by promoting T helper (Th) 2 polarization of naive T cells within the lymph node. These polarized T cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which have been implicated particularly in allergic eosinophilic asthma. Animal models have positioned both TSLP and OX40/OX40L as critical in the development of airway inflammation and hyperreactivity. In human disease, there is good evidence that TSLP is upregulated in asthma, but there are limited data to demonstrate overexpression of OX40 or OX40L in disease. Targeting the OX40/OX40L axis or TSLP presents a novel therapeutic strategy that has the potential of modifying the disease process and, therefore, impacting on its natural history. Whether this approach can demonstrate efficacy in established disease rather than at disease onset is unknown. Biologic therapies directed toward OX40/OX40L are in early phases of development, and results from these studies are eagerly awaited.
Project description:CD134 (OX40) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). It acts as a costimulatory receptor on T cells, but its role on NK cells is poorly understood. CD137, another TNFRSF member has been shown to enhance the anti-tumour activity of NK cells in various malignancies. Here, we examine the expression and function of CD134 on human and mouse NK cells in B-cell lymphoma. CD134 was transiently upregulated upon activation of NK cells in both species. In contrast to CD137, induction of CD134 on human NK cells was dependent on close proximity to, or cell-to-cell contact with, monocytes or T cells. Stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD134 mAb but not CD134 ligand, increased IFN? production and cytotoxicity of human NK cells, but this was dependent on simultaneous antibody:Fc? receptor binding. In complementary murine studies, intravenous inoculation with BCL1 lymphoma into immunocompetent syngeneic mice resulted in transient upregulation of CD134 on NK cells. Combination treatment with anti-CD20 and anti-CD134 mAb produced a synergistic effect with durable remissions. This therapeutic benefit was abrogated by NK cell depletion and in Fc? chain -/- mice. Hence, anti-CD134 agonists may enhance NK-mediated anti-tumour activity in an Fc? receptor dependent fashion.
Project description:OX40 (CD134) is a potent costimulatory molecule found on the surface of activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. Immunotherapy with OX40 agonists administered in vivo has demonstrated efficacy in several murine tumor models. A phase I clinical trial is currently underway in patients with advanced cancer using a mouse anti-CD134 monoclonal antibody. Therapy with this antibody will likely be limited to one cycle because patients develop neutralizing human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA). Therefore, we developed a humanized OX40 agonist that links the extracellular domain of human OX40L to the Fc domain of human IgG(1) via a trimerizing isoleucine zipper domain (ILZ). Physical characterization by velocity sedimentation revealed that this novel construct, hFcILZOX40L, was assembled into hexamers in which the Fc domains formed three disulfide-bonded dimers and the ILZ-OX40L domains formed two trimers. Trimerization of the ILZ domain was necessary to achieve appropriate assembly. In vitro biologic activity of the hFcILZOX40L hexamer was equivalent to the activity of agonist antibodies in plate-bound assays and was superior when the agonists were tested as soluble agents. Our ultimate goal is to use this recombinant molecule in a future clinical trial, and we feel that the OX40L hexamer will have equivalent or superior agonist activity in vivo when compared to an anti-OX40 antibody.
Project description:The initial phase of sepsis is characterized by massive inflammatory cytokine production that contributes to multisystem organ failure and death. Costimulatory molecules are a class of receptors capable of regulating cytokine production in adaptive immunity. Recent studies described their presence on neutrophils and monocytes, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of cytokine production in innate immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine the role for OX40-OX40 ligand (OX40L) interaction in the innate immune response to polymicrobial sepsis. Humans with sepsis demonstrated upregulation of OX40L on monocytes and neutrophils, with mortality and intensive care unit stay correlating with expression levels. In an animal model of polymicrobial sepsis, a direct role for OX40L in regulating inflammation was indicated by improved survival, decreased cytokine production, and a decrease in remote organ damage in OX40L(-/-) mice. The finding of similar results with an OX40L Ab suggests a potential therapeutic role for OX40L blockade in sepsis. The inability of anti-OX40L to provide significant protection in macrophage-depleted mice establishes macrophages as an indispensable cell type within the OX40/OX40L axis that helps to mediate the clinical signs of disease in sepsis. Conversely, the protective effect of anti-OX40L Ab in RAG1(-/-) mice further confirms a T cell-independent role for OX40L stimulation in sepsis. In conclusion, our data provide an in vivo role for the OX40/OX40L system in the innate immune response during polymicrobial sepsis and suggests a potential beneficial role for therapeutic blockade of OX40L in this devastating disorder.
Project description:The OX40-OX40L protein-protein interaction (PPI) is an important cell-surface signalling co-stimulatory regulator within the TNFR superfamily (TNFRSF) and a promising therapeutic target for immunomodulation. PPIs are difficult to modulate using small-molecules. Here, we describe the identification of a small-molecule OX40 modulator and confirm its partial agonist character.Cell-free screening assays were developed and used to identify OX40-OX40L inhibitors. Modified versions of this assay were used to elucidate the binding partner and the binding nature of active compounds. OX40-transfected sensor cells with NF-?B reporters were constructed and used to confirm and characterize activity and specificity. Immunomodulatory activity and partial agonist nature were further confirmed by ex vivo?T-cell polarization assays.Several compounds that concentration-dependently affected OX40-OX40L were identified. Cell assays indicated that they were partial agonists with low micromolar potency and adequate selectivity. Under polarizing conditions based on TGF-?, the most promising compound mimicked the effect of an agonistic anti-OX40 antibody in suppressing regulatory T-cell generation and diverting CD4(+) CD62L(+) Foxp3(-) cells to TH 9 phenotype in vitro.We identified, to our knowledge, the first small-molecule compounds able to interfere with OX40-OX40L binding and, more importantly, to act as partial agonists of OX40. This is particularly interesting, as small-molecule agonism or activation of PPIs is considered unusually challenging and there are only few known examples. These results provide proof-of-principle evidence for the feasibility of small-molecule modulation of the OX40-OX40L interaction and for the existence of partial agonists for TNFRSF-PPIs.
Project description:This study analyzed the expression of membrane OX40 and OX40L (mOX40 and mOX40L) and levels of soluble OX40 and OX40L (sOX40 and sOX40L) in T1D patients to determine their clinical significance. Peripheral blood (PB) was collected from patients with T1D and healthy control participants. Expression of mOX40 and mOX40L on immune cells was detected by flow cytometry. Levels of sOX40 and sOX40L in sera were measured by ELISA. We demonstrated for the first time enhanced sOX40 and sOX40L expression and reduced mOX40 and mOX40L levels in T1D patients which correlated with the clinical characteristics and inflammatory factors. These results suggest that OX40/OX40L signal may be promising biomarkers and associated with the pathogenesis of T1D.
Project description:Increased activity of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells plays a major pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the mechanisms that cause aberrant Tfh cell responses in SLE remain elusive. Here we showed the OX40 ligand (OX40L)-OX40 axis contributes to the aberrant Tfh response in SLE. OX40L was expressed by myeloid antigen-presenting cells (APCs), but not B cells, in blood and in inflamed tissues in adult and pediatric SLE patients. The frequency of circulating OX40L-expressing myeloid APCs positively correlated with disease activity and the frequency of ICOS(+) blood Tfh cells in SLE. OX40 signals promoted naive and memory CD4(+) T cells to express multiple Tfh cell molecules and were sufficient to induce them to become functional B cell helpers. Immune complexes containing RNA induced OX40L expression on myeloid APCs via TLR7 activation. Our study provides a rationale to target the OX40L-OX40 axis as a therapeutic modality for SLE.