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Mitofusins modulate the increase in mitochondrial length, bioenergetics and secretory phenotype in therapy-induced senescent melanoma cells.


ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence is an endpoint of chemotherapy, and targeted therapies in melanoma and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) can affect tumor growth and microenvironment, influencing treatment outcomes. Metabolic interventions can modulate the SASP, and an enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism supports resistance to therapy in melanoma cells. Herein, we assessed the mitochondrial function of therapy-induced senescent melanoma cells obtained after exposing the cells to temozolomide (TMZ), a methylating chemotherapeutic agent. Senescence induction in melanoma was accompanied by a substantial increase in mitochondrial basal, ATP-linked, and maximum respiration rates and in coupling efficiency, spare respiratory capacity, and respiratory control ratio. Further examinations revealed an increase in mitochondrial mass and length. Alterations in mitochondrial function and morphology were confirmed in isolated senescent cells, obtained by cell-size sorting. An increase in mitofusin 1 and 2 (MFN1 and 2) expression and levels was observed in senescent cells, pointing to alterations in mitochondrial fusion. Silencing mitofusin expression with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) prevented the increase in mitochondrial length, oxygen consumption rate and secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a component of the SASP, in melanoma senescent cells. Our results represent the first in-depth study of mitochondrial function in therapy-induced senescence in melanoma. They indicate that senescence increases mitochondrial mass, length and energy metabolism; and highlight mitochondria as potential pharmacological targets to modulate senescence and the SASP.

SUBMITTER: Martinez J 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6735661 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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