Exposure to particle debris generated from passenger and truck tires induces different genotoxicity and inflammatory responses in the RAW 264.7 cell line.
ABSTRACT: A number of studies have shown variable grades of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in in vitro cell cultures, laboratory animals and humans when directly exposed to particle debris generated from tires. However, no study has compared the effects of particles generated from passenger tires with the effects of particles from truck tires. The aim of this study was to investigate and relate the cyto- and genotoxic effects of different types of particles (PP, passenger tire particles vs. TP, truck tire particles) in vitro using the phagocytic cell line RAW 264.7 (mouse leukaemic monocyte macrophage cell line). The viability of RAW 264.7 cells was determined by the 3- (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) -5- (3-carboxymethoxyphenyl) -2- (4-sulfophenyl) -2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay following exposure for 4, 24 and 48 hours to different particle concentrations (10 ?g / ml, 25 ?g / ml, 50 ?g / ml, 100 ?g / ml). The effects of particles of passenger and truck tires on cell proliferation and genotoxicity were evaluated by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay following exposure for 24 hours to different particle concentrations (10 ?g / ml, 25 ?g / ml, 50 ?g / ml, 100 ?g / ml). In MTS assay, after 24 hours, it was found that PP induced a 30% decrease in metabolic activity at a concentration of 10 ?g/ml, while TP caused reductions of 20% and 10% at concentrations of 10 ?g/ml and 50 ?g/ml, respectively. At 48 hours after the treatments, we observed increased metabolic activity at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml for the PP while only at 50 ?g/ml for the TP. The CBMN assay showed a significant increase in the number of micronuclei in the cells incubated with PP in all experimental conditions, while the cells treated with TP showed a meaningful increase only at 10 ?g /ml. We utilized the TNF-? ELISA mouse test to detect the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in RAW 264.7 cells. The effect of passenger and truck particles on TNF-? release was evaluated following exposure for 4 and 24 hours. After 4 hours of incubation, the cells treated with PP and TP at 100 ?g / ml showed a slight but significant increase in TNF-? release, while there was a significant increase in the release of TNF-? after 24 hours of incubation with both tire samples in the cells treated with 50 and 100 ?g / ml PP. The data obtained show a higher cytotoxic, clastogenic/genotoxic and inflammatory effects of passenger compared to the truck tire particles.
Project description:Micronized particles released from car tires have been found to contribute substantially to microplastic pollution, triggering the need to evaluate their effects on biota. In the present study, four freshwater benthic macroinvertebrates were exposed for 28 days to tread particles (TP; 10-586 ?m) made from used car tires at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10% sediment dry weight. No adverse effects were found on the survival, growth, and feeding rate of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus, the survival and growth of Tubifex spp., and the number of worms and growth of Lumbriculus variegatus. A method to quantify TP numbers inside biota was developed and here applied to G. pulex. In bodies and faces of G. pulex exposed to 10% car tire TP, averages of 2.5 and 4 tread particles per organism were found, respectively. Chemical analysis showed that, although car tire TP had a high intrinsic zinc content, only small fractions of the heavy metals present were bioavailable. PAHs in the TP-sediment mixtures also remained below existing toxicity thresholds. This combination of results suggests that real in situ effects of TP and TP-associated contaminants when dispersed in sediments are probably lower than those reported after forced leaching of contaminants from car tire particles.
Project description:As a means to decrease the amount of waste tires and to re-use tire rubber for new tires, devulcanization of ground passenger car tires is a promising process. Being an established process for NR and EPDM, earlier work has shown that for ground passenger car tire rubber with a relatively high amount of SBR, a devulcanization process can be formulated, as well. This was proven for a laboratory-scale batch process in an internal mixer, using diphenyl disulfide as the devulcanization aid and powder-sized material. In this paper, the devulcanization process for passenger car tire rubber is upscaled from 15 g per batch and transformed into a continuous process in a co-rotating twin screw extruder with a capacity of 2 kg/h. As SBR is rather sensitive to devulcanization process conditions, such as thermal and mechanical energy input, the screw design was based on a low shear concept. A granulate with particle sizes from 1-3.5 mm was chosen for purity, as well as economic reasons. The devulcanization process conditions were fine-tuned in terms of: devulcanization conditions (time/temperature profile, concentration of devulcanization aid), extruder parameters (screw configuration, screw speed, fill factor) and ancillary equipment (pre-treatment, extrudate handling). The influence of these parameters on the devulcanization efficiency and the quality of the final product will be discussed. The ratio of random to crosslink scission as determined by a Horikx plot was taken for the evaluation of the process and material. A best practice for continuous devulcanization will be given.
Project description:There are numerous threats to the natural environment that pose a significant risk both to the environment and to human health, including car tires. Thus, there is a need to determine the impact of the life cycle of car tires on the environment, starting with the processes of raw materials acquisition, production, and ending with end-of-life management. Therefore, the authors of this study chose to do research on passenger car tires (size: P205/55/R16). As part of the research, the life cycle assessment (LCA) of traditional car tires was performed with the use of the Eco-indicator 99, cumulative energy demand (CED), and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methods. The level of negative effects was determined for the life cycle of a tire and its particular stages: Production, use, and end of life. The negative impact on the atmosphere, soil, and water, as well as on human health, the environment, and natural resources was also investigated. The results show that the most energy-absorbing stage of a car tire life cycle is the use stage. It was found that the most harmful impact involves the depletion of natural resources and emissions into the atmosphere. Recycling car tires reduces their negative environmental impact during all their life cycle stages.
Project description:Discarded vehicle tire casings are an important artificial habitat for the developmental stages of numerous vector mosquitoes. Discarded vehicle tires degrade under ultraviolet light and leach numerous soluble metals (e.g., barium, cadmium, zinc) and organic substances (e.g., benzothiazole and its derivatives [BZTs], polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]) that could affect mosquito larvae that inhabit the tire casing. This study examined the relationship between soluble zinc, a common marker of tire leachate, on mosquito densities in tire habitats in the field, and tested the effects of tire leachate on the survival and development of newly hatched Aedes albopictus and Aedes triseriatus larvae in a controlled laboratory dose-response experiment. In the field, zinc concentrations were as high as 7.26 mg/L in a single tire and averaged as high as 2.39 (SE ± 1.17) mg/L among tires at a single site. Aedes albopictus (37/42 tires, 81.1%) and A. triseriatus (23/42, 54.8%) were the most widespread mosquito species, co-occurred in over half (22/42, 52.4%) of all tires, and A. triseriatus was only collected without A. albopictus in one tire. Aedes triseriatus was more strongly negatively associated with zinc concentration than A. albopictus, and another common mosquito, C. pipiens, which was found in 17 tires. In the laboratory experiment, A. albopictus per capita rate of population change (?') was over 1.0, indicating positive population growth, from 0-8.9 mg/L zinc concentration (0-10,000 mg/L tire leachate), but steeply declined to zero from 44.50-89.00 mg/L zinc (50,000-100,000 mg/L tire leachate). In contrast, A. triseriatus ?' declined at the lower concentration of 0.05 mg/L zinc (100 mg/L tire leachate), and was zero at 0.45, 8.90, 44.50, and 89.00 mg/L zinc (500, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 mg/L tire leachate). These results indicate that tire leachate can have severe negative effects on populations of container-utilizing mosquitoes at concentrations commonly found in the field. Superior tolerance to tire leachate of A. albopictus compared to A. triseriatus, and possibly other native mosquito species, may have facilitated the replacement of these native species as A. albopictus has invaded North America and other regions around the world.
Project description:The transition of autonomous vehicles into fleets requires an advanced control system design that relies on continuous feedback from the tires. Smart tires enable continuous monitoring of dynamic parameters by combining strain sensing with traditional tire functions. Here, we provide breakthrough in this direction by demonstrating tire-integrated system that combines direct mask-less 3D printed strain gauges, flexible piezoelectric energy harvester for powering the sensors and secure wireless data transfer electronics, and machine learning for predictive data analysis. Ink of graphene based material was designed to directly print strain sensor for measuring tire-road interactions under varying driving speeds, normal load, and tire pressure. A secure wireless data transfer hardware powered by a piezoelectric patch is implemented to demonstrate self-powered sensing and wireless communication capability. Combined, this study significantly advances the design and fabrication of cost-effective smart tires by demonstrating practical self-powered wireless strain sensing capability.
Project description:Current regulations demand tires with long lifetime and reduced fuel consumption without sacrificing car safety. However, tire technology still needs to reach a suitable balance between these three indicators. Here, we address them by developing a self-healing tire compound using styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) as the matrix and reclaimed tire waste as the sustainable filler. The addition of ground tire rubber (GTR) to the matrix simultaneously improved the rolling resistance and maintained both wet grip and healing ability. We provide an in-depth analysis of the healing behavior of the material at a scale close to the relevant molecular processes through a systematic dynamic-mechanical and dielectric analysis. We found that SBR and SBR/GTR compounds show a complete recovery of stiffness and relaxation dynamics after being damaged by cyclic deformation, resulting in a heterogeneous repaired rubber network. This new development could well overcome the so-called magic triangle of tires, which is certainly one of the key objectives of the tire industry.
Project description:Studded tires are used in a number of countries during winter in order to prevent accidents. The use of tire studs is controversial and debated because of human health impacts from increased road particle emissions. The aims of this study are to assess whether the use of tire studs in a Scandinavian studded passenger car actually avoids or causes health impacts from a broader life cycle perspective, and to assess the distribution of these impacts over the life cycle. Life cycle assessment is applied and the disability-adjusted life years indicator is used to quantify the following five types of health impacts: (1) impacts saved in the use phase, (2) particle emissions in the use phase, (3) production system emissions, (4) occupational accidents in the production system, and (5) conflict casualties from revenues of cobalt mining. The results show that the health benefits in the use phase in general are outweighed by the negative impacts during the life cycle. The largest contribution to these negative human health impacts are from use phase particle emissions (67?77%) and occupational accidents during artisanal cobalt mining (8?18%). About 23?33% of the negative impacts occur outside Scandinavia, where the benefits occur. The results inform the current debate and highlight the need for research on alternatives to tire studs with a positive net health balance.
Project description:Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are used in various products to improve their physicochemical characteristics. Due to recycling, CPs may end up in "new" recycled products. In this study we investigated CPs present in end-of-life car tires that are recycled to rubber granulates used on artificial soccer fields, and playground tiles. The ?CP(C10-C30) concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 67 ?g/g in car tires, 13-67 ?g/g in rubber granulates, and 16-74 ?g/g in playground tiles. MCCPs were the dominant CP group with an average contribution of 72%. LCCPs up to C30, were detected for the first time in car tires, rubber granulates, and playground tiles. The CPs application in tires is unclear, the low CP concentrations found in this study (<0.007%) could possibly indicate contamination during the manufacturing process. The presence of CPs in the granulates and tiles, in addition to the multiple chemicals already detected, emphasizes the need to further investigate the migration and leaching behavior, in order to assess potential risks of CPs for humans and the environment. The presence of CPs in car tires may be another source of CPs for the environment. The CP volume brought into the environment by tire wear particles (TWP) from car tires in the European Union, is estimated at 2.0-89 tons annually.
Project description:Waste tires have excellent mechanical performance and have been used as reinforcing material in geotechnical engineering; however, their interface properties are poorly understood. To further our knowledge, this paper examines the pull-out characteristics of waste tire strips in a compacted sand, together with uniaxial and biaxial geogrids also tested under the same conditions. The analysis of the results shows that the interlocking effect and pull-out resistance between the tire strip and the sand is very strong and significantly higher than that of the geogrids. In the early stages of the pull-out test, the resistance is mainly provided by the front portion of the embedded tire strips, as the pull-out test continues, more and more of the areas towards the end of the tire strips are mobilized, showing a progressive failure mechanism. The deformations are proportional to the frictional resistance between the tire-sand interface, and increase as the normal stresses increase. Tire strips of different wear intensities were tested and presented different pull-out resistances; however, the pull-out resistance mobilization patterns were generally similar. The pull-out resistance values obtained show that rubber reinforcement can provide much higher pull-out forces than the geogrid reinforcements tested here, showing that waste tires are an excellent alternative as a reinforcing system, regardless of the environmental advantages.
Project description:Recently, sustainable development has become a significant concern globally, and the energy crisis is one of the top priorities. From the perspective of the industrial application of polymeric materials, rubber tires are critically important in our daily lives. However, the energy consumption of tires can reach 6% of the world's total energy consumption per annum. Meanwhile, it is calculated that around 5% of carbon dioxide comes from the emission of tire rolling due to energy consumption. To overcome these severe energy and environmental challenges, designing and developing a high-performance fuel-saving tire is of paramount significance. Herein, a next-generation, eco-friendly super elastomer material based on macromolecular assembly technology has been fabricated. Hydroxyl-terminated solution-polymerized styrene-butadiene rubber (HTSSBR) with high vinyl contents prepared by anionic polymerization is used as flexible soft segments to obtain excellent wet skid resistance. Furthermore, highly symmetrical 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI), different proportions of chain extender, and the cross-linking agent with moderate molecular length are selected as rigid hard segments to achieve simultaneous high heat resistance. Through this approach, a homogeneous network supported by uniformly distributed hard segment nanoparticles is formed because soft segments with equal length are chemically end-linked by the hard segments. This super elastomer material exhibits excellent wear resistance and low rolling resistance. More importantly, the wear resistance, rolling resistance, and wet-skid resistance are reduced by 85.4, 42.3, and 20.8%, respectively, compared to the elastomeric material conventionally used for tire. By taking advantage of this excellent comprehensive service performance, the long-standing challenge of the "magic triangle" plaguing the rubber tire industry for almost 100 years is resolved. It is anticipated that this newly designed and fabricated elastomeric material tailored for tires will become the next generation product, which could exhibit high potential for significantly cutting the fuel consumption and reducing the emission of carbon dioxide.