Risk estimation before progression to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: an AD resemblance atrophy index.
ABSTRACT: To realize an individual-level risk evaluation of progression of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), we applied an AD resemblance atrophy index (AD-RAI) to differentiate the subjects at risk of progression from normal subjects (NC) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and from MCI to AD. We included 183 subjects with a two-year follow-up: 50 NC stable (NCs), 23 NC-to-MCI converters (NCc), 50 MCI stable (MCIs), 35 MCI-to-AD converters (MCIc), 25 AD stable (ADs). ANCOVA analyses were used to identify baseline brain atrophy in converters compared with non-converters. To explore the relative merits of AD-RAI over individual regional volumetric measures in prediction of disease progression, we searched for the optimal cutoff for each measure in logistic regressions and plotted the longitudinal trajectories of these brain volumetric measures in converters and non-converters. Baseline AD-RAI performed the best in differentiating NCc from NCs (odds ratio 26.35, AUC 0.740) and MCIc from MCIs (odds ratio 8.91, AUC 0.771). The AD-RAI presented greater increase in the second year for NCc vs. NCs but not for MCIc vs. MCIs. Baseline AD-RAIs were also associated with CSF-based and PET-based AD biomarkers. These results showed the potential of AD-RAI in early risk estimation before progression to MCI/AD at an individual-level.
Project description:Graphical, voxel, and region-based analysis has become a popular approach to studying neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its prodromal stage [mild cognitive impairment (MCI)]. These methods have been used previously for classification or discrimination of AD in subjects in a prodromal stage called stable MCI (MCIs), which does not convert to AD but remains stable over a period of time, and converting MCI (MCIc), which converts to AD, but the results reported across similar studies are often inconsistent. Furthermore, the classification accuracy for MCIs vs. MCIc is limited. In this study, we propose combining different neuroimaging modalities (sMRI, FDG-PET, AV45-PET, DTI, and rs-fMRI) with the apolipoprotein-E genotype to form a multimodal system for the discrimination of AD, and to increase the classification accuracy. Initially, we used two well-known analyses to extract features from each neuroimage for the discrimination of AD: whole-brain parcelation analysis (or region-based analysis), and voxel-wise analysis (or voxel-based morphometry). We also investigated graphical analysis (nodal and group) for all six binary classification groups (AD vs. HC, MCIs vs. MCIc, AD vs. MCIc, AD vs. MCIs, HC vs. MCIc, and HC vs. MCIs). Data for a total of 129 subjects (33 AD, 30 MCIs, 31 MCIc, and 35 HCs) for each imaging modality were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) homepage. These data also include two APOE genotype data points for the subjects. Moreover, we used the 2-mm AICHA atlas with the NiftyReg registration toolbox to extract 384 brain regions from each PET (FDG and AV45) and sMRI image. For the rs-fMRI images, we used the DPARSF toolbox in MATLAB for the automatic extraction of data and the results for REHO, ALFF, and fALFF. We also used the pyClusterROI script for the automatic parcelation of each rs-fMRI image into 200 brain regions. For the DTI images, we used the FSL (Version 6.0) toolbox for the extraction of fractional anisotropy (FA) images to calculate a tract-based spatial statistic. Moreover, we used the PANDA toolbox to obtain 50 white-matter-region-parcellated FA images on the basis of the 2-mm JHU-ICBM-labeled template atlas. To integrate the different modalities and different complementary information into one form, and to optimize the classifier, we used the multiple kernel learning (MKL) framework. The obtained results indicated that our multimodal approach yields a significant improvement in accuracy over any single modality alone. The areas under the curve obtained by the proposed method were 97.78, 96.94, 95.56, 96.25, 96.67, and 96.59% for AD vs. HC, MCIs vs. MCIc, AD vs. MCIc, AD vs. MCIs, HC vs. MCIc, and HC vs. MCIs binary classification, respectively. Our proposed multimodal method improved the classification result for MCIs vs. MCIc groups compared with the unimodal classification results. Our study found that the (left/right) precentral region was present in all six binary classification groups (this region can be considered the most significant region). Furthermore, using nodal network topology, we found that FDG, AV45-PET, and rs-fMRI were the most important neuroimages, and showed many affected regions relative to other modalities. We also compared our results with recently published results.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD), including its mild cognitive impairment (MCI) phase that may or may not progress into the AD, is the most ordinary form of dementia. It is extremely important to correctly identify patients during the MCI stage because this is the phase where AD may or may not develop. Thus, it is crucial to predict outcomes during this phase. Thus far, many researchers have worked on only using a single modality of a biomarker for the diagnosis of AD or MCI. Although recent studies show that a combination of one or more different biomarkers may provide complementary information for the diagnosis, it also increases the classification accuracy distinguishing between different groups. In this paper, we propose a novel machine learning-based framework to discriminate subjects with AD or MCI utilizing a combination of four different biomarkers: fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein levels, and Apolipoprotein-E (APOE) genotype. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) baseline dataset was used in this study. In total, there were 158 subjects for whom all four modalities of biomarker were available. Of the 158 subjects, 38 subjects were in the AD group, 82 subjects were in MCI groups (including 46 in MCIc [MCI converted; conversion to AD within 24 months of time period], and 36 in MCIs [MCI stable; no conversion to AD within 24 months of time period]), and the remaining 38 subjects were in the healthy control (HC) group. For each image, we extracted 246 regions of interest (as features) using the Brainnetome template image and NiftyReg toolbox, and later we combined these features with three CSF and two APOE genotype features obtained from the ADNI website for each subject using early fusion technique. Here, a different kernel-based multiclass support vector machine (SVM) classifier with a grid-search method was applied. Before passing the obtained features to the classifier, we have used truncated singular value decomposition (Truncated SVD) dimensionality reduction technique to reduce high dimensional features into a lower-dimensional feature. As a result, our combined method achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic (AU-ROC) curve of 98.33, 93.59, 96.83, 94.64, 96.43, and 95.24% for AD vs. HC, MCIs vs. MCIc, AD vs. MCIs, AD vs. MCIc, HC vs. MCIc, and HC vs. MCIs subjects which are high relative to single modality results and other state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, combined multimodal methods have improved the classification performance over the unimodal classification.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Graph theory and machine learning have been shown to be effective ways of classifying different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most previous studies have only focused on inter-subject classification with single-mode neuroimaging data. However, whether this classification can truly reflect the changes in the structure and function of the brain region in disease progression remains unverified. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the classification framework, which combines structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) metrics, to distinguish mild cognitive impairment non-converters (MCInc)/AD from MCI converters (MCIc) by using graph theory and machine learning.<h4>Methods</h4>With the intra-subject (MCInc vs. MCIc) and inter-subject (MCIc vs. AD) design, we employed cortical thickness features, structural brain network features, and sub-frequency (full-band, slow-4, slow-5) functional brain network features for classification. Three feature selection methods [random subset feature selection algorithm (RSFS), minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR), and sparse linear regression feature selection algorithm based on stationary selection (SS-LR)] were used respectively to select discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Then support vector machine (SVM) classifier with nested cross-validation was employed for classification. We also compared the performance of multiple classifiers (Random Forest, K-nearest neighbor, Adaboost, SVM) and verified the reliability of our results by upsampling.<h4>Results</h4>We found that in the classifications of MCIc vs. MCInc, and MCIc vs. AD, the proposed RSFS algorithm achieved the best accuracies (84.71, 89.80%) than the other algorithms. And the high-sensitivity brain regions found with the two classification groups were inconsistent. Specifically, in MCIc vs. MCInc, the high-sensitivity brain regions associated with both structural and functional features included frontal, temporal, caudate, entorhinal, parahippocampal, and calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex. While in MCIc vs. AD, the high-sensitivity brain regions associated only with functional features included frontal, temporal, thalamus, olfactory, and angular.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results suggest that our proposed method could effectively predict the conversion of MCI to AD, and the inconsistency of specific brain regions provides a novel insight for clinical AD diagnosis.
Project description:Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and abnormalities of brain network architectures may allow earlier detection and accurate prediction of the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we proposed a classification framework to distinguish MCI converters (MCIc) from MCI non-converters (MCInc) by using a combination of FreeSurfer-derived MRI features and nodal features derived from the thickness network. At the feature selection step, we first employed sparse linear regression with stability selection, for the selection of discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Subsequently the top K features of available combinations were selected as optimal features for classification. To obtain unbiased results, support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with nested cross validation were used for classification. The combination of 10 features including those from MRI and network measures attained accuracies of 66.04, 76.39, 74.66, and 73.91% for mixed conversion time, 6, 12, and 18 months before diagnosis of probable AD, respectively. Analysis of the diagnostic power of different time periods before diagnosis of probable AD showed that short-term prediction (6 and 12 months) achieved more stable and higher AUC scores compared with long-term prediction (18 months), with K-values from 1 to 30. The present results suggest that meaningful predictors composed of MRI and network measures may offer the possibility for early detection of progression from MCI to AD.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the potential clinical value of quantitative functional FDG PET and pathological amyloid-? PET with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and clinical assessments in the prediction of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression.<h4>Methods</h4>We studied 82 subjects for up to 96 months (median = 84 months) in a longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) project. All preprocessed PET images were spatially normalized to standard Montreal Neurologic Institute space. Regions of interest (ROI) were defined on MRI template, and standard uptake values ratios (SUVRs) to the cerebellum for FDG and amyloid-? PET were calculated. Predictive values of single and multiparametric PET biomarkers with and without clinical assessments and CSF biomarkers for AD progression were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and logistic regression model.<h4>Results</h4>The posterior precuneus and cingulate SUVRs were identified for both FDG and amyloid-? PET in predicating progression in normal controls (NCs) and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). FDG parietal and lateral temporal SUVRs were suggested for monitoring NCs and MCI group progression, respectively. 18F-AV45 global cortex attained (78.6%, 74.5%, 75.4%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy) in predicting NC progression, which is comparable to the 11C-PiB global cortex SUVR's in predicting MCI to AD. A logistic regression model to combine FDG parietal and posterior precuneus SUVR and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-Cog) Total Mod was identified in predicating NC progression with (80.0%, 94.9%, 93.9%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy). The selected model including FDG posterior cingulate SUVR, ADAS-Cog Total Mod, and Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores for predicating MCI to AD attained (96.4%, 81.2%, 83.6%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy). 11C-PiB medial temporal SUVR with MMSE significantly increased 11C-PiB PET AUC to 0.915 (p<0.05) in predicating MCI to AD with (77.8%, 90.4%, 88.5%) (sensitivity, specificity, accuracy).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Quantitative FDG and 11C-PiB PET with clinical cognitive assessments significantly improved accuracy in the predication of AD progression.
Project description:Determination of sensitive and specific markers of very early AD progression is intended to aid researchers and clinicians to develop new treatments and monitor their effectiveness, as well as to lessen the time and cost of clinical trials. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-related biomarkers have been recently identified by the use of machine learning methods for the in vivo differential diagnosis of AD. However, the vast majority of neuroimaging papers investigating this topic are focused on the difference between AD and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), not considering the impact of MCI patients who will (MCIc) or not convert (MCInc) to AD. Morphological T1-weighted MRIs of 137 AD, 76 MCIc, 134 MCInc, and 162 healthy controls (CN) selected from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI) cohort, were used by an optimized machine learning algorithm. Voxels influencing the classification between these AD-related pre-clinical phases involved hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, basal ganglia, gyrus rectus, precuneus, and cerebellum, all critical regions known to be strongly involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of AD. Classification accuracy was 76% AD vs. CN, 72% MCIc vs. CN, 66% MCIc vs. MCInc (nested 20-fold cross validation). Our data encourage the application of computer-based diagnosis in clinical practice of AD opening new prospective in the early management of AD patients.
Project description:The present study was aimed at determining which combination of demographic, genetic, cognitive, neurophysiological, and neuroanatomical factors may predict differences in time to progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). To this end, a sample of 121 MCIs was followed up during a 5-year period. According to their clinical outcome, MCIs were divided into two subgroups: (i) the "progressive" MCI group (n =?46; mean time to progression 17?±?9.73 months) and (ii) the "stable" MCI group (n =?75; mean time of follow-up 31.37?±?14.58 months). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were applied to explore each variable's relationship with the progression to AD. Once potential predictors were detected, Cox regression analyses were utilized to calculate a parsimonious model to estimate differences in time to progression. The final model included three variables (in order of relevance): left parahippocampal volume (corrected by intracranial volume, LP_ ICV), delayed recall (DR), and left inferior occipital lobe individual alpha peak frequency (LIOL_IAPF). Those MCIs with LP_ICV volume, DR score, and LIOL_IAPF value lower than the defined cutoff had 6 times, 5.5 times, and 3 times higher risk of progression to AD, respectively. Besides, when the categories of the three variables were "unfavorable" (i.e., values below the cutoff), 100% of cases progressed to AD at the end of follow-up. Our results highlighted the relevance of neurophysiological markers as predictors of conversion (LIOL_IAPF) and the importance of multivariate models that combine markers of different nature to predict time to progression from MCI to dementia.
Project description:Prediction of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is of major interest in AD research. A large number of potential predictors have been proposed, with most investigations tending to examine one or a set of related predictors. In this study, we simultaneously examined multiple features from different modalities of data, including structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) morphometry, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and neuropsychological and functional measures (NMs), to explore an optimal set of predictors of conversion from MCI to AD in an Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. After FreeSurfer-derived MRI feature extraction, CSF and NM feature collection, feature selection was employed to choose optimal subsets of features from each modality. Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were then trained on normal control (NC) and AD participants. Testing was conducted on MCIc (MCI individuals who have converted to AD within 24 months) and MCInc (MCI individuals who have not converted to AD within 24 months) groups. Classification results demonstrated that NMs outperformed CSF and MRI features. The combination of selected NM, MRI and CSF features attained an accuracy of 67.13%, a sensitivity of 96.43%, a specificity of 48.28%, and an AUC (area under curve) of 0.796. Analysis of the predictive values of MCIc who converted at different follow-up evaluations showed that the predictive values were significantly different between individuals who converted within 12 months and after 12 months. This study establishes meaningful multivariate predictors composed of selected NM, MRI and CSF measures which may be useful and practical for clinical diagnosis.
Project description:The 15-Objects Test (15-OT) provides useful gradation of visuoperceptual impairment from normal aging through Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlates with temporo-parietal perfusion. The objectives of this study were to analyze progression of 15-OT performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, and its correlates with cognition and single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), as well as to examine neuropsychological and SPECT differences between the MCI patients who developed AD and those who did not. From the initial 126 participants (42/group), 38 AD, 39 MCI, and 38 elderly controls (EC) were reassessed (SPECT: 35 AD, 33 MCI, 35 EC) after two years. The progression of cognitive and SPECT scores during this period was compared between groups, and baseline data between converters and non-converters. The 15-OT was the only measure of progression that differed between the three groups; worsening scores on 15-OT were associated with worsening in verbal and visual retention, and decreased perfusion on left postsubicular area. In the MCI patients, cerebral perfusion fell over the two years in medial-posterior cingulate and fronto-temporo-parietal regions; AD showed extensive changes involving almost all cerebral regions. No SPECT changes were detected in controls. At baseline, the MCI patients who developed AD differed from non-converters in verbal recognition memory, but not in SPECT perfusion. In conclusion, SPECT and 15-OT appear to provide a potential measure to differentiate between normal aging, MCI, and AD. Worsening on 15-OT was related to decreased perfusion in postsubicular area; but further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the contribution of 15-OT as a predictor of AD from MCI.
Project description:Directed network motifs are the building blocks of complex networks, such as human brain networks, and capture deep connectivity information that is not contained in standard network measures. In this paper we present the first application of directed network motifs in vivo to human brain networks, utilizing recently developed directed progression networks which are built upon rates of cortical thickness changes between brain regions. This is in contrast to previous studies which have relied on simulations and in vitro analysis of non-human brains. We show that frequencies of specific directed network motifs can be used to distinguish between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal control (NC) subjects. Especially interesting from a clinical standpoint, these motif frequencies can also distinguish between subjects with mild cognitive impairment who remained stable over three years (MCI) and those who converted to AD (CONV). Furthermore, we find that the entropy of the distribution of directed network motifs increased from MCI to CONV to AD, implying that the distribution of pathology is more structured in MCI but becomes less so as it progresses to CONV and further to AD. Thus, directed network motifs frequencies and distributional properties provide new insights into the progression of Alzheimer's disease as well as new imaging markers for distinguishing between normal controls, stable mild cognitive impairment, MCI converters and Alzheimer's disease.