Risk factors for progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: protocol for an observational cohort study in China.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Accelerated atherosclerosis is a major complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and it leads to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with SLE. This study aimed to investigate the natural progression of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and to examine the risk factors for progression of CIMT and atherosclerotic plaques based on a Chinese SLE cohort. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Participants were continuously enrolled as outpatients of the Department of Rheumatology in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from October 2013 to December 2016. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) age ≥18 years, (2) fulfilment of clinical classification criteria of SLE and (3) provision of signed written informed consent. Patients with clinically overt coronary artery disease, a history of cardiovascular disease (previous stroke, heart failure, myocardial infarction, angina or symptomatic peripheral artery disease) and malignancy, and pregnant/lactating women were excluded. The primary outcome is progression of CIMT from baseline. A total of 440 patients with SLE will be enrolled. Participants will receive follow-up surveys ~5 years after their baseline visit. A standard structural survey form, including demographic data, medical history, clinical and laboratory assessments and CIMT measurement, is planned for data collection at baseline and follow-up. The risk prediction model for progression of CIMT will be created by using a mixed effect model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of PUMCH (S-599). Informed consent was obtained from all participants according to the Declaration of Helsinki on Biomedical Research Involving Human Studies. All data will be managed confidentially according to guidelines and legislation. Dissemination will include publication of scientific papers and/or presentations of the study findings at international conferences.
Project description:Objectives:We aimed to describe the rate and determinants of carotid plaque progression and the onset of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a UK SLE cohort. Methods:Female patients with SLE of white British ancestry were recruited from clinics in the North-West of England and had a baseline clinical and CVD risk assessment including measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque using B-mode Doppler ultrasound. Patients were followed up (>3.5 years after baseline visit) and had a repeat carotid Doppler to assess progression of plaque and CIMT. Clinical CVD events between visits were also noted. Results:Of 200 patients with a baseline scan, 124 (62%) patients had a second assessment at a median (IQR) of 5.8 (5.2-6.3) years follow-up. New plaque developed in 32 (26%) (4.5% per annum) patients and plaque progression was observed in 52 (41%) patients. Factors associated with plaque progression were older age (OR 1.13; 95% ?CI 1.06 to 1.20), anticardiolipin (OR 3.36; 1.27 to 10.40) and anti-Ro (OR 0.31; 0.11 to 0.86) antibodies. CVD events occurred in 7.2% over 5.8 years compared with 1.0% predicted using the Framingham risk score (p<0.001). Higher triglycerides (OR 3.6; 1.23 to 10.56), cyclophosphamide exposure 'ever' (OR 16.7; 1.46 to 63.5) and baseline Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index score (OR 9.62; 1.46 to 123) independently predicted future CVD events. Conclusion:Accelerated atherosclerosis remains a major challenge in SLE disease management. A more comprehensive approach to CVD risk management taking into account disease factors such as severity and anticardiolipin antibody status may be necessary to improve CVD outcomes in this high-risk population.
Project description:Introduction:We studied the association of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) with hippocampal volume (HV) in community dwelling individuals, testing the hypothesis that persons with carotid atherosclerosis progression would have lower HV. Methods:We studied 1376 Framingham Offspring participants with two carotid ultrasounds and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs). We used multivariable linear regression analyses to relate CIMT progression and HV and total brain volume. Regression models were adjusted for demographics and vascular risk factors, time interval between imaging examinations, and baseline CIMT. We assessed effect modification by hypertension treatment (HRx). Results:Participants with higher ICA IMT progression had significantly lower HV after adjustment for vascular risk factors and baseline IMT (standardized beta ± standard error: -0.067 ± 0.027, P = .01). We observed weaker association between ICA IMT change and HV among subjects treated for hypertension (? = -0.047, P = .19 vs ? = -0.096, P = .026). Discussion:Cumulative vascular risk factor exposure, reflected by CIMT progression, may increase the risk of neurodegeneration.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Millions of patients are currently suffering from pain and dysfunction caused by osteoarthritis (OA), and billions of dollars have been invested into treatment. Because there is no effective treatment that can reverse the progression of knee OA, it is important to determine the risk factors that may influence the progression. However, although there are many studies that examine risk factors for progression, there are only a few that specifically focus on the impact of each risk factor for predicting progression of knee OA. This study aimed to develop a cohort of patients with primary knee OA in the Beijing area to establish models that identify the influence of each risk factor on the prediction of knee OA progression. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a prospective, multicentre, hospital-based cohort study. The study population comprises 2000 patients with primary knee OA from the Beijing area. The recruitment and baseline visits started in December 2017 and will finish in November 2018. After baseline visits, the patients will be followed for 3 years or until the occurrence of primary outcomes. Demographic variables will be collected during the baseline visit. Influencing factors including occupational exposures, family history and treatment will be collected at baseline and each follow-up visit. The primary outcome measure is a comprehensive index which will be combined with clinical WOMAC score, imaging K-L grade and clinical outcomes. These data will also be collected at baseline and each follow-up visit. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study protocol has been approved by Peking University Third Hospital Medical Science Research Ethics Committee. All the eligible participants will give written informed consent. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national or international conferences. Besides, the results will be disseminated to all participants via the social software 'WeChat'. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR-ROC-17013790; preresults.
Project description:Experimental and observational evidence demonstrates that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) can lose its well-documented atheroprotective functions and even adopt a paradoxically proinflammatory nature in certain conditions. Hormonal alterations, especially estradiol reduction, influence the accumulation of risk factors that could potentially impair the quality of HDL during the menopausal transition (MT). Limited data exist to evaluate the relationship between changes in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and its main carried protein, apolipoprotein A (apoA), over the MT, and atherosclerosis development.To evaluate the associations of changes in HDL-C and apoA with progression of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), carotid adventitial diameter (cAD), and presence of carotid plaque relative to the onset of the postmenopause.A total of 213 participants (age [mean (SD)]: 45.7 [2.5] years at baseline; 70% white) from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Pittsburgh site were included. Participants had up to 5 measures of cIMT, cAD, and carotid plaque over a maximum of 9 years of follow-up.Adjusting for sociodemographic, cardiovascular disease risk factors, cardiovascular disease medication use, and C-reactive protein, a larger increase in HDL-C since baseline was significantly associated with a greater cIMT progression (P = .008). Additionally, a higher apoA level at baseline was significantly associated with a lower cIMT progression (P = .03). No significant associations were found with cAD or plaque presence.As women transition through menopause, increases in HDL-C levels are independently associated with greater cIMT progression. Thus, the quality of HDL may be altered over the MT rendering HDL dysfunctional and not providing the expected cardioprotective effect.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Pilot/feasibility studies assess the feasibility of conducting a larger study. Although researchers ought to communicate the feasibility objectives to their participants, many research ethics guidelines do not comment on how informed consent applies to pilot studies. It is unclear whether researchers and research ethics boards clearly communicate the purpose of pilot studies to participants consenting.The primary objective of this study is to assess whether pilot/feasibility studies submitted for ethics approval to a research ethics board transparently communicate the purpose of the study to participants through their informed consent practice. A highly transparent consent practice entails the consent documents communicate: (1) the term 'pilot' or 'feasibility' in the title; (2) the definition of a pilot/feasibility study; (3) the primary objectives of the study are to assess feasibility; (4) the specific feasibility objectives; and (5) the criteria for the study to successfully lead to the main study. The secondary objectives are to assess whether there is a difference between submitted and revised versions of the consent documents (revisions are made to obtain research ethics approval), to determine factors associated with transparent consent practices and to assess the consistency with which pilot and feasibility studies assess feasibility outcomes as their primary objectives. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This is a retrospective review of informed consent information for pilot/feasibility studies submitted to the Hamilton integrated Research Ethics Board, Canada. We will look at submitted and revised consent documents for pilot/feasibility studies submitted over a 14-year period. We will use descriptive statistics to summarise data, reporting results as percentages with 95% CIs, and conduct logistic regression to determine characteristics associated with transparent consent practices. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol was approved by the Hamilton integrated Research Ethics Board, and the results of this study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Project description:To fully capitalize on the promise of mobile technology to enable scalable, participant-centered research, we must develop companion self-administered electronic informed consent (eConsent) processes. As we do so, we have an ethical obligation to ensure that core tenants of informed consent-informedness, comprehension, and voluntariness-are upheld. Furthermore, we should be wary of recapitulating the pitfalls of "traditional" informed consent processes.Our objective was to describe the essential qualities of participant experience, including delineation of common and novel themes relating to informed consent, with a self-administered, smartphone-based eConsent process. We sought to identify participant responses related to informedness, comprehension, and voluntariness as well as to capture any emergent themes relating to the informed consent process in an app-mediated research study.We performed qualitative thematic analysis of participant responses to a daily general prompt collected over a 6-month period within the Parkinson mPower app. We employed a combination of a priori and emergent codes for our analysis. A priori codes focused on the core concepts of informed consent; emergent codes were derived to capture additional themes relating to self-administered consent processes. We used self-reported demographic information from the study's baseline survey to characterize study participants and respondents.During the study period, 9846 people completed the eConsent process and enrolled in the Parkinson mPower study. In total, 2758 participants submitted 7483 comments; initial categorization identified a subset of 3875 germane responses submitted by 1678 distinct participants. Respondents were more likely to self-report a Parkinson disease diagnosis (30.21% vs 11.10%), be female (28.26% vs 20.18%), be older (42.89 years vs 34.47 years), and have completed more formal education (66.23% with a 4-year college degree or more education vs 55.77%) than all the mPower participants (P<.001 for all values). Within our qualitative analysis, 3 conceptual domains emerged. First, consistent with fully facilitated in-person informed consent settings, we observed a broad spectrum of comprehension of core research concepts following eConsent. Second, we identified new consent themes born out of the remote mobile research setting, for example the impact of the study design on the engagement of controls and the misconstruction of the open response field as a method for responsive communication with researchers, that bear consideration for inclusion within self-administered eConsent. Finally, our findings highlighted participants' desire to be empowered as partners.Our study serves as a formative evaluation of participant experience with a self-administered informed consent process via a mobile app. Areas for future investigation include direct comparison of the efficacy of self-administered eConsent with facilitated informed consent processes, exploring the potential benefits and pitfalls of smartphone user behavioral habits on participant engagement in research, and developing best practices to increase informedness, comprehension, and voluntariness via participant coengagement in the research endeavor.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Efforts are needed to improve informed consent of participants in research. The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Therapy (START) study provides a unique opportunity to study the effect of length and complexity of informed consent documents on understanding and satisfaction among geographically diverse participants. METHODS:Interested START sites were randomized to use either the standard consent form or the concise consent form for all of the site's participants. RESULTS:A total of 4473 HIV-positive participants at 154 sites world-wide took part in the Informed Consent Substudy, with consent given in 11 primary languages. Most sites sent written information to potential participants in advance of clinic visits, usually including the consent form. At about half the sites, staff reported spending less than an hour per participant in the consent process. The vast majority of sites assessed participant understanding using informal nonspecific questions or clinical judgment. CONCLUSIONS:These data reflect the interest of START research staff in evaluating the consent process and improving informed consent. The START Informed Consent Substudy is by far the largest study of informed consent intervention ever conducted. Its results have the potential to impact how consent forms are written around the world.
Project description:To assess the range of responses to community consultation efforts conducted within a large network and the impact of different consultation methods on acceptance of exception from informed consent research and understanding of the proposed study.A cognitively pretested survey instrument was administered to 2,612 community consultation participants at 12 U.S. centers participating in a multicenter trial of treatment for acute traumatic brain injury.Survey nested within community consultation for a phase III randomized controlled trial of treatment for acute traumatic brain injury conducted within a multicenter trial network and using exception from informed consent.Adult participants in community consultation events.Community consultation efforts at participating sites.Acceptance of exception from informed consent in general, attitude toward personal exception from informed consent enrollment, and understanding of the study content were assessed. Fifty-four percent of participants agreed exception from informed consent enrollment was acceptable in general in the proposed study; 71% were accepting of personal exception from informed consent enrollment. Participants in interactive versus noninteractive community consultation events were more accepting of exception from informed consent in general (63% vs 49%) and personal exception from informed consent inclusion (77% vs 67%). Interactive community consultation participants had high-level recall of study content significantly more often than noninteractive consultation participants (77% vs 67%). Participants of interactive consultation were more likely to recall possible study benefits (61% vs 45%) but less likely to recall potential risks (56% vs 69%).Interactive community consultation methods were associated with increased acceptance of exception from informed consent and greater overall recall of study information but lower recall of risks. There was also significant variability in exception from informed consent acceptance among different interactive consultation events. These findings have important implications for institutional review board and investigators conducting exception from informed consent research and for community engagement efforts in research more generally.
Project description:Objective:Methods to improve informed consent efficiency and effectiveness are needed for pragmatic clinical trials. We compared informed consent using a tablet computer to a paper approach to assess comprehension and satisfaction of patients and clinic staff for a future osteoporosis clinical trial. Methods:Nine community-based practices identified and recruited patients to compare the informed consent processes (tablet vs. paper) in a mock osteoporosis clinical trial. The tablet informed consent included an animation summarizing the trial, complete informed consent document, and questions to assess and reinforce comprehension of the study. Participants were women age ?55 years with ?1 year of alendronate use. We surveyed participants to assess comprehension and satisfaction and office staff for satisfaction and perceived time demands. Results:The nine practices enrolled 33 participants. There was not a significant difference in comprehension between the tablet vs. paper informed consent [mean (SD) tablet: 12.2 (1.0) vs. paper: 11.4 (1.7)]. Office staff preferred the tablet to the paper informed consent for identifying potential study participants (two-sided t-test p = 0.02) despite an increased perceived time spent to complete the tablet process [tablet: 28.3 min (SD 16.3) vs. paper: 19.0 min (SD 6.9); p = 0.08]. Conclusions:Although, there were no significant differences in participant satisfaction and comprehension with the tablet informed consent compared to a paper informed consent, patients and office staff trended towards greater satisfaction with the tablet informed consent. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the utility of electronic informed consent in pragmatic clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hypoadiponectinemia predicts the development of diabetes and hypertension, both being potent atherosclerotic risk factors. Whether adiponectin predicts the progression of early atherosclerosis remains unclear. In this 5-year prospective study, we examined the relationship between serum adiponectin and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. METHODS: A total of 265 subjects from the population-based Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study, with no known cardiovascular disease, underwent CIMT measurement at baseline and at 5 years. RESULTS: In all, 129 men and 136 women, aged 54.6±12.3 years, were studied. Median CIMT at baseline was 0.63?mm (interquartile range 0.52-0.73?mm) and increased to 0.67?mm (0.56-0.78?mm) after 5 years (P<0.001). CIMT increment correlated with baseline adiponectin, age, and smoking (all P<0.05) and baseline CIMT (P<0.001), but not with sex, fasting glucose, lipid profiles, hypertension, or diabetes. In multiple linear regression analysis, baseline serum adiponectin level was an independent predictor of CIMT increment ? (standardized beta)=-0.17, P=0.015], after adjusting for age, smoking, baseline CIMT, hypertension, body mass index, fasting glucose, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Hypoadiponectinemia predicted CIMT progression, independent of known predictive factors such as age, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension.