Androgen Receptor Blockade Differentially Regulates Blood Pressure in Growth-Restricted Versus Ovarian Deficient Rats.
ABSTRACT: Low birth weight is associated with a greater prevalence of hypertension in women by age 60; yet, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We previously reported that hypertension in female growth-restricted offspring that is associated with early reproductive senescence and a shift in the testosterone-to-estradiol ratio at 12 months of age is abolished by AR (androgen receptor) blockade in conjunction with downregulation of renal AT1aR (angiotensin type 1a receptor) mRNA expression. These data suggest androgen-mediated activation of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension that develops in female growth-restricted offspring with aging. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that androgen-mediated increased blood pressure is specific to female growth-restricted offspring. Control and growth-restricted rats underwent sham or ovariectomy at 10 months of age. Vehicle or flutamide (8 mg/kg/day; subcutaneous), an AR antagonist, was administered at 11.5 months of age for 2 weeks followed by measurement of blood pressure. Loss of ovarian hormones was associated with a 10 mm?Hg increase in blood pressure in control compared with intact counterparts accompanied by a 1.8-fold increase in renal AT1aR mRNA expression. Treatment with flutamide had no effect on blood pressure or renal AT1aR mRNA expression in ovariectomized controls. Although blood pressure was significantly decreased in flutamide-treated ovariectomized growth-restricted, flutamide had no effect on the increase in renal AT1aR mRNA expression. Therefore, these findings suggest the effect of AR blockade on blood pressure is specific to intact growth-restricted offspring and that mechanisms of postmenopausal hypertension may differ between normal and low birth weight women.
Project description:Low birth weight is associated with a greater prevalence of hypertension and an earlier age at menopause in women in later life. Yet, the association between birth weight and blood pressure (BP) in women as they age is not well defined. In a rodent model of low birth weight induced by placental insufficiency, intrauterine growth restriction programs a significant increase in BP by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted offspring that is associated with early reproductive senescence, increased testosterone, and a shift in the hormonal milieu. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that increased BP in female growth-restricted offspring is abolished by chronic estradiol supplementation. Placebo or 17?-estradiol valerate mini pellets (1.5 mg for 60-day release) were administered at 12 months of age for 6 weeks. BP, measured in conscious catheterized rats, was significantly increased in placebo-treated growth-restricted relative to placebo-treated control. However, BP was not elevated in estradiol-treated growth-restricted relative to placebo-treated growth-restricted. Estradiol mediates its effects on BP via its receptors and the renin-angiotensin system. BP was decreased in growth-restricted offspring treated with a G-protein coupled receptor agonist, G1 (400 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Renal AT1aR (angiotensin type 1a receptor) and AT1bR (angiotensin type 1b receptor) and renal AR (androgen receptor) mRNA expression were elevated in vehicle-treated growth-restricted offspring, but not in G1-treated growth-restricted. Therefore, these data suggest that chronic estradiol supplementation prevents the increase in BP that develops in female growth-restricted offspring via actions that may involve its G-protein coupled receptor and the renin-angiotensin system.
Project description:Numerous experimental studies suggest that oxidative stress contributes to the pathophysiology of hypertension and, importantly, that oxidative stress plays a more definitive role in mediating hypertension in males than in females. Intrauterine growth restriction induced by reduced uterine perfusion initiated at day 14 of gestation in the rat programs hypertension in adult male growth-restricted offspring; yet, female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive. The mechanisms mediating sex differences in blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring are not clear. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that sex-specific differences in renal oxidative stress contribute to the regulation of blood pressure in adult growth-restricted offspring. A significant increase in blood pressure measured by telemetry in male growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05) was associated with a marked increase in renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with the antioxidant Tempol had no effect on blood pressure in male control offspring, but it normalized blood pressure (P<0.05) and renal markers of oxidative stress (P<0.05) in male growth-restricted offspring relative to male control offspring. Renal markers of oxidative stress were not elevated in female growth-restricted offspring; however, renal activity of the antioxidant catalase was significantly elevated relative to female control offspring (P<0.05). Chronic treatment with Tempol did not significantly alter oxidative stress or blood pressure measured by telemetry in female offspring. Thus, these data suggest that sex differences in renal oxidative stress and antioxidant activity are present in adult growth-restricted offspring and that oxidative stress may play a more important role in modulating blood pressure in male but not female growth-restricted offspring.
Project description:Intrauterine growth restriction induced via placental insufficiency programs a significant increase in blood pressure at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats that is associated with early cessation of estrous cyclicity, indicative of premature reproductive senescence. In addition, female growth-restricted rats at 12 months of age exhibit a significant increase in circulating testosterone with no change in circulating estradiol. Testosterone is positively associated with blood pressure after menopause in women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that androgen receptor blockade would abolish the significant increase in blood pressure that develops with age in female growth-restricted rats. Mean arterial pressure was measured in animals pretreated with and without the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide (8 mg/kg/day, SC for 2 weeks). Flutamide abolished the significant increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted rats relative to control at 12 months of age. To examine the mechanism(s) by which androgens contribute to increased blood pressure in growth-restricted rats, blood pressure was assessed in rats untreated or treated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 2 weeks). Enalapril eliminated the increase in blood pressure in growth-restricted relative to vehicle- and flutamide-treated controls. Furthermore, the increase in medullary angiotensin type 1 receptor mRNA expression was abolished in flutamide-treated growth-restricted relative to untreated counterparts and controls; cortical angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNA expression was reduced in flutamide-treated growth-restricted versus untreated counterparts. Thus, these data indicate that androgens, via activation of the renin-angiotensin system, are important mediators of increased blood pressure that develops by 12 months of age in female growth-restricted rats.
Project description:Perinatal insults program sex differences in blood pressure, with males more susceptible than females. Aging may augment developmental programming of chronic disease, but the mechanisms involved are not clear. We previously reported that female growth-restricted offspring are normotensive after puberty. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that age increases susceptibility to hypertension in female growth-restricted offspring. Blood pressure remained similar at 6 months of age; however, blood pressure was significantly elevated in female growth-restricted offspring relative to control by 12 months of age (137±3 vs 117±4 mm Hg; P<0.01, respectively). Body weight did not differ at 6 or 12 months of age; however, total fat mass and visceral fat were significantly increased at 12 months in female growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05 vs control). Glomerular filtration rate remained normal, yet renal vascular resistance was increased at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05 vs control). Plasma leptin, which can increase sympathetic nerve activity, did not differ at 6 months but was increased at 12 months of age in female growth-restricted offspring (P<0.05 vs control). Because of the age-dependent increase in leptin, we hypothesized that the renal nerves may contribute to the age-dependent increase in blood pressure. Bilateral renal denervation abolished the elevated blood pressure in female growth-restricted offspring normalizing it relative to denervated female control offspring. Thus, these data indicate that age induces an increase in visceral fat and circulating leptin associated with a significant increase in blood pressure in female growth-restricted offspring, with the renal nerves serving as an underlying mechanism.
Project description:Prenatal exposure to excess testosterone induces hyperandrogenism in adult females and predisposes them to hypertension. We tested whether androgens induce hypertension through transcriptional regulation and signaling of protein kinase C (PKC) in the mesenteric arteries. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation days 15 to 19, SC) and their 6-month-old adult female offspring were examined. Plasma testosterone levels (0.84±0.04 versus 0.42±0.09 ng/mL) and blood pressures (111.6±1.3 versus 104.5±2.4 mm Hg) were significantly higher in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats compared with controls. This was accompanied with enhanced expression of PKC? mRNA (1.5-fold) and protein (1.7-fold) in the mesenteric arteries of prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In addition, mesenteric artery contractile responses to PKC activator, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate, was significantly greater in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. Treatment with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg/kg, SC, BID for 10 days) significantly attenuated hypertension, PKC? expression, and the exaggerated vasoconstriction in prenatal testosterone-exposed rats. In vitro exposure of testosterone to cultured mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells dose dependently upregulated PKC? expression. Analysis of PKC? gene revealed a putative androgen responsive element in the promoter upstream to the transcription start site and an enhancer element in intron-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that androgen receptors bind to these elements in response to testosterone stimulation. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays showed that the enhancer element is highly responsive to androgens and treatment with flutamide reverses reporter activity. Our studies identified a novel androgen-mediated mechanism for the control of PKC? expression via transcriptional regulation that controls vasoconstriction and blood pressure.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Considering long-term changes in renal sodium handling and blood pressure in maternal protein-restricted (LP) offspring, we assumed that the development of LP hypertension results from abnormal dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurokinin expression associated with impaired responsiveness of renal sensory receptors, promoting a reduced urinary excretion of sodium. The present study investigates whether increased blood pressure in protein-restricted offspring would be associated with changes in the DRG cells and in renal pelvic wall expression of NK1R, SP and CGRP when compared to NP offspring. In addition, we assessed the tubular sodium handling, estimated by creatinine and lithium clearances before and after bilateral renal denervation in conscious LP offspring relative to age-matched NP counterparts.<h4>Methods</h4>Dams received a normal (NP) or low-protein diet (LP) during their entire pregnancy period. Male NP or LP offspring underwent bilateral surgical renal denervation before the 8-week renal functional test and blood pressure measurements. Immunofluorescence staining in DRG cells was assessed in optical sections by confocal laser scanning microscope.<h4>Results</h4>The current data demonstrated a sustained rise in blood pressure associated with a decrease in fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) by reducing post-proximal tubule sodium rejection in 16-wk old LP rats relative to age-matched NP counterparts. According to this study, bilateral renal denervation attenuated blood pressure and increased FENa in LP offspring. Furthermore, an immunohistochemical analysis showed a reduced expression of SP and CGRP in DRGs of LP when compared with NP rats. Renal pelvis of LP rats did not show a strong CGRP expression related to NP rats, whereas there was no change in SP immunostaining.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These observations raise the possibility that impaired DRG and pelvic neurokinin expression associated with responsiveness of renal sensory receptors in 16-wk old LP offspring are conducive to excess renal reabsorption of sodium and development of hypertension in this programmed model.
Project description:The renal endothelin system contributes to sex differences in blood pressure with males demonstrating greater endothelin type-A receptor-mediated responses relative to females. Intrauterine growth restriction programs hypertension and enhance renal sensitivity to acute angiotensin II in male growth-restricted rats. Endothelin is reported to work synergistically with angiotensin II. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that endothelin augments the blood pressure response to acute angiotensin II in male growth-restricted rats. Systemic and renal hemodynamics were determined in response to acute angiotensin II (100 mg/kg per minute for 30 minutes) with and without the endothelin type-A receptor antagonist, Atrasentan (ABT-627; 10 ng/kg per minute for 30 minutes), in rats pretreated with enalapril (250 mg/L for 1 week) to normalize the endogenous renin-angiotensin system. Endothelin type-A receptor blockade reduced angiotensin II-mediated increases in blood pressure in male control and male growth-restricted rats. Endothelin type-A receptor blockade also abolished hyper-responsiveness to acute angiotensin II in male growth-restricted rats. Yet, blood pressure remained significantly elevated above baseline after endothelin type-A receptor blockade, suggesting that factors in addition to endothelin contribute to the basic angiotensin II-induced pressor response in male rats. We also determined sex-specific effects of endothelin on acute angiotensin II-mediated hemodynamic responses. Endothelin type-A receptor blockade did not reduce acute angiotensin II-mediated increases in blood pressure in female control or growth-restricted rats, intact or ovariectomized. Thus, these data suggest that endothelin type-A receptor blockade contributes to hypersensitivity to acute angiotensin II in male growth-restricted rats and further supports the sex-specific effect of endothelin on blood pressure.
Project description:The main actions of the renin-angiotensin system to control blood pressure (BP) are mediated by the angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs). The major murine AT1R isoform, AT1AR, is expressed throughout the nephron, including the collecting duct in both principal and intercalated cells. Principal cells play the major role in sodium and water reabsorption. Although aldosterone is considered to be the dominant regulator of sodium reabsorption by principal cells, recent studies suggest a role for direct actions of AT1R. To specifically examine the contributions of AT1AR in principal cells to BP regulation and the development of hypertension in vivo, we generated inbred 129/SvEv mice with deletion of AT1AR from principal cells (PCKO). At baseline, we found that BPs measured by radiotelemetry were similar between PCKOs and controls. During 1-week of low-salt diet (<0.02% NaCl), BPs fell significantly (P<0.05) and to a similar extent in both groups. On a high-salt (6% NaCl) diet, BP increased but was not different between groups. During the initial phase of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension, there was a modest but significant attenuation of hypertension in PCKOs (163±6 mm Hg) compared with controls (178±2 mm Hg; P<0.05) that was associated with enhanced natriuresis and decreased alpha epithelial sodium channel activation in the medulla of PCKOs. However, from day 9 onward, BPs were indistinguishable between groups. Although effects of AT1AR on baseline BP and adaptation to changes in dietary salt are negligible, our studies suggest that direct actions of AT1AR contribute to the initiation of hypertension and epithelial sodium channel activation.
Project description:Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that maternal diabetes mellitus programs hypertension that is associated with impaired sodium excretion in the adult offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Because dopamine receptor function is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, we hypothesized that impaired renal dopamine D1 receptor function is also involved in the hypertension in offspring of maternal diabetes mellitus. Maternal diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at day 0 of gestation. Compared with the offspring of mothers injected with citrate buffer (control mother offspring), the diabetic mother offspring (DMO) had increased systolic blood pressure and impaired D1 receptor-mediated diuresis and natriuresis, accompanied by increased renal PKC (protein kinase C) expression and activity, GRK-2 (G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2) expression, D1 receptor phosphorylation, D1 receptor/G?s uncoupling, and loss of D1 receptor-mediated inhibition of Na+-K+-ATPase activity in renal proximal tubule cells from DMO. Inhibition of PKC reduced the increased GRK-2 expression and normalized D1 receptor function in primary cultures of renal proximal tubule cells from DMO. In addition, DMO, relative to control mother offspring, in vivo, had increased oxidative stress, indicated by decreased renal glutathione and increased renal malondialdehyde and urine 8-isoprostane. Normalization of oxidative stress with tempol also normalized the renal D1 receptor phosphorylation, D1 receptor-mediated diuresis and natriuresis, and blood pressure in DMO. Our present study indicates that maternal diabetes mellitus-programed hypertension in the offspring is caused by impaired renal D1 receptor function because of oxidative stress that is mediated by increased PKC-GRK-2 activity.
Project description:It is well established that inadequate nutrition during fetal life followed by postnatal overabundance programs adiposity and glucose intolerance. Studies addressing sexual dimorphism in developmental responses to a dietary mismatch are limited; the effect on blood pressure and renal function is understudied. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that a mismatch of prenatal and postnatal nutrition heightens cardiorenal and metabolic risk, outcomes that may vary by sex. Male and female offspring from sham-operated (control) or reduced uterine perfusion dams (growth restricted) were fed regular chow or a diet high in fat and sugar (enriched diet) from weaning until 6 months of age. Male and female offspring were assessed separately; 2-way ANOVA was used to investigate interactions between intrauterine growth-restricted and enriched-diet. Blood pressure was increased in all enriched-diet groups but did not differ in enriched-diet male or female growth-restricted versus same-sex control counterparts. Glomerular filtration rate was reduced in male growth-restricted regardless of diet; a decrease exacerbated by the enriched-diet suggesting the pathogenesis of increased blood pressure induced via an enriched-diet differs between male growth-restricted versus male control. An enriched diet was associated with glucose intolerance in male and female control but not male growth-restricted; the enriched diet exacerbated glucose intolerance in female growth-restricted. Thus, these findings indicate male growth-restricted are resistant to impaired glucose homeostasis, whereas female growth-restricted are susceptible to metabolic dysfunction regardless of postnatal diet. Hence, moderation of fat and sugar intake may be warranted in those born low birth weight to ensure minimal risk for chronic disease.