Aluminum with dispersed nanoparticles by laser additive manufacturing.
ABSTRACT: While laser-printed metals do not tend to match the mechanical properties and thermal stability of conventionally-processed metals, incorporating and dispersing nanoparticles in them should enhance their performance. However, this remains difficult to do during laser additive manufacturing. Here, we show that aluminum reinforced by nanoparticles can be deposited layer-by-layer via laser melting of nanocomposite powders, which enhance the laser absorption by almost one order of magnitude compared to pure aluminum powders. The laser printed nanocomposite delivers a yield strength of up to 1000?MPa, plasticity over 10%, and Young's modulus of approximately 200?GPa, offering one of the highest specific Young's modulus and specific yield strengths among structural metals, as well as an improved specific strength and thermal stability up to 400?°C compared to other aluminum-based materials. The improved performance is attributed to a high density of well-dispersed nanoparticles, strong interfacial bonding between nanoparticles and Al matrix, and ultrafine grain sizes.
Project description:In this work, Al-B₄C nanocomposites were produced by microwave sintering and followed by hot extrusion processes. The influence of ceramic reinforcement (B₄C) nanoparticles on the physical, microstructural, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of the extruded Al-B₄C nanocomposites was investigated. It was observed that the density decreased and porosity increased with an increase in B₄C content in aluminum matrix. The porosity of the composites increased whereas density decreased with increasing B₄C content. Electron microscopy analysis reveals the uniform distribution of B4C nanoparticles in the Al matrix. Mechanical characterization results revealed that hardness, elastic modulus, compression, and tensile strengths increased whereas ductility decreases with increasing B₄C content. Al-1.0 vol. % B₄C nanocomposite exhibited best hardness (135.56 Hv), Young's modulus (88.63 GPa), and compression/tensile strength (524.67/194.41 MPa) among the materials investigated. Further, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of composites gradually decreased with an increase in B₄C content.
Project description:Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced epoxy films were deposited on an aluminum substrate by a hot-pressing process. Three-point bending tests were performed to determine the Young's modulus of MWCNT reinforced nanocomposite films. Compared to the neat epoxy film, nanocomposite film with 1 wt % of MWCNT exhibits an increase of 21% in the Young's modulus. Four-point-bending tests were conducted to investigate the fracture toughness of the MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite film deposited on an aluminum substrate with interfacial cracks. Based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the strain energy in a film/substrate composite beam is derived. The difference of strain energy before and after the propagation of the interfacial crack are calculated, leading to the determination of the strain energy release rate. Experimental test results show that the fracture toughness of the nanocomposite film deposited on the aluminum substrate increases with the increase in the MWCNT content.
Project description:Biodegradable polymers and their composites are considered promising materials for replacing conventional polymer plastics in various engineering fields. In this study, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) composites filled with 5% aluminum nitride nanoparticles were successfully fabricated. The aluminum nitride nanoparticles were surface-modified to improve their interaction with the PBS matrix. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposites with surface-modified nanoparticles had better interface interaction and dispersion in the polymer matrix than those with untreated nanoparticles. The PBS/modified AlN nanocomposites exhibited maximal thermal conductivity enhancement, 63.7%, compared to the neat PBS. In addition, other thermomechanical properties of the PBS nanocomposites were investigated in this study. The nanocomposites also showed a superior storage modulus compared to the neat PBS matrix. In this work, a PBS nanocomposite with suitable thermal conductivity that can be used in various electronic fields was fabricated.
Project description:The nanomechanical properties of carbon nanotubes particulate-reinforced aluminum matrix nanocomposites (Al-CNTs) have been characterized using nanoindentation. Bulk nanocomposite specimens containing 2 wt % multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) were synthesized by a combination of ball milling and powder metallurgy route. It has been tried to understand the correlation between microstructural evolution particularly carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersion during milling and mechanical properties of Al-2 wt % nanocomposites. Maximum enhancement of +23% and +44% has been found in Young's modulus and hardness respectively, owing to well homogenous dispersion of CNTs within the aluminum matrix at longer milling time.
Project description:Physico-mechanical, thermal and structural characteristics of nanocomposite film composed of kefiran-whey protein isolate (WPI)-montmorillonite (MMT; 1, 3 and 5 % w/w) were studied. Incorporation of MMT significantly affected the mechanical attributes of the kefiran-WPI films. The tensile strength and Young's modulus increased and the percentage of elongation at break decreased as the MMT content increased. Moisture content, moisture absorption and water solubility decreased as the MMT concentration increased. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the glass transition temperature for kefiran-WPI film was -12.5 °C and was noticeably affected by an increase in MMT. X-ray diffraction analysis showed formation of an exfoliated structure with the addition of small amounts of MMT to the kefiran-WPI matrix. Intercalation and some exfoliation occurred up to 5 % (wt) increase in MMT. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated ideal dispersion for MMT nanoparticles into the structure of the bio-nanocomposite films.
Project description:The present work reports the production and characterization of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) nanocomposite filaments incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNT) and graphite nanoplates (GnP), electrically conductive and suitable for fused deposition modeling (FDM) processing. The nanocomposites were manufactured by melt mixing and those presenting electrical conductivity near 10 S/m were selected for the production of filaments for FDM. The extruded filaments were characterized for mechanical and thermal conductivity, polymer crystallinity, thermal relaxation, nanoparticle dispersion, thermoelectric effect, and coefficient of friction. They presented electrical conductivity in the range of 1.5 to 13.1 S/m, as well as good mechanical performance and higher thermal conductivity compared to PEEK. The addition of GnP improved the composites' melt processability, maintained the electrical conductivity at target level, and reduced the coefficient of friction by up to 60%. Finally, three-dimensional (3D) printed test specimens were produced, showing a Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength comparable to those of the filaments, but a lower strain at break and electrical conductivity. This was attributed to the presence of large voids in the part, revealing the need for 3D printing parameter optimization. Finally, filament production was up-scaled to kilogram scale maintaining the properties of the research-scale filaments.
Project description:Metal oxide based polymer nanocomposites find diverse applications as functional materials, and in particular thiol-ene/TiO2 nanocomposites are promising candidates for dental restorative materials. The important mechanical and thermal properties of the nanocomposites, however, are still not well understood. In this study, the elastic modulus and thermal conductivity of thiol-ene/TiO2 nanocomposite thin films with varying weight fractions of TiO2 nanoparticles are investigated by using Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and 3? measurements, respectively. As the TiO2 weight fraction increases from 0 to 90%, the effective elastic longitudinal modulus of the films increases from 6.2 to 37.5 GPa, and the effective thermal conductivity from 0.04 to 0.76 W/m K. The former increase could be attributed to the covalent cross-linking of the nanocomposite constituents. The latter one could be ascribed to the addition of high thermal conductivity TiO2 nanoparticles and the formation of possible conductive channels at high TiO2 weight fractions. The linear dependence of the thermal conductivity on the sound velocity, reported for amorphous polymers, is not observed in the present nanocomposite system.
Project description:Composite acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS)/carbon nanotubes (CNT) filaments at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 wt %, suitable for fused deposition modelling (FDM) were obtained by using a completely solvent-free process based on direct melt compounding and extrusion. The optimal CNT content in the filaments for FDM was found to be 6 wt %; for this composite, a detailed investigation of the thermal, mechanical and electrical properties was performed. Presence of CNT in ABS filaments and 3D-printed parts resulted in a significant enhancement of the tensile modulus and strength, accompanied by a reduction of the elongation at break. As documented by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, the stiffening effect of CNTs in ABS is particularly pronounced at high temperatures. Besides, the presence of CNT in 3D-printed parts accounts for better creep and thermal dimensional stabilities of 3D-printed parts, accompanied by a reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion). 3D-printed nanocomposite samples with 6 wt % of CNT exhibited a good electrical conductivity, even if lower than pristine composite filaments.
Project description:This paper discusses the role played by the mechanical stiffness of porous nanocomposite supports on thin-film composite (TFC) membrane water permeance. Helically coiled and multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were studied as additives in the nanocomposite supports. Mechanical stiffness was evaluated using tensile tests and penetration tests. While a low loading of CNTs caused macrovoids that decreased the structural integrity, adding higher loads of CNTs compensated for this effect, and this resulted in a net increase in structural stiffness. It was found that the Young's modulus of the nanocomposite supports increased by 30% upon addition of CNTs at 2 wt %. Results were similar for both types of CNTs. An empirical model for porous composite materials described the Young's modulus results. The nanocomposite supports were subsequently used to create TFC membranes. TFC membranes with stiffer supports were more effective at preventing declines in water permeance during compression. These findings support the idea that increasing the mechanical stiffness of TFC membrane nanocomposite supports is an effective strategy for enhancing water production in desalination operations.
Project description:To expand the chemical capabilities of 3D printed structures generated from commercial thermoplastic printers, we have produced and printed polymer filaments that contain inorganic nanoparticles. TiO2 was dispersed into acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and extruded into filaments with 1.75 mm diameters. We produced filaments with TiO2 compositions of 1%, 5%, and 10% (kg/kg) and printed structures using a commercial 3D printer. Our experiments suggest that ABS undergoes minor degradation in the presence of TiO2 during the different processing steps. The measured mechanical properties (strain and Young's modulus) for all of the composites are similar to those of structures printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 incorporation at 1% negatively affects the stress at breaking point and the flexural stress. Structures produced from the 5 and 10% nanocomposites display a higher breaking point stress than those printed from the pure polymer. TiO2 within the printed matrix was able to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the polymer. TiO2 was also able to photocatalyze the degradation of a rhodamine 6G in solution. These experiments display chemical reactivity in nanocomposites that are printed using commercial 3D printers, and we expect that our methodology will help to inform others who seek to incorporate catalytic nanoparticles in 3D printed structures.