Osh Proteins Control Nanoscale Lipid Organization Necessary for PI(4,5)P2 Synthesis.
ABSTRACT: The plasma membrane (PM) is composed of a complex lipid mixture that forms heterogeneous membrane environments. Yet, how small-scale lipid organization controls physiological events at the PM remains largely unknown. Here, we show that ORP-related Osh lipid exchange proteins are critical for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], a key regulator of dynamic events at the PM. In real-time assays, we find that unsaturated phosphatidylserine (PS) and sterols, both Osh protein ligands, synergistically stimulate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) activity. Biophysical FRET analyses suggest an unconventional co-distribution of unsaturated PS and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) species in sterol-containing membrane bilayers. Moreover, using in vivo imaging approaches and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that Osh protein-mediated unsaturated PI4P and PS membrane lipid organization is sensed by the PIP5K specificity loop. Thus, ORP family members create a nanoscale membrane lipid environment that drives PIP5K activity and PI(4,5)P2 synthesis that ultimately controls global PM organization and dynamics.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a critically important regulatory lipid of the plasma membrane (PM); however, little is known about how cells regulate PM PI(4,5)P2 levels. Here, we show that the phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)/phosphatidylserine (PS) transfer activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident ORP5 and ORP8 is regulated by both PM PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 Dynamic control of ORP5/8 recruitment to the PM occurs through interactions with the N-terminal Pleckstrin homology domains and adjacent basic residues of ORP5/8 with both PI4P and PI(4,5)P2 Although ORP5 activity requires normal levels of these inositides, ORP8 is called on only when PI(4,5)P2 levels are increased. Regulation of the ORP5/8 attachment to the PM by both phosphoinositides provides a powerful means to determine the relative flux of PI4P toward the ER for PS transport and Sac1-mediated dephosphorylation and PIP 5-kinase-mediated conversion to PI(4,5)P2 Using this rheostat, cells can maintain PI(4,5)P2 levels by adjusting the availability of PI4P in the PM.
Project description:Lipid transfer between cell membrane bilayers at contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes help to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. We found that two similar ER integral membrane proteins, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5) and ORP8, tethered the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via the interaction of their pleckstrin homology domains with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in this membrane. Their OSBP-related domains (ORDs) harbored either PI4P or phosphatidylserine (PS) and exchanged these lipids between bilayers. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that ORP5 and ORP8 could mediate PI4P/PS countertransport between the ER and the PM, thus delivering PI4P to the ER-localized PI4P phosphatase Sac1 for degradation and PS from the ER to the PM. This exchange helps to control plasma membrane PI4P levels and selectively enrich PS in the PM.
Project description:Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a rare disease characterized by complex craniofacial, dental, cutaneous, and limb abnormalities combined with intellectual disability. Mutations in thePTDSS1gene coding one of the phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase enzymes, PSS1, were described as causative in LMS patients. Such mutations render PSS1 insensitive to feedback inhibition by PS levels. Here we show that expression of mutant PSS1 enzymes decreased phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) levels both in the Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM) by activating the Sac1 phosphatase and altered PI4P cycling at the PM. Conversely, inhibitors of PI4KA, the enzyme that makes PI4P in the PM, blocked PS synthesis and reduced PS levels by 50% in normal cells. However, mutant PSS1 enzymes alleviated the PI4P dependence of PS synthesis. Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 8, which was recently identified as a PI4P-PS exchanger between the ER and PM, showed PI4P-dependent membrane association that was significantly decreased by expression of PSS1 mutant enzymes. Our studies reveal that PS synthesis is tightly coupled to PI4P-dependent PS transport from the ER. Consequently, PSS1 mutations not only affect cellular PS levels and distribution but also lead to a more complex imbalance in lipid homeostasis by disturbing PI4P metabolism.
Project description:The quantitatively minor phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] fulfills many cellular functions in the plasma membrane (PM), whereas its synthetic precursor, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), has no assigned PM roles apart from PI(4,5)P(2) synthesis. We used a combination of pharmacological and chemical genetic approaches to probe the function of PM PI4P, most of which was not required for the synthesis or functions of PI(4,5)P(2). However, depletion of both lipids was required to prevent PM targeting of proteins that interact with acidic lipids or activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 cation channel. Therefore, PI4P contributes to the pool of polyanionic lipids that define plasma membrane identity and to some functions previously attributed specifically to PI(4,5)P(2), which may be fulfilled by a more general polyanionic lipid requirement.
Project description:OSBP-homologous proteins (ORPs, Oshp) are lipid binding/transfer proteins. Several ORP/Oshp localize to membrane contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane, where they mediate lipid transfer or regulate lipid-modifying enzymes. A common way in which they target contacts is by binding to the ER proteins, VAP/Scs2p, while the second membrane is targeted by other interactions with lipids or proteins.We have studied the cross-talk of secretory SNARE proteins and their regulators with ORP/Oshp and VAPA/Scs2p at ER-plasma membrane contact sites in yeast and murine primary neurons. We show that Oshp-Scs2p interactions depend on intact secretory SNARE proteins, especially Sec9p. SNAP-25/Sec9p directly interact with ORP/Osh proteins and their disruption destabilized the ORP/Osh proteins, associated with dysfunction of VAPA/Scs2p. Deleting OSH1-3 in yeast or knocking down ORP2 in primary neurons reduced the oligomerization of VAPA/Scs2p and affected their multiple interactions with SNAREs. These observations reveal a novel cross-talk between the machineries of ER-plasma membrane contact sites and those driving exocytosis.
Project description:A central assumption is that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) bind transiently to organelle membranes to distribute lipids in the eukaryotic cell. Osh6p and Osh7p are yeast LTPs that transfer phosphatidylserine (PS) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the plasma membrane (PM) via PS/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) exchange cycles. It is unknown how, at each cycle, they escape from the electrostatic attraction of the PM, highly anionic, to return to the ER. Using cellular and in vitro approaches, we show that Osh6p reduces its avidity for anionic membranes once it captures PS or PI4P, due to a molecular lid closing its lipid-binding pocket. Thus, Osh6p maintains its transport activity between ER- and PM-like membranes. Further investigations reveal that the lid governs the membrane docking and activity of Osh6p because it is anionic. Our study unveils how an LTP self-limits its residency time on membranes, via an electrostatic switching mechanism, to transfer lipids efficiently.
2019-01-01 | S-EPMC6718676 | BioStudies
Project description:The small GTPase Rab7 is a key organizer of receptor sorting and lysosomal degradation by recruiting of a variety of effectors depending on its GDP/GTP-bound state. However, molecular mechanisms that trigger Rab7 inactivation remain elusive. Here we find that, among the endosomal pools, Rab7-positive compartments possess the highest level of PI4P, which is primarily produced by PI4K2A kinase. Acute conversion of this endosomal PI4P to PI(4,5)P2 causes Rab7 dissociation from late endosomes and releases a regulator of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, PLEKHM1, from the membrane. Rab7 effectors Vps35 and RILP are not affected by acute PI(4,5)P2 production. Deletion of PI4K2A greatly reduces PIP5K?-mediated PI(4,5)P2 production in Rab7 positive endosomes leading to impaired Rab7 inactivation and increased number of LC3 positive structures with defective autophagosome-lysosome fusion. These results reveal a late endosomal PI4P-PI(4,5)P2-dependent regulatory loop that impacts autophagosome flux by affecting Rab7 cycling and PLEKHM1 association.
Project description:The small GTPase Rab7 is a key organizer of receptor sorting and lysosomal degradation by recruiting of a variety of effectors depending on its GDP/GTP-bound state. However, molecular mechanisms that trigger Rab7 inactivation remain elusive. Here we find that, among the endosomal pools, Rab7-positive compartments possess the highest level of PI4P, which is primarily produced by PI4K2A kinase. Acute conversion of this endosomal PI4P to PI(4,5)P2 causes Rab7 dissociation from late endosomes and releases a regulator of autophagosome-lysosome fusion, PLEKHM1, from the membrane. Rab7 effectors Vps35 and RILP are not affected by acute PI(4,5)P2 production. Deletion of PI4K2A greatly reduces PIP5K?-mediated PI(4,5)P2 production in Rab7-positive endosomes leading to impaired Rab7 inactivation and increased number of LC3-positive structures with defective autophagosome-lysosome fusion. These results reveal a late endosomal PI4P-PI(4,5)P2 -dependent regulatory loop that impacts autophagosome flux by affecting Rab7 cycling and PLEKHM1 association.
Project description:P5A ATPases are expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all eukaryotic cells, and their disruption results in severe ER stress. However, the function of these ubiquitous membrane proteins, which belong to the P-type ATPase superfamily, is unknown. We purified a functional tagged version of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae P5A ATPase Spf1p and observed that the ATP hydrolytic activity of the protein is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P). Furthermore, SPF1 exhibited negative genetic interactions with SAC1, encoding a PI4P phosphatase, and with OSH1 to OSH6, encoding Osh proteins, which, when energized by a PI4P gradient, drive export of sterols and lipids from the ER. Deletion of SPF1 resulted in increased sensitivity to inhibitors of sterol production, a marked change in the ergosterol/lanosterol ratio, accumulation of sterols in the plasma membrane, and cytosolic accumulation of lipid bodies. We propose that Spf1p maintains cellular sterol homeostasis by influencing the PI4P-induced and Osh-mediated export of sterols from the ER.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) is a versatile phospholipid that participates in many membrane-associated signaling processes. PI(4,5)P2 production at the plasma membrane (PM) depends on levels of its precursor, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), synthesized principally by two intracellular enzymes, PI4-kinases III? and IIIb; the former is preferentially inhibited by phenylarsine oxide (PAO). We found that PAO and quercetin, another lipid kinase inhibitor, rapidly inhibit Ca(2+) responses to antigen in IgE-sensitized rat basophilic leukemia mast cells. Quercetin also rapidly inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) influx stimulated by thapsigargin. In addition, quercetin and PAO effectively inhibit antigen-stimulated ruffling and spreading in these cells, and they inhibit endocytosis of crosslinked IgE receptor complexes, evidently by inhibiting pinching off of endocytic vesicles containing the clustered IgE receptors. A minimal model to account for these diverse effects is inhibition of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis by PAO and quercetin. To characterize the direct effects of these agents on PI(4,5)P2 synthesis, we monitored the reappearance of the PI(4,5)P2-specific PH domain PH-phospholipase C ?-EGFP at the PM after Ca(2+) ionophore (A23187)-induced PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis, followed by Ca(2+) chelation with excess EGTA. Resynthesized PI(4,5)P2 initially appears as micron-sized patches near the PM. Addition of quercetin subsequent to A23187-induced PI(4,5)P2 hydrolysis reduces PI(4,5)P2 resynthesis in PM-associated patches, and PAO reduces PI(4,5)P2 at the PM while enhancing PI(4,5)P2 accumulation at the Golgi complex. Taken together, these results provide evidence that PI4P generated by PI4-kinase III? is dynamically coupled to PI(4,5)P2 pools at the PM that are important for downstream signaling processes activated by IgE receptors.