Autozygosity and Genetic Differentiation of Landrace and Large White Pigs as Revealed by the Genetic Analyses of Crossbreds.
ABSTRACT: Genomic information from crossbreds is routinely generated for genomic evaluations. The objective of this study is to investigate autozygosity and genetic differentiation in Landrace by Large-White breeds by using the genotypic information of SNP arrays in 1,173 crossbreds. A maximum likelihood approach was developed to estimate the probability of autozygosity (FL ). Regions of differentiation between breeds were investigated using FST and the difference in allele frequencies between the two parental breeds (??) at each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) position. A maximum likelihood approach was proposed to estimate allele frequencies in the parental populations. The average length of runs of homozygosity (ROH) across the genome was 3.91, 2.3, and 0.7 Mb for segments with at least 25, 15, and 5 SNPs, respectively. Average age to coalesce was 46, 414, and 388 years for segments with at least 25, 15, and 5 SNPs, respectively. The probability of autozygosity was not uniform along the crossbred genome, being higher at the center for most chromosomes. The correlation between autozygosity and distance to the closest telomere was positive and significant in most chromosomes, which could be attributed to the higher recombination rate near telomeres. We also report a relatively high negative correlation between probability of recombination (from a published map) and probability of autozygosity. It supports that structural characteristics of the chromosomes related to recombination rate determine autozygosity at each chromosomal position of the pig genome. The average is ? across the genome was 0.17 (SD = 0.16). After testing for differences in allele frequencies between the parental breeds, there were 4,184 SNPs with a likelihood ratio test, LRT ? 32.02. The average FST across the genome was 0.038 (SD = 0.059). There were 2,949 SNPs with FST > 0.125. The correlation between estimates of FL and estimates of FST across the genome was -0.10 (SE = 0.006). Analysis of the gene content of the genomic regions with the 2000 SNPs with highest LRT for FL and high FST showed overrepresentation of genes with a regulatory function. Genes with biological functions associated with production, such as tissue development, anatomical structure, and animal organ development, were also overrepresented in regions with a high FST .
Project description:Dairy cattle in East Africa imported from the U.S. and Europe have been adapted to new environments. In small local farms, cattle have generally been maintained by crossbreeding that could increase survivability under a severe environment. Eventually, genomic ancestry of a specific breed will be nearly fixed in genomic regions of local breeds or crossbreds when it is advantageous for survival or production in harsh environments. To examine this situation, 25 Friesians and 162 local cattle produced by crossbreeding of dairy breeds in Kenya were sampled and genotyped using 50K SNPs. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the admixed local cattle were found to consist of several imported breeds, including Guernsey, Norwegian Red, and Holstein. To infer the influence of parental breeds on genomic regions, local ancestry mapping was performed based on the similarity of haplotypes. As a consequence, it appears that no genomic region has been under the complete influence of a specific parental breed. Nonetheless, the ancestry of Holstein-Friesians was substantial in most genomic regions (>80%). Furthermore, we examined the frequency of the most common haplotypes from parental breeds that have changed substantially in Kenyan crossbreds during admixture. The frequency of these haplotypes from parental breeds, which were likely to be selected in temperate regions, has deviated considerably from expected frequency in 11 genomic regions. Additionally, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) based methods were applied to identify the regions responding to recent selection in crossbreds, called candidate regions, resulting in seven regions that appeared to be affected by Holstein-Friesians. However, some signatures of selection were less dependent on Holsteins-Friesians, suggesting evidence of adaptation in East Africa. The analysis of local ancestry is a useful approach to understand the detailed genomic structure and may reveal regions of the genome required for specialized adaptation when combined with methods for searching for the recent changes of haplotype frequency in an admixed population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Genomic selection can be applied to select purebreds for crossbred performance (CP). The average performance of crossbreds can be considered as the summation of two components, i.e. the breed average (BA) of the parental breeds and heterosis (H) present in crossbreds. Selection of pure breeds for CP based on genomic estimated breeding values for crossbred performance (GEBV-C) or for purebred performance (GEBV-P) may differ in their ability to exploit BA and H and can affect the merit of crossbreds in both the short and long term. Selection based on GEBV-C is beneficial for CP, because H in crossbreds is efficiently exploited, whereas selection on GEBV-P results in more genetic progress in pure breeds, which increases the BA component of CP. To investigate the outcome of selection on GEBV-C and GEBV-P in both the short and long term, a two-way crossbreeding program was simulated to test the following hypotheses: (1) does selection on GEBV-P result in higher long-term CP compared to selection on GEBV-C and (2) does selection on a combination of GEBV-P and GEBV-C lead to more long-term gain in CP than selection on either separately.<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated the performance of crossbreds in a two-way crossbreeding program across 40 generations and considered different criteria to select purebred parents that ranged from selection on purebred performance to selection for CP with different weights on genomic evaluations based on purebred and CP. These criteria were compared under three genetic models to investigate the effects of the amount of dominance variance, absence of over-dominance, and the structure of the reference population on CP, both in the short and long term.<h4>Results and conclusions</h4>Although beneficial in the short to medium term, genomic selection in pure breeds on a criterion that specifically targets CP was inferior to selection for purebred performance in the long term. A selection criterion that maximizes a combination of short- and long-term responses in CP, should improve the components that define crossbred merit (i.e., BA and H) simultaneously.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Modern breeding and artificial selection play critical roles in pig domestication and shape the genetic variation of different breeds. China has many indigenous pig breeds with various characteristics in morphology and production performance that differ from those of foreign commercial pig breeds. However, the signatures of selection on genes implying for economic traits between Chinese indigenous and commercial pigs have been poorly understood. RESULTS: We identified footprints of positive selection at the whole genome level, comprising 44,652 SNPs genotyped in six Chinese indigenous pig breeds, one developed breed and two commercial breeds. An empirical genome-wide distribution of Fst (F-statistics) was constructed based on estimations of Fst for each SNP across these nine breeds. We detected selection at the genome level using the High-Fst outlier method and found that 81 candidate genes show high evidence of positive selection. Furthermore, the results of network analyses showed that the genes that displayed evidence of positive selection were mainly involved in the development of tissues and organs, and the immune response. In addition, we calculated the pairwise Fst between Chinese indigenous and commercial breeds (CHN VS EURO) and between Northern and Southern Chinese indigenous breeds (Northern VS Southern). The IGF1R and ESR1 genes showed evidence of positive selection in the CHN VS EURO and Northern VS Southern groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we first identified the genomic regions that showed evidences of selection between Chinese indigenous and commercial pig breeds using the High-Fst outlier method. These regions were found to be involved in the development of tissues and organs, the immune response, growth and litter size. The results of this study provide new insights into understanding the genetic variation and domestication in pigs.
Project description:Sudan is endowed with a variety of indigenous goat breeds which are used for meat and milk production and which are well adapted to the local environment. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity and relationship within and between the four main Sudanese breeds of Nubian, Desert, Taggar and Nilotic goats. Using the 50 K SNP chip, 24 animals of each breed were genotyped.More than 96% of high quality SNPs were polymorphic with an average minor allele frequency of 0.3. In all breeds, no significant difference between observed (0.4) and expected (0.4) heterozygosity was found and the inbreeding coefficients (FIS) did not differ from zero. Fst coefficients for the genetic distance between breeds also did not significantly deviate from zero. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance revealed that 93% of the total variance in the examined population can be explained by differences among individuals, while only 7% result from differences between the breeds. These findings provide evidence for high genetic diversity and little inbreeding within breeds on one hand, and low diversity between breeds on the other hand. Further examinations using Nei's genetic distance and STRUCTURE analysis clustered Taggar goats distinct from the other breeds. In a principal component (PC) analysis, PC1 could separate Taggar, Nilotic and a mix of Nubian and Desert goats into three groups. The SNPs that contributed strongly to PC1 showed high Fst values in Taggar goat versus the other goat breeds. PCA allowed us to identify target genomic regions which contain genes known to influence growth, development, bone formation and the immune system.The information on the genetic variability and diversity in this study confirmed that Taggar goat is genetically different from the other goat breeds in Sudan. The SNPs identified by the first principal components show high Fst values in Taggar goat and allowed to identify candidate genes which can be used in the development of breed selection programs to improve local breeds and find genetic factors contributing to the adaptation to harsh environments.
Project description:Genome-wide runs of homozygosity (ROH) are suitable for understanding population history, calculating genomic inbreeding, deciphering genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases as well as identifying genes linked with agro-economic traits. Autozygosity and ROH islands, genomic regions with elevated ROH frequencies, were characterized in 112 animals of seven Indian native cattle breeds (B. indicus) using BovineHD BeadChip. In total, 4138 ROH were detected. The average number of ROH per animal was maximum in draft breed, Kangayam (63.62 ± 22.71) and minimum in dairy breed, Sahiwal (24.62 ± 11.03). The mean ROH length was maximum in Vechur (6.97 Mb) and minimum in Hariana (4.04 Mb). Kangayam revealed the highest ROH based inbreeding (FROH > 1Mb = 0.113 ± 0.059), whereas Hariana (FROH > 1Mb = 0.042 ± 0.031) and Sahiwal (FROH > 1Mb = 0.043 ± 0.048) showed the lowest. The high standard deviation observed in each breed highlights a considerable variability in autozygosity. Out of the total autozygous segments observed in each breed except Vechur, > 80% were of short length (< 8 Mb) and contributed almost 50% of the genome proportion under ROH. However, in Vechur cattle, long ROH contributed 75% of the genome proportion under ROH. ROH patterns revealed Hariana and Sahiwal breeds as less consanguineous, while recent inbreeding was apparent in Vechur. Maximum autozygosity observed in Kangayam is attributable to both recent and ancient inbreeding. The ROH islands were harbouring higher proportion of QTLs for production traits (20.68% vs. 14.64%; P? 0.05) but lower for reproductive traits (11.49% vs. 15.76%; P? 0.05) in dairy breeds compared to draft breed. In draft cattle, genes associated with resistant to diseases/higher immunity (LYZL1, SVIL, and GPX4) and stress tolerant (CCT4) were identified in ROH islands; while in dairy breeds, for milk production (PTGFR, CSN1S1, CSN2, CSN1S2, and CSN3). Significant difference in ROH islands among large and short statured breeds was observed at chromosome 3 and 5 involving genes like PTGFR and HMGA2 responsible for milk production and stature, respectively. PCA analysis on consensus ROH regions revealed distinct clustering of dairy, draft and short stature cattle breeds.
Project description:Goats play an important role in the livestock sector in Greece. The national herd consists mainly of two indigenous breeds, the Eghoria and Skopelos. Here, we report the population structure and genomic profiles of these two native goat breeds using Illumina's Goat SNP50 BeadChip. Moreover, we present a panel of candidate markers acquired using different genetic models for breed discrimination. Quality control on the initial dataset resulted in 48,841 SNPs kept for downstream analysis. Principal component and admixture analyses were applied to assess population structure. The rate of inbreeding within breed was evaluated based on the distribution of runs of homozygosity in the genome and respective coefficients, the genomic relationship matrix, the patterns of linkage disequilibrium, and the historic effective population size. Results showed that both breeds exhibit high levels of genetic diversity. Level of inbreeding between the two breeds estimated by the Wright's fixation index FST was low (Fst = 0.04362), indicating the existence of a weak genetic differentiation between them. In addition, grouping of farms according to their geographical locations was observed. This study presents for the first time a genome-based analysis on the genetic structure of the two indigenous Greek goat breeds and identifies markers that can be potentially exploited in future selective breeding programs for traceability purposes, targeted genetic improvement schemes and conservation strategies.
Project description:Copy number variations (CNVs) have been demonstrated as crucial substrates for evolution, adaptation and breed formation. Chinese indigenous cattle breeds exhibit a broad geographical distribution and diverse environmental adaptability. Here, we analyzed the population structure and adaptation to high altitude of Chinese indigenous cattle based on genome-wide CNVs derived from the high-density BovineHD SNP array. We successfully detected the genome-wide CNVs of 318 individuals from 24 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and 37 yaks as outgroups. A total of 5,818 autosomal CNV regions (683 bp-4,477,860 bp in size), covering ~14.34% of the bovine genome (UMD3.1), were identified, showing abundant CNV resources. Neighbor-joining clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and population admixture analysis based on these CNVs support that most Chinese cattle breeds are hybrids of Bos taurus taurus (hereinafter to be referred as Bos taurus) and Bos taurus indicus (Bos indicus). The distribution patterns of the CNVs could to some extent be related to the geographical backgrounds of the habitat of the breeds, and admixture among cattle breeds from different districts. We analyzed the selective signatures of CNVs positively involved in high-altitude adaptation using pairwise Fst analysis within breeds with a strong Bos taurus background (taurine-type breeds) and within Bos taurus×Bos indicus hybrids, respectively. CNV-overlapping genes with strong selection signatures (at top 0.5% of Fst value), including LETM1 (Fst = 0.490), TXNRD2 (Fst = 0.440), and STUB1 (Fst = 0.420) within taurine-type breeds, and NOXA1 (Fst = 0.233), RUVBL1 (Fst = 0.222), and SLC4A3 (Fst=0.154) within hybrids, were potentially involved in the adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, we provide a new profile of population structure from the CNV aspects of Chinese indigenous cattle and new insights into high-altitude adaptation in cattle.
Project description:Copy number variations (CNVs) have been demonstrated as crucial substrates for evolution, adaptation and breed formation. Chinese indigenous cattle breeds exhibit a broad geographical distribution and diverse environmental adaptability. Here, we analyzed the population structure and adaptation to high altitude of Chinese indigenous cattle based on genome-wide CNVs derived from the high-density BovineHD SNP array. We successfully detected the genome-wide CNVs of 318 individuals from 24 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds and 37 yaks as outgroups. A total of 5,818 autosomal CNV regions (683 bp - 4,477,860 bp in size), covering ~14.34% of the bovine genome (UMD3.1), were identified, showing abundant CNV resources. Neighbor-joining clustering, principal component analysis (PCA), and population admixture analysis based on these CNVs support that most Chinese cattle breeds are hybrids of Bos taurus taurus (hereinafter to be referred as Bos taurus) and Bos taurus indicus (Bos indicus). The distribution patterns of the CNVs could to some extent be related to the geographical backgrounds of the habitat of the breeds, and admixture among cattle breeds from different districts. We analyzed the selective signatures of CNVs positively involved in high-altitude adaptation using pairwise Fst analysis within breeds with a strong Bos taurus background (taurine-type breeds) and within Bos taurus×Bos indicus hybrids, respectively. CNV-overlapping genes with strong selection signatures (at top 0.5% of Fst value), including LETM1 (Fst = 0.490), TXNRD2 (Fst=0.440) and STUB1 (Fst=0.420) within taurine-type breeds, and NOXA1 (Fst = 0.233), RUVBL1 (Fst=0.222) and SLC4A3 (Fst=0.154) within hybrids, were potentially involved in the adaptation to hypoxia. Thus, we provide a new profile of population structure from the CNV aspects of Chinese indigenous cattle and new insights into high-altitude adaptation in cattle. Overall design: We initially genotyped 375 individuals representing 25 Chinese indigenous cattle breeds, as well as 39 individuals representing two yak breeds as outgroups. After quality control filtering for chip data, a total of 355 individuals including 318 Chinese indigenous cattle and 37 yaks (outgroups in our study) were retained and used for further analyses. We detected their genome-wide CNVs, and analyzed their population structure based on these CNVs. We used the pairwise Fst method to explore the selection signatures of CNVs positively involved in high-altitude adaptation, by comparing cattle breeds native to high-altitude plateau with those native to low-altitude land within taurine-type breeds and within Bos taurus×Bos indicus hybrids, respectively.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Identification of genomic regions that have been targets of selection for phenotypic traits is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in animal genetics. However, currently there are relatively few genomic regions identified that have been subject to positive selection. In this study, a genome-wide scan using ~50,000 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed in an attempt to identify genomic regions associated with fat deposition in fat-tail breeds. This trait and its modification are very important in those countries grazing these breeds. RESULTS: Two independent experiments using either Iranian or Ovine HapMap genotyping data contrasted thin and fat tail breeds. Population differentiation using FST in Iranian thin and fat tail breeds revealed seven genomic regions. Almost all of these regions overlapped with QTLs that had previously been identified as affecting fat and carcass yield traits in beef and dairy cattle. Study of selection sweep signatures using FST in thin and fat tail breeds sampled from the Ovine HapMap project confirmed three of these regions located on Chromosomes 5, 7 and X. We found increased homozygosity in these regions in favour of fat tail breeds on chromosome 5 and X and in favour of thin tail breeds on chromosome 7. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we were able to identify three novel regions associated with fat deposition in thin and fat tail sheep breeds. Two of these were associated with an increase of homozygosity in the fat tail breeds which would be consistent with selection for mutations affecting fat tail size several thousand years after domestication.
Project description:Through long term natural and artificial selection, domestic sheep (Ovis aries) have become adapted to a diverse range of agro-ecological environments and display multiple phenotypic traits. Characterization of diversity and selection signature is essential for genetic improvement, understanding of environmental adaptation, as well as utilization and conservation of sheep genetic resources. Here, we aimed to assess genomic diversity, population structure, and genomic selection among five Chinese native sheep breeds using 600K high density SNP genotypes. A total of 96 animals of the five breeds were selected from different geographical locations with extremely dry or humid conditions. We found a high proportion of informative SNPs, ranging from 93.3% in Yabuyi to 95.5% in Wadi, Hu, and Hetian sheep. The average pairwise population differentiation (FST) between the breeds was 0.048%, ranging from 0.022% to 0.054%, indicating their low to moderate differentiation. PCA, ADMIXTURE, and phylogenetic tree analyses revealed a clustering pattern of the five Chinese sheep breeds according to their geographical distribution, tail type, coat color, body size, and breeding history. The genomic regions under putative selection identified by FST and XP-EHH approaches frequently overlapped across the breeds, and spanned genes associated with adaptation to extremely dry or humid environments, innate and adaptive immune responses, and growth, wool, milk, and reproduction traits. The present study offers novel insight into genomic adaptation to dry and humid climates in sheep among other domestic animals and provides a valuable resource for further investigation. Moreover, it contributes useful information to sustainable utilization and conservation of sheep genetic resources.