The human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat and its discrete fragments evoke selective release of acetylcholine from human and rat cerebrocortical terminals through species-specific mechanisms.
ABSTRACT: The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Tat was investigated on neurotransmitter release from human and rat cortical nerve endings. Tat failed to affect the release of several neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, norepinephrine, and others, but it evoked the release of [3H]ACh via increase of cytosolic [Ca2+]. In human nerve terminals, the Tat effect partly depends on Ca2+ entry through voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels, because Cd2+ halved the Tat-evoked release. Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) and mobilization of Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intraterminal stores are also involved, because the Tat effect was prevented by mGluR antagonists 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine hydrochloride and 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate ethyl ester and by the IP3 receptor antagonists heparin and xestospongin C. Furthermore, the group I selective mGlu agonist (RS)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine enhanced [3H]ACh release. In rat nerve terminals, the Tat-evoked release neither depends on external Ca2+ ions entry nor on IP3-mediated mechanisms. Tat seems to cause mobilization of Ca2+ from ryanodine-sensitive internal stores because its effect was prevented by both 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose and dantrolene. The Tat-evoked release from human synaptosomes was mimicked by the peptide sequences Tat 32-62, Tat 49-86, and Tat 41-60. In contrast, the Tat 49-86 and Tat 61-80 fragments, but not the Tat 32-62 fragment, were active in rat synaptosomes. In conclusion, Tat elicits Ca2+-dependent [3H]ACh release by species-specific intraterminal mechanisms by binding via discrete amino acid sequences to different receptive sites on human and rat cholinergic terminals.
Project description:The effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 8-bromo-guanosine 3'5' cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cyclic GMP) on nerve-mediated and acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked amylase secretion, tritiated choline ([3H]-choline) release and on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the isolated rat pancreas were investigated. Electrical field stimulation (EFS; 10 Hz) and ACh (1 x 10(-5) M) caused large increases in amylase output from pancreatic segments. The response to ACh was blocked by atropine (1 x 10(-5) M) whereas the EFS-evoked response was markedly reduced but not abolished. In contrast, pretreatment with tetrodotoxin (1 x 10(-6) M) abolished the secretory effect of EFS. Either SNP (1 x 10(-3) M) or 8-Br-cyclic GMP (1 x 10(-4) M) inhibited amylase secretion compared to basal. Combining either SNP or 8-Br-cyclic GMP with EFS resulted in a marked decrease in amylase output compared to EFS alone. In contrast, either SNP or 8-Br-cyclic GMP had no significant effect on the amylase response to ACh. When extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) was elevated from 2.56 mM to 5.12 mM, SNP failed to inhibit the response to EFS. EFS stimulated the release of 3H from pancreatic segments preloaded with [3H]-choline. Either SNP or 8-Br-cyclic GMP had no effect on basal 3H release but significantly reduced the EFS-evoked response. In fura-2 loaded acinar cells, SNP elicited a small decrease in [Ca2+]i compared to basal and had no effect on the ACh-induced [Ca2+]i peak response. Nitric oxide may modulate the release of endogenous neural ACh in response to EFS in the rat pancreas.
Project description:Two metabolites of tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindole and kynurenic acid (kynurenate) affect the function of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as measured by electrophysiological and Ca2+ fluorescence techniques. To better understand the modulations by 5-hydroxyindole and kynurenate of the function of nAChR subtypes, we compared the effects of 5-hydroxyindole and kynurenate on the release of various transmitters evoked by nAChR activation.The function of alpha7nAChRs located on glutamatergic terminals was investigated by monitoring the release of [3H]D-aspartate or of endogenous glutamate from neocortical synaptosomes. We also comparatively considered non-alpha7 release-enhancing nAChRs localized on hippocampal noradrenergic or cholinergic terminals, as well as on striatal dopaminergic terminals.Epibatidine or nicotine, inactive on their own on basal release, enhanced [3H]D- aspartate and glutamate efflux in presence of 5-hydroxyindole. The release evoked by nicotine plus 5-hydroxyindole was abolished by methyllycaconitine or alpha-bungarotoxin. Presynaptic nAChRs mediating the release of [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA), [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA), or [3H]ACh were inhibited by 5-OHi. The alpha7nAChR-mediated release of [3H]D-aspartate was reduced by kynurenate at concentrations unable to affect the non-alpha7 receptor-mediated release of tritiated NA, DA or ACh.(i) 5-hydroxyindole permits selective activation of alpha7nAChRs mediating glutamate release; (ii) kynurenate down-regulates the permissive role of 5-hydroxyindole on alpha7nAChR activation; (iii) the non-alpha7nAChRs mediating release of NA, DA or ACh can be inhibited by 5-hydroxyindole, but not by kynurenate. These findings suggest up the possibility of developing novel drugs able to modulate selectively the cholinergic-glutamatergic transmission.
Project description:Calmodulin inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding to, and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by, cerebellar IP3 receptors [Patel, Morris, Adkins, O'Beirne and Taylor (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.A. 94, 11627-11632]. In the present study, full-length rat type-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed at high levels in insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and the effects of calmodulin were examined. In the absence of Ca2+, calmodulin caused a concentration-dependent and reversible inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors by decreasing their apparent affinity for IP3. The effect was not reproduced by high concentrations of troponin C, parvalbumin or S-100. Increasing the medium free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) inhibited [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 receptors, but the further inhibition caused by a submaximal concentration of calmodulin was similar at each [Ca2+]m. In the absence of Ca2+, 125I-calmodulin bound to a single site on each type-1 receptor subunit and to an additional site in the presence of Ca2+. There was no detectable binding of 125I-calmodulin to type-3 receptors and binding of [3H]IP3 was insensitive to calmodulin at all [Ca2+]m. Both peptide and conventional Ca2+-calmodulin antagonists affected neither [3H]IP3 binding directly nor the inhibitory effect of calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+, but each caused a [Ca2+]m-dependent reversal of the inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding caused by calmodulin. Camstatin, a peptide that binds to calmodulin equally well in the presence or absence of Ca2+, reversed the inhibitory effects of calmodulin on [3H]IP3 binding at all [Ca2+]m. We conclude that calmodulin specifically inhibits [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors: the first example of a protein regulated by calmodulin in an entirely Ca2+-independent manner. Inhibition of type-1 IP3 receptors by calmodulin may dynamically regulate their sensitivity to IP3 in response to the changes in cytosolic free calmodulin concentration thought to accompany stimulation of neurones.
Project description:In rat pancreatic acinar cells, the Ca2+-mobilizing receptor-agonist, caerulein, at both maximal and submaximal concentrations, stimulated a rapid, transient, increase in [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [(1,4,5)IP3], followed by a slower, sustained, increase in [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [(1,3,4)IP3]. Neither activation of protein kinase C by phorbol dibutyrate nor prevention of the caerulein-stimulated elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] significantly affected the pattern of formation of the two isomers of IP3. Although carbachol evoked an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+], it did not significantly stimulate [3H](1,4,5)IP3 accumulation, but did promote [3H](1,3,4)IP3 accumulation. Moreover, both carbachol and caerulein maintained hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ pools in a Ca2+-depleted state after [3H](1,4,5)IP3 had returned to basal concentrations. One interpretation of these findings is that total cellular concentrations of [3H](1,4,5)IP3 may not accurately reflect the concentration of this putative mediator in biologically relevant compartments.
Project description:Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) that regulates vascular signalling transduction, vasocontraction and vasodilation. Although the physiological role of ROS in endothelial cells is acknowledged, the mechanisms underlying H2O2 regulation of signalling in native, fully-differentiated endothelial cells is unresolved. In the present study, the effects of H2O2 on Ca2+ signalling were investigated in the endothelium of intact rat mesenteric arteries. Spontaneous local Ca2+ signals and acetylcholine evoked Ca2+ increases were inhibited by H2O2. H2O2 inhibition of acetylcholine-evoked Ca2+ signals was reversed by catalase. H2O2 exerts its inhibition on the IP3 receptor as Ca2+ release evoked by photolysis of caged IP3 was supressed by H2O2. H2O2 suppression of IP3-evoked Ca2+ signalling may be mediated by mitochondria. H2O2 depolarized mitochondria membrane potential. Acetylcholine-evoked Ca2+ release was inhibited by depolarisation of the mitochondrial membrane potential by the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) or complex 1 inhibitor, rotenone. We propose that the suppression of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by H2O2 arises from the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. These results suggest that mitochondria may protect themselves against Ca2+ overload during IP3-linked Ca2+ signals by a H2O2 mediated negative feedback depolarization of the organelle and inhibition of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release.
Project description:1. The effects of adenosine A2A and A1 receptor activation on the release of glutamate were studied in rat cerebral cortex synaptosomes exposed in superfusion to adenosine receptor ligands. 2. Adenosine (0.1 microM) produced a significant potentiation of the Ca2+-dependent K+ (15 mM)-evoked [3H]-D-aspartate overflow (20.4+/-3.5%), which was blocked by A2A blocker SCH58261 (0.1 microM). At higher concentrations (10 - 1000 microM) adenosine inhibited in a DPCPX-sensitive manner the Ca2+-dependent K+-evoked [3H]-D-aspartate overflow. The inhibitory effect of adenosine at 1000 microM was significantly increased by SCH58261. This inhibition was antagonized by 1 microM DPCPX. Adenosine did not produce any effect on basal release. 3. The A2A receptor agonist CGS 21680 was ineffective on basal release, but stimulated the Ca2+-dependent K+-evoked overflow of [3H]-D-aspartate (EC50 approximately 1 pM). The effect of 0.01 nM CGS 21680 was totally sensitive to the A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (IC50 approximately 5 nM). 4. The A1 receptor agonist CCPA inhibited the Ca2+-dependent K+-evoked [3H]-D-aspartate overflow (EC50 approximately 20 nM). The effect of 100 nM CCPA was abolished by 100 nM of the A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX. 5. The K+ (15 mM)-evoked overflow of endogenous glutamate was enhanced by CGS 21680 (0.01 nM) and inhibited by CCPA (0.1 microM). The effect of CGS 21680 was abolished by SCH58261 (0.1 microM) and that of CCPA by DPCPX (0.1 microM). 6. It is concluded that adenosine and adenosine receptor agonists modulate glutamate release by activating inhibitory A1 and excitatory A2A receptors present on glutamatergic terminals of the rat cerebral cortex.
Project description:Biphasic regulation of inositol trisphosphate (IP3)-stimulated Ca2+ mobilization by cytosolic Ca2+ is believed to contribute to regenerative intracellular Ca2+ signals. Since cells typically express several IP3 receptor isoforms and the effects of cytosolic Ca2+ are not mediated by a single mechanism, it is important to resolve the properties of each receptor subtype. Full-length rat types-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed in insect Sf9 cells at levels 10-40-fold higher than the endogenous receptors. The expressed receptors were glycosylated and assembled into tetramers, and binding of [3H]IP3 to each subtype was regulated by cytosolic Ca2+. The effects of increased [Ca2+] on native cerebellar and type-1 receptors expressed in Sf9 cells were indistinguishable. A maximally effective increase in [Ca2+] reversibly inhibited [3H]IP3 binding by approx. 50% by decreasing the number of IP3-binding sites (Bmax) without affecting their affinity for IP3. The effects of Ca2+ on type-3 receptors were more complex: increasing [Ca2+] first stimulated [3H]IP3 binding by increasing Bmax, and then inhibited it by causing a substantial decrease in the affinity of the receptor for IP3. The different effects of Ca2+ on the receptor subtypes were not a consequence of limitations in the availability of accessory proteins or of artifactual effects of Ca2+ on membrane structure. We conclude that Ca2+ can inhibit IP3 binding to types-1 and -3 IP3 receptors although by different mechanisms, and that IP3 binding to type-3 receptors is stimulated at intermediate [Ca2+]. A consequence of these differences is that, at resting cytosolic [Ca2+], type-3 receptors are more sensitive than type-1 receptors to IP3, but the situation reverses at higher cytosolic [Ca2+]. Such differences may be important in generating the spatially and temporally complex changes in cytosolic [Ca2+] evoked by receptors linked to IP3 formation.
Project description:Neurotransmitter release at retinal ribbon-style synapses utilizes a specialized t-SNARE protein called syntaxin3B (STX3B). In contrast to other syntaxins, STX3 proteins can be phosphorylated in vitro at T14 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). This modification has the potential to modulate SNARE complex formation required for neurotransmitter release in an activity-dependent manner. To determine the extent to which T14 phosphorylation occurs in vivo in the mammalian retina and characterize the pathway responsible for the in vivo phosphorylation of T14, we utilized quantitative immunofluorescence to measure the levels of STX3 and STX3 phosphorylated at T14 (pSTX3) in the synaptic terminals of mouse retinal photoreceptors and rod bipolar cells (RBCs). Results demonstrate that STX3B phosphorylation at T14 is light-regulated and dependent upon the elevation of intraterminal Ca2+. In rod photoreceptor terminals, the ratio of pSTX3 to STX3 was significantly higher in dark-adapted mice, when rods are active, than in light-exposed mice. By contrast, in RBC terminals, the ratio of pSTX3 to STX3 was higher in light-exposed mice, when these terminals are active, than in dark-adapted mice. These results were recapitulated in the isolated eyecup preparation, but only when Ca2+ was included in the external medium. In the absence of external Ca2+, pSTX3 levels remained low regardless of light/dark exposure. Using the isolated RBC preparation, we next showed that elevation of intraterminal Ca2+ alone was sufficient to increase STX3 phosphorylation at T14. Furthermore, both the non-specific kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the selective CaMKII inhibitor AIP inhibited the Ca2+-dependent increase in the pSTX3/STX3 ratio in isolated RBC terminals, while in parallel experiments, AIP suppressed RBC depolarization-evoked exocytosis, measured using membrane capacitance measurements. Our data support a novel, illumination-regulated modulation of retinal ribbon-style synapse function in which activity-dependent Ca2+ entry drives the phosphorylation of STX3B at T14 by CaMKII, which in turn, modulates the ability to form SNARE complexes required for exocytosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:FK506 and rapamycin are modulators of FK-binding proteins (FKBP) that are used to suppress immune function after organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. The drugs share the unwanted side-effect of evoking hypertension that is associated with reduced endothelial function and nitric oxide production. The underlying mechanisms are not understood. FKBP may regulate IP3 receptors (IP3 R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR) to alter Ca2+ signalling in endothelial cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:We investigated the effects of FK506 and rapamycin on Ca2+ release via IP3 R and RyR in hundreds of endothelial cells, using the indicator Cal-520, in intact mesenteric arteries from male Sprague-Dawley rats. IP3 Rs were activated by acetylcholine or localised photo-uncaging of IP3 , and RyR by caffeine. KEY RESULTS:While FKBPs were present, FKBP modulation with rapamycin did not alter IP3 -evoked Ca2+ release. Conversely, FK506, which modulates FKBP and blocks calcineurin, increased IP3 -evoked Ca2+ release. Inhibition of calcineurin (okadiac acid or cypermethrin) also increased IP3 -evoked Ca2+ release and blocked FK506 effects. When calcineurin was inhibited, FK506 reduced IP3 -evoked Ca2+ release. These findings suggest that IP3 -evoked Ca2+ release is not modulated by FKBP, but by FK506-mediated calcineurin inhibition. The RyR modulators caffeine and ryanodine failed to alter Ca2+ signalling suggesting that RyR is not functional in native endothelium. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:The hypertensive effects of the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin, while mediated by endothelial cells, do not appear to be exerted at the documented cellular targets of Ca2+ release and altered FKBP binding to IP3 and RyR.
Project description:The effects of sphingosine derivatives on Ca2+ fluxes were investigated in thyroid FRTL-5 cells labelled with Fura 2. Addition of sphingosylphosphocholine (SPC) or sphingosine (SP) increased intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner. At the highest dose tested (30 microM), the response was biphasic: a rapid transient increase in [Ca2+]i, followed by a new, elevated, level of [Ca2+]i. Both phases of the SPC-evoked increase in [Ca2+]i were dependent on extracellular Ca2+, whereas only the SP-evoked elevated level of [Ca2+]i was dependent on the influx of Ca2+. Both compounds released sequestered Ca2+ from thapsigargin- and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ pools. In addition, the increase in [Ca2+]i in response to SPC, but not to SP, was attenuated in cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate or with the putative Ca(2+)-channel blocker SKF 96365, and in cells pretreated with pertussis toxin for 24 h. SPC did not activate the production of IP3. Furthermore, both SPC and SP released sequestered Ca2+ from permeabilized cells. We observed that SPC, but not SP, stimulated release of [3H]arachidonate from cells prelabelled with [3H]arachidonate for 24 h. Both SPC and SP stimulated the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA in cells grown in the absence of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The results suggest that sphingosine derivatives are putative regulators of Ca2+ fluxes in FRTL-5 cells, and that SP and SPC may act on [Ca2+]i via different mechanisms. Furthermore, both SP and SPC may be of importance in modulating thyroid-cell proliferation.