Discovery and preclinical evaluation of anti-miR-17 oligonucleotide RGLS4326 for the treatment of polycystic kidney disease.
ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), caused by mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 genes, is one of the most common human monogenetic disorders and the leading genetic cause of end-stage renal disease. Unfortunately, treatment options for ADPKD are limited. Here we report the discovery and characterization of RGLS4326, a first-in-class, short oligonucleotide inhibitor of microRNA-17 (miR-17), as a potential treatment for ADPKD. RGLS4326 is discovered by screening a chemically diverse and rationally designed library of anti-miR-17 oligonucleotides for optimal pharmaceutical properties. RGLS4326 preferentially distributes to kidney and collecting duct-derived cysts, displaces miR-17 from translationally active polysomes, and de-represses multiple miR-17 mRNA targets including Pkd1 and Pkd2. Importantly, RGLS4326 demonstrates a favorable preclinical safety profile and attenuates cyst growth in human in vitro ADPKD models and multiple PKD mouse models after subcutaneous administration. The preclinical characteristics of RGLS4326 support its clinical development as a disease-modifying treatment for ADPKD.
Project description:Purpose: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by progressive development of kidney cysts and enlargement and dysfunction of the kidneys. The Consortium of Radiologic Imaging Studies of the Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) cohort revealed that 89.1% had either a PKD1 or PKD2 mutation. Of the CRISP patients with a genetic cause detected, mutations in PKD1 accounted for 85%, while mutations in the PKD2 accounted for the remaining 15%. Here, we report exome sequencing of 16 Saudi patients diagnosed with ADPKD and 16 ethnically matched controls. Methods: Exome sequencing was performed using combinatorial probe-anchor synthesis and improved DNA Nanoballs technology on BGISEQ-500 sequencers (BGI, China) using the BGI Exome V4 (59 Mb) Kit. Identified variants were validated with Sanger sequencing. Results: With the exception of GC-rich exon 1, we obtained excellent coverage of PKD1 (mean read depth = 88) including both duplicated and non-duplicated regions. Of nine patients with typical ADPKD presentations (bilateral symmetrical kidney involvement, positive family history, concordant imaging, and kidney function), four had protein truncating PKD1 mutations, one had a PKD1 missense mutation, and one had a PKD2 mutation. These variants have not been previously observed in the Saudi population. In seven clinically diagnosed ADPKD cases but with atypical features, no PKD1 or PKD2 mutations were identified, but rare predicted pathogenic heterozygous variants were found in cystogenic candidate genes including PKHD1, PKD1L3, EGF, CFTR, and TSC2. Conclusions: Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 are the most common cause of ADPKD in Saudi patients with typical ADPKD. Abbreviations: ADPKD: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; CFTR: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; EGF: Epidermal growth factor; MCIC: Mayo Clinic Imaging Classification; PKD: Polycystic kidney disease; TSC2: Tuberous sclerosis complex 2.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a ciliopathy caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 that is characterized by renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation and progressive CKD. Although the molecular mechanisms involved in cystogenesis are not established, concurrent inactivating constitutional and somatic mutations in ADPKD genes in cyst epithelium have been proposed as a cellular recessive mechanism. METHODS:We characterized, by whole-exome sequencing (WES) and long-range PCR techniques, the somatic mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 genes in renal epithelial cells from 83 kidney cysts obtained from nine patients with ADPKD, for whom a constitutional mutation in PKD1 or PKD2 was identified. RESULTS:Complete sequencing data by long-range PCR and WES was available for 63 and 65 cysts, respectively. Private somatic mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 were identified in all patients and in 90% of the cysts analyzed; 90% of these mutations were truncating, splice site, or in-frame variations predicted to be pathogenic mutations. No trans-heterozygous mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 genes were identified. Copy number changes of PKD1 ranging from 151 bp to 28 kb were observed in 12% of the cysts. WES also identified significant mutations in 53 non-PKD1/2 genes, including other ciliopathy genes and cancer-related genes. CONCLUSIONS:These findings support a cellular recessive mechanism for cyst formation in ADPKD caused primarily by inactivating constitutional and somatic mutations of PKD1 or PKD2 in kidney cyst epithelium. The potential interactions of these genes with other ciliopathy- and cancer-related genes to influence ADPKD severity merits further evaluation.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder mainly caused by mutation in PKD1/PKD2. However, ethnic differences in mutations, the association between mutation genotype/clinical phenotype, and the clinical applicable value of mutation detection are poorly understood. We made systematically analysis of Chinese ADPKD patients based on a next-generation sequencing platform. Among 148 ADPKD patients enrolled, 108 mutations were detected in 127 patients (85.8%). Compared with mutations in Caucasian published previously, the PKD2 mutation detection rate was lower, and patients carrying the PKD2 mutation invariably carried the PKD1 mutation. The definite pathogenic mutation detection rate was lower, whereas the multiple mutations detection rate was higher in Chinese patients. Then, we correlated PKD1/PKD2 mutation data and clinical data: patients with mutation exhibited a more severe phenotype; patients with >1 mutations exhibited a more severe phenotype; patients with pathogenic mutations exhibited a more severe phenotype. Thus, the PKD1/PKD2 mutation status differed by ethnicity, and the PKD1/PKD2 genotype may affect the clinical phenotype of ADPKD. Furthermore, it makes sense to detect PKD1/PKD2 mutation status for early diagnosis and prognosis, perhaps as early as the embryo/zygote stage, to facilitate early clinical intervention and family planning.
Project description:At the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, on detailed questioning, approximately 10% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) gave no family history of ADPKD. There are several explanations for this observation, including occurrence of a de novo pathogenic sequence variant or extreme phenotypic variability. To confirm de novo sequence variants, we have undertaken clinical and genetic screening of affected offspring and their parents.Case series.24 patients with a well-documented ADPKD phenotype and no family history of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and both parents of each patient.Presence or absence of PKD1 or PKD2 pathogenic sequence variants in parents of affected offspring.Abdominal ultrasound of affected offspring and their parents for ADPKD diagnosis. Parentage testing by genotyping. Complete screening of PKD1 and PKD2 genes by using genomic DNA from affected offspring; analysis of genomic DNA from both parents to confirm the absence or presence of all DNA variants found.A positive diagnosis of ADPKD by means of ultrasound or genetic screening was made in 1 parent of 4 patients (17%). No PKD1 or PKD2 pathogenic sequence variants were identified in 10 patients (42%), whereas possible pathological DNA variants were identified in 4 patients (17%) and 1 of their respective parents. Parentage was confirmed in the remaining 6 patients (25%), and de novo sequence variants were documented.Size of patient group. No direct examination of RNA.Causes other than de novo pathogenic sequence variants may explain the negative family history of ADPKD in certain families.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common hereditary kidney disorder. It is characterized by focal development and progressive enlargement of renal cysts leading to end-stage renal disease. PKD1 and PKD2 have been implicated in ADPKD pathogenesis but genetic features and the size of PKD1 make genetic diagnosis tedious. METHODS: We aim to prove that high resolution melt analysis (HRM), a recent technique in molecular biology, can facilitate molecular diagnosis of ADPKD. We screened for mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 with HRM in 37 unrelated patients with ADPKD. RESULTS: We identified 440 sequence variants in the 37 patients. One hundred and thirty eight were different. We found 28 pathogenic mutations (25 in PKD1 and 3 in PKD2 ) within 28 different patients, which is a diagnosis rate of 75% consistent with literature mean direct sequencing diagnosis rate. We describe 52 new sequence variants in PKD1 and two in PKD2. CONCLUSION: HRM analysis is a sensitive and specific method for molecular diagnosis of ADPKD. HRM analysis is also costless and time sparing. Thus, this method is efficient and might be used for mutation pre-screening in ADPKD genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common inherited kidney disorder. It is caused by mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes, and manifests as progressive cyst growth and renal enlargement, resulting in renal failure. Although there have been a few studies on the frequency and spectrum of mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in Korean patients with ADPKD, only exons 36-46, excluding the duplicated region, were analyzed, which makes it difficult to determine accurate mutation frequencies and mutation spectra. METHODS: We performed sequence analysis of 20 consecutive unrelated ADPKD patients using long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to avoid pseudogene amplification, followed by exon-specific PCR and sequencing of the all exons of these two genes. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was performed in patients in whom pathogenic mutations in PKD1 or PKD2 were not identified by LR-PCR and direct sequencing to detect large genomic rearrangements. RESULTS: All patients met the diagnostic criteria of ADPKD, and pathogenic mutations were found in 18 patients (90.0%), comprising 15 mutations in PKD1 and three in PKD2. Among 10 novel mutations, eight mutations were found in the PKD1 gene while two mutations were found in the PKD2 gene. Eight of 14 PKD1 mutations (57.1%) were located in the duplicated region. CONCLUSIONS: This study expands the spectra of mutations in the PKD1 and PKD2 genes and shows that the mutation frequencies of these genes in Korean ADPKD patients are similar to those reported in other ethnicities. Sequence analysis, including analysis of the duplicated region, is essential for molecular diagnosis of ADPKD.
Project description:Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most frequently inherited renal diseases caused by mutations in PKD1 and PKD2. We performed mutational analyses of PKD genes in 49 unrelated patients using direct PCR-sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for PKD1 and PKD2. RT-PCR analysis was also performed in a family with a novel PKD2 splicing mutation. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 44 (89.8%) of the patients: 42 (95.5%) of the patients showed mutations in PKD1, and 2 (4.5%) showed mutations in PKD2. Ten nonsense, 17 frameshift, 4 splicing and one in-frame mutation were found in 32 of the patients. Large rearrangements were found in 3 patients, and missense mutations were found in 9 patients. Approximately 61.4% (27/44) of the mutations are first reported with a known mutation rate of 38.6%. RNA analysis of a novel PKD2 mutation (c.595_595 + 14delGGTAAGAGCGCGCGA) suggested monoallelic expression of the wild-type allele. Furthermore, patients with PKD1-truncating mutations reached end-stage renal disease (ESRD) earlier than patients with non-truncating mutations (47 ± 3.522 years vs. 59 ± 11.687 years, P = 0.016). The mutation screening of PKD genes in Chinese ADPKD patients will enrich our mutation database and significantly contribute to improve genetic counselling for ADPKD patients.
Project description:Background: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes. Dysregulation of the expression of PKD genes, the abnormal activation of PKD associated signaling pathways, and the expression and maturation of miRNAs regulates cyst progression. However, the upstream factors regulating these abnormal processes in ADPKD remain elusive. Methods: To investigate the roles of an RNA helicase, p68, in ADPKD, we performed Western blot and qRT-PCR analysis, immunostaining and ChIP assay in cystic renal epithelium cells and tissues. Results: We found that p68 was upregulated in cystic renal epithelial cells and tissues. p68 represses Pkd1 gene expression via transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms in renal epithelial cells, in that 1) p68 binds to the promoter of the Pkd1 gene together with p53 to repress transcription; and 2) p68 promotes the expression and maturation of miR-17, miR-200c and miR-182 and via these miRNAs, post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of Pkd1 mRNA. Drosha is involved in this process by forming a complex with p68. p68 also regulates the phosphorylation and activation of PKD proliferation associated signaling and the expression of fibrotic markers in Pkd1 mutant renal epithelial cells. Silence of p68 delays cyst formation in collecting duct cell mediated 3D cultures. In addition, the expression of p68 is induced by H2O2-dependent oxidative stress and DNA damage which causes downregulation of Pkd1 transcription in cystic renal epithelial cells and tissues. Conclusions: p68 plays a critical role in negatively regulating the expression of the PKD1 gene along with positively regulating the expression and maturation of miRNAs and activation of PKD associated signaling pathways to cause renal cyst progression and fibrosis in ADPKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common form of inherited kidney disease that results in renal failure. ADPKD is a systemic disorder with cysts and connective tissue abnormalities involving many organs. ADPKD caused by mutations in PKD1 gene is significantly more severe than the cases caused by PKD2 gene mutations. The large intra-familial variability of ADPKD highlights a role for genetic background. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of ADPKD family initially appearing unlinked to the PKD1 or PKD2 loci and the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele on the variability of the clinical course of the disease. A grandmother with the PKD1 gene mutation in mosaicism (p.Val1105ArgfsX4) and with mild clinical course of ADPKD (end stage renal failure at the age of 77) seemed to have ADPKD because of PKD2 gene mutation. On the other hand, her grandson had a severe clinical course (end stage renal disease at the age of 45) in spite of the early treatment of mild hypertension. There was found by mutational analysis of PKD genes that the severe clinical course was caused by PKD1 gene frameshifting mutation inherited from his father and mildly affected grandmother in combination with inherited hypomorphic PKD1 allele with described missense mutation (p.Thr2250Met) from his clinically healthy mother. The sister with two cysts and with PKD1 hypomorphic allele became the kidney donor to her severely affected brother. CONCLUSION: We present the first case of ADPKD with the influence of mosaicism and hypomorphic allele of the PKD1 gene on clinical course of ADPKD in one family. Moreover, this report illustrates the role of molecular genetic testing in assessing young related kidney donors for patients with ADPKD.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mutation-based molecular diagnostics of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is complicated by locus and allelic heterogeneity, large multi-exon gene structure and duplication in PKD1, and a high level of unclassified variants. Comprehensive screening of PKD1 and PKD2 by two recent studies have shown that atypical splice mutations account for 3.5% to 5% of ADPKD. We evaluated the role of bioinformatic prediction of atypical splice mutations and determined the pathogenicity of an atypical PKD2 splice variant from a multiplex ADPKD (TOR101) family. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using PubMed, we identified 17 atypical PKD1 and PKD2 splice mutations. We found that bioinformatics analysis was often useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of these mutations, although RT-PCR is needed to provide the definitive proof. RESULTS: Sequencing of both PKD1 and PKD2 in an affected subject of TOR101 failed to identify a definite mutation, but revealed several UCVs, including an atypical PKD2 splice variant. Linkage analysis with microsatellite markers indicated that TOR101 was PKD2-linked and IVS8 + 5G-->A was shown to cosegregate only with affected subjects. RT-PCR of leukocyte mRNA from an affected subject using primers from exons 7 and 9 revealed six splice variants that resulted from activation of different combinations of donor and acceptor cryptic splice sites, all terminating with premature stop codons. CONCLUSIONS: The data provide strong evidence that IVS8 + 5G-->A is a pathogenic mutation for PKD2. This case highlights the importance of functional analysis of UCVs.