Evaluation of Sample Preparation Methods for Fast Proteotyping of Microorganisms by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Tandem mass spectrometry-based proteotyping allows characterizing microorganisms in terms of taxonomy and is becoming an important tool for investigating microbial diversity from several ecosystems. Fast and automatable sample preparation for obtaining peptide pools amenable to tandem mass spectrometry is necessary for enabling proteotyping as a high-throughput method. First, the protocol to increase the yield of lysis of several representative bacterial and eukaryotic microorganisms was optimized by using a long and drastic bead-beating setting with 0.1 mm silica beads, 0.1 and 0.5 mm glass beads, in presence of detergents. Then, three different methods to obtain greater digestion yield from these extracts were tested and optimized for improve efficiency and reduce application time: denaturing electrophoresis of proteins and in-gel proteolysis, suspension-trapping filter-based approach (S-Trap) and, solid-phase-enhanced sample preparation named SP3. The latter method outperforms the other two in terms of speed and delivers also more peptides and proteins than with the in-gel proteolysis (2.2 fold for both) and S-trap approaches (1.3 and 1.2 fold, respectively). Thus, SP3 directly improves tandem mass spectrometry proteotyping.
Project description:The microbial diversity encompassed by the environmental biosphere is largely unexplored, although it represents an extensive source of new knowledge and potentially of novel enzymatic catalysts for biotechnological applications. To determine the taxonomy of microorganisms, proteotyping by tandem mass spectrometry has proved its efficiency. Its latest extension, phylopeptidomics, adds a biomass quantitation perspective for mixtures of microorganisms. Here, we present an application of phylopeptidomics to rapidly and sensitively screen microorganisms sampled from an industrial environment, i.e., a pool where radioactive material is stored. The power of this methodology is demonstrated through the identification of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, whether as pure isolates or present as mixtures or consortia. In this study, we established accurate taxonomical identification of environmental prokaryotes belonging to the Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla, as well as eukaryotes from the Ascomycota phylum. The results presented illustrate the potential of tandem mass spectrometry proteotyping, in particular phylopeptidomics, to screen for and rapidly identify microorganisms.
Project description:A range of methodologies may be used for analyzing bacteria, depending on the purpose and the level of resolution needed. The capability for recognition of species distinctions within the complex spectrum of bacterial diversity is necessary for progress in microbiological research. In clinical settings, accurate, rapid and cost-effective methods are essential for early and efficient treatment of infections. Characterization and identification of microorganisms, using, bottom-up proteomics, or "proteotyping", relies on recognition of species-unique or associated peptides, by tandem mass spectrometry analyses, dependent upon an accurate and comprehensive foundation of genome sequence data, allowing for differentiation of species, at amino acid-level resolution. In this study, the high resolution and accuracy of MS/MS-based proteotyping was demonstrated, through analyses of the three phylogenetically and taxonomically most closely-related species of the Mitis Group of the genus Streptococcus: i.e., the pathogenic species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), and the commensal species, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis. To achieve high accuracy, a genome sequence database used for matching peptides was created and carefully curated. Here, MS-based, bottom-up proteotyping was observed and confirmed to attain the level of resolution necessary for differentiating and identifying the most-closely related bacterial species, as demonstrated by analyses of species of the Streptococcus Mitis Group, even when S. pneumoniae were mixed with S. pseudopneumoniae and S. mitis, by matching and identifying more than 200 unique peptides for each species.
Project description:Besides Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. C. coli is subdivided into three clades, which are associated with sample source. Clade 1 isolates are associated with acute diarrhea in humans whereas clade 2 and 3 isolates are more commonly obtained from environmental waters. The phylogenetic classification of an isolate is commonly done using laborious multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The aim of this study was to establish a proteotyping scheme using MALDI-TOF MS to offer an alternative to sequence-based methods. A total of 97 clade-representative C. coli isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF-based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) and evaluated to establish a C. coli proteotyping scheme. MLST was used as reference method. Different isoforms of the detectable biomarkers, resulting in biomarker mass shifts, were associated with their amino acid sequences and included into the C. coli proteotyping scheme. In total, we identified 16 biomarkers to differentiate C. coli into the three clades and three additional sub-clades of clade 1. In this study, proteotyping has been successfully adapted to C. coli. The established C. coli clades and sub-clades can be discriminated using this method. Especially the clinically relevant clade 1 isolates can be differentiated clearly.
Project description:Zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted via food to humans have a high potential for large-scale emergencies, comprising severe effects on public health, critical infrastructures, and the economy. In this context, the development of laboratory methods to rapidly detect zoonotic bacteria in the food supply chain, including high-resolution mass spectrometry proteotyping are needed. In this work, an optimized sample preparation method for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteome profiling was established for Francisella isolates, and a cluster analysis, as well as a phylogenetic tree, was generated to shed light on evolutionary relationships. Furthermore, this method was applied to tissues of infected hare carcasses from Germany. Even though the non-informative data outnumbered by a manifold the information of the zoonotic pathogen in the resulting proteome profiles, the standardized evaluation of MS data within an established automated analysis pipeline identified Francisella (F.) tularensis and, thus, could be, in principle, an applicable method to monitor food supply chains.
Project description:The application of a rapid and direct proteotyping approach with which to identify the gene origin of viral antigens in a reassortant influenza strain is demonstrated. The reassortant strain, constructed for a vaccine against type A 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza, contains genes derived from a wild-type pandemic strain (A/California/7/2009) and an egg adapted high-growth strain (denoted NYMC X-157) derived from an earlier A/Puerto Rico/8/34 strain. The proteotyping approach employs modern proteomics methods and high resolution mass spectrometry to correctly establish that the genes of the surface antigens, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are derived from the A/California/7/2009 strain while those for nucleoprotein and matrix protein M1 antigens are derived from the NYMC X-157 strain. This is achieved for both gel-separated antigens and those from a whole vaccine digest. Furthermore, signature peptides detected in the mass spectra of the digested antigens enable the engineered reassortant strain to be identified as a type A virus of the H1N1 subtype in accord with earlier studies. The results demonstrate that proteotyping approach provides a more direct and rapid approach over RT-PCR with which to characterize reassortant strains of the influenza virus at the molecular protein level. Given that these strains pose the greatest risk to human and animal health and have been responsible for all human pandemics of the 20th and 21st centuries, there is a vital need for the origins and evolutionary history of these strains to be rapidly established.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) and proteomics offer comprehensive characterization and identification of microorganisms and discovery of protein biomarkers that are applicable for diagnostics of infectious diseases. The use of biomarkers for diagnostics is widely applied in the clinic and the use of peptide biomarkers is increasingly being investigated for applications in the clinical laboratory. Respiratory-tract infections are a predominant cause for medical treatment, although, clinical assessments and standard clinical laboratory protocols are time-consuming and often inadequate for reliable diagnoses. Novel methods, preferably applied directly to clinical samples, excluding cultivation steps, are needed to improve diagnostics of infectious diseases, provide adequate treatment and reduce the use of antibiotics and associated development of antibiotic resistance. This study applied nano-liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem MS, with a bioinformatics pipeline and an in-house database of curated high-quality reference genome sequences to identify species-unique peptides as potential biomarkers for four bacterial pathogens commonly found in respiratory tract infections (RTIs): Staphylococcus aureus; Moraxella catarrhalis; Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae The species-unique peptides were initially identified in pure cultures of bacterial reference strains, reflecting the genomic variation in the four species and, furthermore, in clinical respiratory tract samples, without prior cultivation, elucidating proteins expressed in clinical conditions of infection. For each of the four bacterial pathogens, the peptide biomarker candidates most predominantly found in clinical samples, are presented. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD014522. As proof-of-principle, the most promising species-unique peptides were applied in targeted tandem MS-analyses of clinical samples and their relevance for identifications of the pathogens, i.e. proteotyping, was validated, thus demonstrating their potential as peptide biomarker candidates for diagnostics of infectious diseases.
Project description:The reemergence of deadly pandemic influenza virus strains has necessitated the development of improved methods for rapid detection and subtyping of influenza viruses that will enable more strains to be characterized at the molecular level. Representative circulating strains of human influenza viruses from primary clinical specimens were grown in cell culture, purified through polyethylene glycol precipitation, proteolytically digested with an endoproteinase, and analyzed and identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry using unique signature peptides that are characteristic of type A H1N1 and H3N2 and type B influenza viruses. This proteotyping approach enabled circulating strains of type A influenza virus to be typed and subtyped, cocirculating seasonal and pandemic H1N1 viruses to be differentiated, and the lineage of type B viruses to be determined through single-ion detection by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results were obtained using virus titers comparable to those used in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assays with clinical specimens grown in cell cultures. The methodology represents a more rapid and direct approach than RT-PCR and can be integrated into existing procedures currently used for the surveillance of emerging pandemic and seasonal influenza viruses.
Project description:Clostridioides difficile, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium, is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea worldwide and therefore a substantial burden to the healthcare system. During the past decade, hypervirulent PCR-ribotypes (RT) e.g., RT027 or RT176 emerged rapidly all over the world, associated with both, increased severity and mortality rates. It is thus of great importance to identify epidemic strains such as RT027 and RT176 as fast as possible. While commonly used diagnostic methods, e.g., multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or PCR-ribotyping, are time-consuming, proteotyping offers a fast, inexpensive, and reliable alternative solution. In this study, we established a MALDI-TOF-based typing scheme for C. difficile. A total of 109 ribotyped strains representative for five MLST clades were analyzed by MALDI-TOF. MLST, based on whole genome sequences, and PCR-ribotyping were used as reference methods. Isoforms of MS-detectable biomarkers, typically ribosomal proteins, were related with the deduced amino acid sequences and added to the C. difficile proteotyping scheme. In total, we were able to associate nine biomarkers with their encoding genes and include them in our proteotyping scheme. The discriminatory capacity of the C. difficile proteotyping scheme was mainly based on isoforms of L28-M (2 main isoforms), L35-M (4 main isoforms), and S20-M (2 main isoforms) giving rise to at least 16 proteotyping-derived types. In our test population, five of these 16 proteotyping-derived types were detected. These five proteotyping-derived types did not correspond exactly to the included five MLST-based C. difficile clades, nevertheless the subtyping depth of both methods was equivalent. Most importantly, proteotyping-derived clade B contained only isolates of the hypervirulent RT027 and RT176. Proteotyping is a stable and easy-to-perform intraspecies typing method and a promising alternative to currently used molecular techniques. It is possible to distinguish the group of RT027 and RT176 isolates from non-RT027/non-RT176 isolates using proteotyping, providing a valuable diagnostic tool.
Project description:A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS(3) of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion trap needs multistage fragmentation, whereas similar fragment ions may be acquired from one stage product ion scan using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The new strategy was proven to enhance the qualitative performance of tandem mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of different chemical entities. In the current study we are endeavoring to prove our hypothesis of the efficiency of the new pseudo-MS(3) technique via its comparison with the MS(3) mode of ion trap mass spectrometry system. Ten pharmacologically and synthetically important (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (enaminones 4a-j) were chosen as model compounds for this study. This strategy permitted rigorous identification of all fragment ions using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with sufficient specificity. It can be used to elucidate structures of different unknown components. The data presented in this paper provide clear evidence that our new pseudo-MS(3) may simulate the MS(3) of ion trap spectrometry system.