Dihydroartemisinin-induced unfolded protein response feedback attenuates ferroptosis via PERK/ATF4/HSPA5 pathway in glioma cells.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to exert anticancer activity through iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is similar to ferroptosis, a novel form of cell death. However, whether DHA causes ferroptosis in glioma cells and the potential regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS:Effects of DHA on the proliferation, cell death, ROS and lipid ROS generation as well as reduced gluthione consumption were assessed in glioma cells with or without ferroptosis inhibitor. The biological mechanisms by which glioma cells attenuate the pro-ferroptotic effects of DHA were assessed using molecular methods. RESULTS:DHA induced ferroptosis in glioma cells, as characterized by iron-dependent cell death accompanied with ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. However, DHA treatment simultaneously activated a feedback pathway of ferroptosis by increasing the expression of heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 (HSPA5). Mechanistically, DHA caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in glioma cells, which resulted in the induction of HSPA5 expression by protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-upregulated activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Subsequent HSPA5 upregulation increased the expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which neutralized DHA-induced lipid peroxidation and thus protected glioma cells from ferroptosis. Inhibition of the PERK-ATF4-HSPA5-GPX4 pathway using siRNA or small molecules increased DHA sensitivity of glioma cells by increasing ferroptosis both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data suggested that ferroptosis might be a novel anticancer mechanism of DHA in glioma and HSPA5 may serve as a negative regulator of DHA-induced ferroptosis. Therefore, inhibiting the negative feedback pathway would be a promising therapeutic strategy to strengthen the anti-glioma activity of DHA.
Project description:Ferroptosis is form of regulated nonapoptotic cell death that is involved in diverse disease contexts. Small molecules that inhibit glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), a phospholipid peroxidase, cause lethal accumulation of lipid peroxides and induce ferroptotic cell death. Although ferroptosis has been suggested to involve accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lipid environments, the mediators and substrates of ROS generation and the pharmacological mechanism of GPX4 inhibition that generates ROS in lipid environments are unknown. We report here the mechanism of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis, which involves phosphorylase kinase G2 (PHKG2) regulation of iron availability to lipoxygenase enzymes, which in turn drive ferroptosis through peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) at the bis-allylic position; indeed, pretreating cells with PUFAs containing the heavy hydrogen isotope deuterium at the site of peroxidation (D-PUFA) prevented PUFA oxidation and blocked ferroptosis. We further found that ferroptosis inducers inhibit GPX4 by covalently targeting the active site selenocysteine, leading to accumulation of PUFA hydroperoxides. In summary, we found that PUFA oxidation by lipoxygenases via a PHKG2-dependent iron pool is necessary for ferroptosis and that the covalent inhibition of the catalytic selenocysteine in Gpx4 prevents elimination of PUFA hydroperoxides; these findings suggest new strategies for controlling ferroptosis in diverse contexts.
Project description:It has been demonstrated from previous studies about the killing effect of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) on glioblastoma, which involves multiple aspects: cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and invasion inhibition. DHA has the advantages of low cytotoxicity to normal cells, selective killing effect and low drug resistance, making it one of the popular anti-tumor research directions. Ferroptosis is a newly discovered form of cell death characterized by iron dependence and lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In the present study, we found differences in the expression of transferrin receptors in normal human astrocytes (NHA) and glioblastoma cells (U87 and A172), which may be one of the mechanisms of DHA selective killing effect. Through the determination of ferroptosis-related protein expression, we found that the significant decrease of GPX4, accompanied by the constant expression of xCT and ACSL4, suggesting GPX4 was a pivotal target for DHA-activated ferroptosis in glioblastoma. Total and lipid ROS levels were increased and all these results could be reversed by the ferroptosis inhibitor, ferrostatin-1. These findings demonstrated ferroptosis would be a critical component of cell death caused by DHA and GPX4 was the main target. All these results provide a novel treatment direction to glioblastoma. The association between ferroptosis and polyamines is also discussed, which will provide new research directions for ferroptosis caused by DHA in glioblastoma.
Project description:Low-density lipoprotein nanoparticles reconstituted with the natural omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (LDL-DHA), have been reported to selectively kill hepatoma cells and reduce the growth of orthotopic liver tumors in the rat. To date, little is known about the cell death pathways by which LDL-DHA nanoparticles kill tumor cells. Here we show that the LDL-DHA nanoparticles are cytotoxic to both rat hepatoma and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Following LDL-DHA treatment both rat and human HCC cells experience pronounced lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and inactivation of the lipid antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-4 (GPX4) prior to cell death. Inhibitor studies revealed that the treated HCC cells die independent of apoptotic, necroptotic or autophagic pathways, but require the presence of cellular iron. These hallmark features are consistent and were later confirmed to reflect ferroptosis, a novel form of nonapoptotic iron-dependent cell death. In keeping with the mechanisms of ferroptosis cell death, GPX4 was also found to be a central regulator of LDL-DHA induced tumor cell killing. We also investigated the effects of LDL-DHA treatments in mice bearing human HCC tumor xenografts. Intratumoral injections of LDL-DHA severely inhibited the growth of HCC xenografts long term. Consistent with our in vitro findings, the LDL-DHA treated HCC tumors experienced ferroptotic cell death characterized by increased levels of tissue lipid hydroperoxides and suppression of GPX4 expression. CONCLUSION:LDL-DHA induces cell death in HCC cells through the ferroptosis pathway, this represents a novel molecular mechanism of anticancer activity for LDL-DHA nanoparticles.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death characterized by an iron-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the role of ROS in the regulation of ferroptosis remains elusive. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrate that sodium selenite (SS), a well-established redox-active selenium compound, is a novel inducer of ferroptosis in a variety of human cancer cells. Potent ferroptosis inhibitors, such as ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) and deferoxamine (DFO), rescue cells from SS-induced ferroptosis. Furthermore, SS down-regulates ferroptosis regulators; solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), while it up-regulates iron accumulation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). These SS-induced ferroptotic responses are achieved via ROS, in particular superoxide (O2-) generation. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Tiron not only scavenged O2- production, but also markedly rescued SLC7A11 down-regulation, GSH depletion, GPx4 inactivation, iron accumulation, LPO, and ferroptosis. Moreover, iron chelator DFO significantly reduces the O2- production, indicating a positive feedback regulation between O2- production and iron accumulation. Taken together, we have identified SS as a novel ferroptosis inducing agent in various human cancer models.
Project description:Ferroptosis was recently identified as an iron-dependent regulatory necrosis process mediated by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) peroxidation. The pivotal events related to oxidative stress in ferroptosis include direct or indirect glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) inhibition, ferrous iron overload, and lipid peroxidation. The links between ferroptosis and multiple pathological processes including tumor and cardiovascular system disease have become increasingly apparent, and the mechanisms and compounds involved in ferroptosis, such as reduction of coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone/CoQ10), are gradually emerging. Current reports have revealed crossroads between ferroptosis and other multiple responses. This overview of the current research illuminates the mechanisms involving ferroptosis-related compounds and emphasizes the crosstalk between ferroptosis and other responses, including mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), autophagy, and the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), to reveal the intersections of regulatory mechanisms. This review also outlines the discovery, characterization, and pathological relevance of ferroptosis and notes controversial elements in ferroptosis-related mechanisms, such as nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), and heat shock protein family A member 5 (HSPA5). We hope our inferences will supply a partial reference for disorder prevention and treatment.
Project description:Ferroptosis, a newly discovered form of cell death mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation, has recently been shown to have an impact on various cancer types; however, so far there are only few studies about its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The delicate equilibrium of ROS in cancer cells has found to be crucial for cell survival, thus increased levels may trigger ferroptosis in HCC. In our study, we investigated the effect of different ROS modulators and ferroptosis inducers on a human HCC cell line and a human hepatoblastoma cell line. We identified a novel synergistic cell death induction by the combination of Auranofin and buthionine sulfoxime (BSO) or by Erastin and BSO at subtoxic concentrations. We found a caspase-independent, redox-regulated cell death, which could be rescued by different inhibitors of ferroptosis. Both cotreatments stimulated lipid peroxidation. All these findings indicated ferroptotic cell death. Both cotreatments affected the canonical ferroptosis pathway through GPX4 downregulation. We also found an accumulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, indicating an additional effect on the non-canonical pathway. Our results implicate that targeting these two main ferroptotic pathways simultaneously can overcome chemotherapy resistance in HCC.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a form of regulated necrosis characterized by a chain-reaction of detrimental membrane lipid peroxidation following collapse of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) activity. This lipid peroxidation is catalyzed by labile ferric iron. Therefore, iron import mediated via transferrin receptors and both, enzymatic and non-enzymatic iron-dependent radical formation are crucial prerequisites for the execution of ferroptosis. Intriguingly, the dynamin inhibitor dynasore, which has been shown to block transferrin receptor endocytosis, can protect from ischemia/reperfusion injury as well as neuronal cell death following spinal cord injury. Yet, it is unknown how dynasore exerts these cell death-protective effects. Using small interfering RNA suppression, lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS), iron tracers and bona fide inducers of ferroptosis, we find that dynasore treatment in lung adenocarcinoma and neuronal cell lines strongly protects these from ferroptosis. Surprisingly, while the dynasore targets dynamin 1 and 2 promote extracellular iron uptake, their silencing was not sufficient to block ferroptosis suggesting that this route of extracellular iron uptake is dispensable for acute induction of ferroptosis and dynasore must have an additional off-target activity mediating full ferroptosis protection. Instead, in intact cells, dynasore inhibited mitochondrial respiration and thereby mitochondrial ROS production which can feed into detrimental lipid peroxidation and ferroptotic cell death in the presence of labile iron. In addition, in cell free systems, dynasore showed radical scavenger properties and acted as a broadly active antioxidant which is superior to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in blocking ferroptosis. Thus, dynasore can function as a highly active inhibitor of ROS-driven types of cell death via combined modulation of the iron pool and inhibition of general ROS by simultaneously blocking two routes required for ROS and lipid-ROS driven cell death, respectively. These data have important implications for the interpretation of studies observing tissue-protective effects of this dynamin inhibitor as well as raise awareness that off-target ROS scavenging activities of small molecules used to interrogate the ferroptosis pathway should be taken into consideration.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a necrotic form of regulated cell death (RCD) mediated by phospholipid peroxidation in association with free iron-mediated Fenton reactions. Disrupted iron homeostasis resulting in excessive oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here, we demonstrate the involvement of ferroptosis in COPD pathogenesis. Our in vivo and in vitro models show labile iron accumulation and enhanced lipid peroxidation with concomitant non-apoptotic cell death during cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, which are negatively regulated by GPx4 activity. Treatment with deferoxamine and ferrostatin-1, in addition to GPx4 knockdown, illuminate the role of ferroptosis in CS-treated lung epithelial cells. NCOA4-mediated ferritin selective autophagy (ferritinophagy) is initiated during ferritin degradation in response to CS treatment. CS exposure models, using both GPx4-deficient and overexpressing mice, clarify the pivotal role of GPx4-regulated cell death during COPD. These findings support a role for cigarette smoke-induced ferroptosis in the pathogenesis of COPD.
Project description:Cancer cells exhibit an abnormal amino acid metabolism and a dependence on specific amino acids, which might provide potential targets for treating cancer patients. In this study, we demonstrated that human triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells were highly susceptible to cystine starvation. We found that necrostatin-1 (Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor), necrosulfonamide (an MLKL inhibitor), deferoxamine (an ion chelator), ferrostatin-1 (a ferroptosis inhibitor) and RIP1 knockdown can prevent cystine-starvation-induced cell death, suggesting that cystine starvation induces necroptosis and ferroptosis in TNBC cells. Moreover, cystine starvation induced mitochondrial fragmentation, dysfunction, and ROS production. A mitochondrial ROS scavenger, Necrox-5, can prevent cystine-starvation-induced cell death. In addition, cystine starvation was found to activate GCN2, but not PERK, to increase the phosphorylation of eIF2? at serine 51, the protein expression of ATF4, and the expression of ATF4 target genes such as CHAC1, which might be downstream of the RIP1/RIP3-MLKL pathway and contribute to cystine-starvation-induced cell death. Knockdown of CHAC1 rescued the cystine-starvation-induced reduction in glutathione (GSH) levels and cell death. Furthermore, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), Trolox, and Nec-1 significantly prevented the cystine-starvation-induced increase in intracellular ROS levels, mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death. In summary, these results suggest that CHAC1 degradation of GSH enhances cystine-starvation-induced necroptosis and ferroptosis through the activated GCN2-eIF2?-ATF4 pathway in TNBC cells. Our findings improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying cystine-starvation-induced TNBC cell death.