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Dihydroartemisinin-induced unfolded protein response feedback attenuates ferroptosis via PERK/ATF4/HSPA5 pathway in glioma cells.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) has been shown to exert anticancer activity through iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is similar to ferroptosis, a novel form of cell death. However, whether DHA causes ferroptosis in glioma cells and the potential regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS:Effects of DHA on the proliferation, cell death, ROS and lipid ROS generation as well as reduced gluthione consumption were assessed in glioma cells with or without ferroptosis inhibitor. The biological mechanisms by which glioma cells attenuate the pro-ferroptotic effects of DHA were assessed using molecular methods. RESULTS:DHA induced ferroptosis in glioma cells, as characterized by iron-dependent cell death accompanied with ROS generation and lipid peroxidation. However, DHA treatment simultaneously activated a feedback pathway of ferroptosis by increasing the expression of heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 (HSPA5). Mechanistically, DHA caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in glioma cells, which resulted in the induction of HSPA5 expression by protein kinase R-like ER kinase (PERK)-upregulated activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Subsequent HSPA5 upregulation increased the expression and activity of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), which neutralized DHA-induced lipid peroxidation and thus protected glioma cells from ferroptosis. Inhibition of the PERK-ATF4-HSPA5-GPX4 pathway using siRNA or small molecules increased DHA sensitivity of glioma cells by increasing ferroptosis both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data suggested that ferroptosis might be a novel anticancer mechanism of DHA in glioma and HSPA5 may serve as a negative regulator of DHA-induced ferroptosis. Therefore, inhibiting the negative feedback pathway would be a promising therapeutic strategy to strengthen the anti-glioma activity of DHA.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC6743121 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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