Combinatorial diversity of Syk recruitment driven by its multivalent engagement with Fc?RI?.
ABSTRACT: Syk/Zap70 family kinases are essential for signaling via multichain immune-recognition receptors such as tetrameric (???2) Fc?RI. Syk activation is generally attributed to cis binding of its tandem SH2 domains to dual phosphotyrosines within Fc?RI?-ITAMs (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs). However, the mechanistic details of Syk docking on ? homodimers are unresolved. Here, we estimate that multivalent interactions for WT Syk improve cis-oriented binding by three orders of magnitude. We applied molecular dynamics (MD), hybrid MD/worm-like chain polymer modeling, and live cell imaging to evaluate relative binding and signaling output for all possible cis and trans Syk-Fc?RI? configurations. Syk binding is likely modulated during signaling by autophosphorylation on Y130 in interdomain A, since a Y130E phosphomimetic form of Syk is predicted to lead to reduced helicity of interdomain A and alter Syk's bias for cis binding. Experiments in reconstituted ?-KO cells, whose ? subunits are linked by disulfide bonds, as well as in cells expressing monomeric ITAM or hemITAM ?-chimeras, support model predictions that short distances between ? ITAM pairs are required for trans docking. We propose that the full range of docking configurations improves signaling efficiency by expanding the combinatorial possibilities for Syk recruitment, particularly under conditions of incomplete ITAM phosphorylation.
Project description:Cross-linking of immunoglobulin E-bound Fc?RI triggers multiple cellular responses, including degranulation and cytokine production. Signaling is dependent on recruitment of Syk via docking of its dual SH2 domains to phosphorylated tyrosines within the Fc?RI immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. Using single-molecule imaging in live cells, we directly visualized and quantified the binding of individual mNeonGreen-tagged Syk molecules as they associated with the plasma membrane after Fc?RI activation. We found that Syk colocalizes transiently to Fc?RI and that Syk-Fc?RI binding dynamics are independent of receptor aggregate size. Substitution of glutamic acid for tyrosine between the Syk SH2 domains (Syk-Y130E) led to an increased Syk-Fc?RI off-rate, loss of site-specific Syk autophosphorylation, and impaired downstream signaling. Genome edited cells expressing only Syk-Y130E were deficient in antigen-stimulated calcium release, degranulation, and production of some cytokines (TNF-a, IL-3) but not others (MCP-1, IL-4). We propose that kinetic discrimination along the Fc?RI signaling pathway occurs at the level of Syk-Fc?RI interactions, with key outcomes dependent upon sufficiently long-lived Syk binding events.
Project description:The phosphorylation of interdomain A (IA), a linker region between tandem SH2 domains of Syk tyrosine kinase, regulates the binding affinity for association of Syk with doubly-phosphorylated ITAM regions of the B cell receptor. The mechanism of this allosteric regulation has been suggested to be a switch from the high-affinity bifunctional binding, mediated through both SH2 domains binding two phosphotyrosine residues of ITAM, to a substantially lower-affinity binding of only one SH2 domain. IA phosphorylation triggers the switch by inducing disorder in IA and weakening the SH2-SH2 interaction. The postulated switch to a single-SH2-domain binding mode is examined using NMR to monitor site-specific binding to each SH2 domain of Syk variants engineered to have IA regions that differ in conformational flexibility. The combined analysis of titration curves and NMR line-shapes provides sufficient information to determine the energetics of inter-molecular binding at each SH2 site along with an intra-molecular binding or isomerization step. A less favorable isomerization equilibrium associated with the changes in the SH2-SH2 conformational ensemble and IA flexibility accounts for the inhibition of Syk association with membrane ITAM regions when IA is phosphorylated, and refutes the proposed switch to single-SH2-domain binding. Syk localizes in the cell through its SH2 interactions, and this basis for allosteric regulation of ITAM association proposes for the first time a phosphorylation-dependent model to regulate Syk binding to alternate receptors and other signaling proteins that differ either in the number of residues separating ITAM phosphotyrosines or by having only one phosphotyrosine, a half ITAM.
Project description:In a synthetic biology approach using Schneider (S2) cells, we show that SLP-76 is directly phosphorylated at tyrosines Y113 and Y128 by SYK in the presence of ITAM-containing adapters such as CD3?, DAP12, or Fc?R?. This phosphorylation was dependent on at least one functional ITAM and a functional SH2 domain within SYK. Inhibition of Src-kinases by inhibitors PP1 and PP2 did not reduce SLP-76 phosphorylation in S2 cells, suggesting an ITAM and SYK dependent, but Src-kinase independent signaling pathway. This direct ITAM/SYK/SLP-76 signaling pathway therefore differs from previously described ITAM signaling. However, the SYK-family kinase ZAP70 required the additional co-expression of the Src-family kinases Fyn or Lck to efficiently phosphorylate SLP-76 in S2 cells. This difference in Src-family kinase dependency of SYK versus ZAP70-mediated ITAM-based signaling was further demonstrated in human lymphocytes. ITAM signaling in ZAP70-expressing T cells was dependent on the activity of Src-family kinases. In contrast, Src-family kinases were partially dispensable for ITAM signaling in SYK-expressing B cells or in natural killer cells, which express SYK and ZAP70. This demonstrates that SYK can signal using a Src-kinase independent ITAM-based signaling pathway, which may be involved in calibrating the threshold for lymphocyte activation.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis-associated (RA-associated) inflammation is mediated through the interaction between RA IgG immune complexes and IgG Fc receptors on immune cells. Polymorphisms within the gene encoding the human IgG Fc receptor IIA (hFc?RIIA) are associated with an increased risk of developing RA. Within the hFc?RIIA intracytoplasmic domain, there are 2 conserved tyrosine residues arranged in a noncanonical immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). Here, we reveal that inhibitory engagement of the hFc?RIIA ITAM either with anti-hFc?RII F(ab')2 fragments or intravenous hIgG (IVIg) ameliorates RA-associated inflammation, and this effect was characteristic of previously described inhibitory ITAM (ITAMi) signaling for hFc?RI and hFc?RIIIA, but only involves a single tyrosine. In hFc?RIIA-expressing mice, arthritis induction was inhibited following hFc?RIIA engagement. Moreover, hFc?RIIA ITAMi-signaling reduced ROS and inflammatory cytokine production through inhibition of guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV-1 and IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), respectively. ITAMi signaling was mediated by tyrosine 304 (Y304) within the hFc?RIIA ITAM, which was required for recruitment of tyrosine kinase SYK and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Anti-hFc?RII F(ab')2 treatment of inflammatory synovial cells from RA patients inhibited ROS production through induction of ITAMi signaling. These data suggest that shifting constitutive hFc?RIIA-mediated activation to ITAMi signaling could ameliorate RA-associated inflammation.
Project description:2B4 is a member of the SLAM receptor family capable of activating NK cell cytotoxicity in the context of EBV infection. SAP (SLAM Associated Protein) deficiency causes defective signaling downstream of SLAM family receptors and high susceptibility to EBV. 2B4 costimulates natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) and TCR initiated signals to induce cellular cytotoxicity and cytokine release. The 2B4-SAP signal transduction pathway is not predicted to overlap with the TCR-ITAM pathway, although SAP is required for some TCR-induced signals. We therefore examined the functional relationship between SLAM family receptor 2B4 and ITAM-containing adaptor complexes. Removal of Fc?RI? or CD3?-containing complexes, using genetically manipulated cell lines or siRNA specific suppression, significantly reduces 2B4-initiated functions in NK and T cells, respectively. Consistent with this relationship, Syk and ZAP-70 are capable of transducing 2B4 signals for calcium mobilization and cytolysis. Furthermore, ITAM-containing molecules constitutively associate with SAP. These results suggest a potential physical association between 2B4 and the ITAM receptor complexes that is required for 2B4-initiated signaling and cell-mediated killing.
Project description:Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) interacts with the ?-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (Fc?RI?) and activates Syk by recognizing its specific ligand, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, a glycolipid produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been suggested that mast cells participate in the immune defense against pathogenic microbes including M. tuberculosis, although the functions are still uncertain. In this study, we examined the Mincle-mediated signaling pathway and cellular responses using RBL-2H3 cells. Mincle formed a protein complex with not only Fc?RI? but also Fc?RI? in a stable cell line expressing myc-tagged Mincle. In addition, engagement of Mincle increased the levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK phosphorylation. A pull-down assay demonstrated that cross-linking of Mincle induced binding of Fc?RI?? subunits to the Src homology 2 domain of Syk. Pharmacological and genetic studies indicated that activation of Syk was critical for Mincle-mediated activation of phospholipase C?2, leading to the activation of ERK and nuclear factor of activated T cells. Moreover, engagement of Mincle efficiently induced up-regulation of characteristic mast cell genes in addition to degranulation. Taken together, our present results suggest that mast cells contribute to Mincle-mediated immunity through Syk activation triggered by association with the Fc?RI?? complex.
Project description:Immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-containing proteins have recently been demonstrated in macrophages and neutrophils to be required for cell surface integrins to transmit activation signals into the cell. To identify ITAM-bearing proteins that mediate signaling via the platelet-specific integrin alphaIIbbeta3, fibrinogen binding was induced by (1) allowing platelets to spread directly on immobilized fibrinogen, or (2) activating the PAR1 thrombin receptor on platelets in suspension. Both initiated strong, ligand binding-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITAM-bearing platelet Fc receptor, FcgammaRIIa, as well as downstream phosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Syk and activation of phospholipase Cgamma2 (PLCgamma2). Addition of Fab fragments of an FcgammaRIIa-specific monoclonal antibody strongly inhibited platelet spreading on immobilized fibrinogen, as well as downstream tyrosine phosphorylation of FcgammaRIIa, Syk, and PLCgamma2, and platelets from a patient whose platelets express reduced levels of FcgammaRIIa exhibited markedly reduced spreading on immobilized fibrinogen. Finally, fibrinogen binding-induced FcgammaRIIa phosphorylation did not occur in human platelets expressing a truncated beta3 cytoplasmic domain. Taken together, these data suggest that ligand binding to platelet alphaIIbbeta3 induces integrin cytoplasmic domain-dependent phosphorylation of FcgammaRIIa, which then enlists selected components of the immunoreceptor signaling cascade to transmit amplification signals into the cell.
Project description:CD84 is a self-binding receptor from the CD150 (or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule [SLAM]) family that is broadly expressed in hematopoietic cells. It has been described that the adaptors SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and EWS-FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) are critical for CD150 family members' signaling and function. We observed that human mast cells express CD84 but lack SAP or EAT-2, that CD84 is tyrosine phosphorylated upon Fc?RI engagement, and that the release of granule contents is reduced when Fc?RI is coengaged with CD84 in LAD2 and human CD34(+)-derived mast cells. In addition, we observed that the release of IL-8 and GM-CSF was also reduced in Fc?RI/CD84-costimulated cells as compared with Fc?RI/Ig control. To understand how CD84 downregulates Fc?RI-mediated function, we analyzed signaling pathways affected by CD84 in human mast cells. Our results showed that CD84 dampens Fc?RI-mediated calcium mobilization after its co-cross-linking with the receptor. Furthermore, Fc?RI-mediated Syk-linker for activation of T cells-phospholipase C-?1 axis activity is downregulated after CD84 stimulation, compared with Fc?RI/Ig control. The inhibitory kinase Fes phosphorylates mainly the inhibitory motif for CD84. Moreover, Fes, which has been described to become phosphorylated after substrate binding, also gets phosphorylated when coexpressed with CD84. Consistently, Fes was observed to be more phosphorylated after CD84 and Fc?RI co-cross-linking. The phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 also increases after CD84 and Fc?RI coengagement. Taken together, our results show that CD84 is highly expressed in mast cells and that it contributes to the regulation of Fc?RI signaling in SAP- and EAT-2-independent and Fes- and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1-dependent mechanisms.
Project description:Activation of the high affinity IgE-binding receptor (Fc?RI) results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of two conserved tyrosines located close to the COOH terminus of the protein-tyrosine kinase Syk. Synthetic peptides representing the last 10 amino acids of the tail of Syk with these two tyrosines either nonphosphorylated or phosphorylated were used to precipitate proteins from mast cell lysates. Proteins specifically precipitated by the phosphorylated peptide were identified by mass spectrometry. These included the adaptor proteins SLP-76, Nck-1, Grb2, and Grb2-related adaptor downstream of Shc (GADS) and the protein phosphatases SHIP-1 and TULA-2 (also known as UBASH3B or STS-1). The presence of these in the precipitates was further confirmed by immunoblotting. Using the peptides as probes in far Western blots showed direct binding of the phosphorylated peptide to Nck-1 and SHIP-1. Immunoprecipitations suggested that there were complexes of these proteins associated with Syk especially after receptor activation; in these complexes are Nck, SHIP-1, SLP-76, Grb2, and TULA-2 (UBASH3B or STS-1). The decreased expression of TULA-2 by treatment of mast cells with siRNA increased the Fc?RI-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the activation loop tyrosines of Syk and the phosphorylation of phospholipase C-?2. There was parallel enhancement of the receptor-induced degranulation and activation of nuclear factor for T cells or nuclear factor ?B, indicating that TULA-2, like SHIP-1, functions as a negative regulator of Fc?RI signaling in mast cells. Therefore, once phosphorylated, the terminal tyrosines of Syk bind complexes of proteins that are positive and negative regulators of signaling in mast cells.
Project description:Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is an essential player in immune signaling through its ability to couple multiple classes of membrane immunoreceptors to intracellular signaling pathways. Ligand binding leads to the recruitment of Syk to a phosphorylated cytoplasmic region of the receptors called ITAM. Syk binds to ITAM with high-affinity (nanomolar Kd ) via its tandem pair of SH2 domains. The affinity between Syk and ITAM is allosterically regulated by phosphorylation at Y130 in a linker connecting the tandem SH2 domains; when Y130 is phosphorylated, the binding affinity decreases (micromolar Kd ). Previous equilibrium binding studies attribute the increase in the binding free energy to an intra-molecular binding (isomerization) step of the tandem SH2 and ITAM, but a physical basis for the increased free energy is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that Y130 phosphorylation imposes an entropy penalty to isomerization, but surprisingly, has negligible effect on the SH2 binding interactions with ITAM and thus on the binding enthalpy. An analysis of NMR chemical shift differences characterized conformational effects of ITAM binding, and binding thermodynamics were measured from isothermal titration calorimetry. Together the data support a previously unknown mechanism for the basis of regulating protein-protein interactions through protein phosphorylation. The decreased affinity for Syk association with immune receptor ITAMs by Y130 phosphorylation is an allosteric mechanism driven by an increased entropy penalty, likely contributed by conformational disorder in the SH2-SH2 inter-domain structure, while SH2-ITAM binding contacts are not affected, and binding enthalpy is unchanged.