CD4 T cell sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR)1 and S1PR4 and endothelial S1PR2 regulate afferent lymphatic migration.
ABSTRACT: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and S1P receptors (S1PRs) regulate migration of lymphocytes out of thymus to blood and lymph nodes (LNs) to efferent lymph, whereas their role in other tissue sites is not known. Here, we investigated the question of how these molecules regulate leukocyte migration from tissues through afferent lymphatics to draining LNs (dLNs). S1P, but not other chemokines, selectively enhanced human and murine CD4 T cell migration across lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). T cell S1PR1 and S1PR4, and LEC S1PR2, were required for migration across LECs and into lymphatic vessels and dLNs. S1PR1 and S1PR4 differentially regulated T cell motility and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) binding. S1PR2 regulated LEC layer structure, permeability, and expression of the junction molecules VE-cadherin, occludin, and zonulin-1 through the ERK pathway. S1PR2 facilitated T cell transcellular migration through VCAM-1 expression and recruitment of T cells to LEC migration sites. These results demonstrated distinct roles for S1PRs in comodulating T cell and LEC functions in migration and suggest previously unknown levels of regulation of leukocytes and endothelial cells during homeostasis and immunity.
Project description:A bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), acts extracellularly as a potent mediator, and is implicated in the progression of various cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). S1P exerts its functions by binding to five types of specific receptors, S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1), S1PR2, S1PR3, S1PR4 and S1PR5 on the plasma membrane. However, the exact roles of S1P and each S1PR in HCC cells remain to be clarified. In the present study, we investigated the effect of S1P on the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced migration of human HCC-derived HuH7 cells, and the involvement of each S1PR. S1P dose-dependently reduced the HGF-induced migration of HuH7 cells. We found that all S1PRs exist in the HuH7 cells. Among each selective agonist for five S1PRs, CYM5520, a selective S1PR2 agonist, significantly suppressed the HGF-induced HuH7 cell migration whereas selective agonists for S1PR1, S1PR3, S1PR4 or S1PR5 failed to affect the migration. The reduction of the HGF-induced migration by S1P was markedly reversed by treatment of JTE013, a selective antagonist for S1PR2, and S1PR2- siRNA. These results strongly suggest that S1P reduces the HGF-induced HCC cell migration via S1PR2. Our findings may provide a novel potential of S1PR2 to therapeutic strategy for metastasis of HCC.
Project description:Background:The apolipoprotein M (ApoM)-sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) axis was recently identified, and research into its function has received increasing attention. However, there are some factors which might influence the results of studies into the function of the ApoM-S1P axis using the EA.hy926 cells. This study investigated related factors, including coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), ApoM, S1P receptor subtypes (S1PRs), C-myc-tagged, and His-tagged proteins in EA.hy926 cells, as well as the effects of ApoM overexpression on S1PRs. Methods:The expression of FVIII, ApoM, S1PRs, C-myc, and His-tagged proteins in EA.hy926 cells was investigated through cellular immunofluorescence. EA.hy926 cells were infected with lentiviruses carrying (OE group) or lacking (NC group) the ApoM gene sequence. A stable cell line expressing ApoM was obtained, and the expression of ApoM mRNA was detected through single tube duplex fluorescence reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). S1PRs expression was detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Results:The results showed that EA.hy926 cells expressed FVIII, ApoM, C-myc-tagged, and His-tagged proteins. Moreover, they highly expressed S1PR1, slightly expressed S1PR3, weakly expressed S1PR2, and did not express S1PR4 and S1PR5. ApoM overexpression significantly increased S1PR1 mRNA and protein expression but did not affect the expression of S1PR3. EA.hy926 cells expressed FVIII, suggesting the cell line possesses endothelial cell characteristics and could be used for in vitro studies of the ApoM-S1P axis. Conclusions:EA.hy926 cell line is suitable for investigation of the ApoM-S1P axis in vitro. However, Since EA.hy926 cells expressed endogenous ApoM, C-myc and His tagged proteins, the exogenous recombinant ApoM should not be labeled with C-myc and His tags for distinguishing from endogenous ApoM. In addition, overexpression of ApoM should be considered to significantly increase the expression of S1PR1 when studying the APOM-S1P axis.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator generated when a cell membrane or its components are damaged by various factors. S1P regulates diverse cell activities via S1P receptors (S1PRs). Keratinocytes express S1PR1-5. Although it is known that S1PRs control keratinocyte differentiation, apoptosis, and wound healing, S1PR functions in keratinocyte infections have not been fully elucidated. We propose that the S1P-S1PR axis in keratinocytes works as a biosensor for bacterial invasion. Indeed, in human impetigo infection, we found high epidermal expression of S1PR1 and S1PR2 in the skin. Furthermore, in normal human epidermal keratinocytes in vitro, treatment with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial supernatant not only induced S1P production but also increased the transcription of S1PR2, confirming our in vivo observation, as well as increased the levels of TNFA, IL36G, IL6, and IL8 mRNAs. However, direct treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with S1P increased the expressions of IL36G, TNFA, and IL8, but not IL6. In both S1P- and S. aureus bacterial supernatant-treated normal human epidermal keratinocytes, S1PR1 knockdown reduced IL36G, TNFA, and IL8 transcription, and the S1PR2 antagonist JTE013 blocked the secretion of these cytokines. Overall, we have proven that during infections, keratinocytes communicate damage by using S1P release and tight control of S1PR1 and 2.
Project description:Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) present peripheral tissue antigens to induce T cell tolerance. In addition, LECs are the main source of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), promoting naive T cell survival and effector T cell exit from lymph nodes (LNs). Autophagy is a physiological process essential for cellular homeostasis. We investigated whether autophagy in LECs modulates T cell activation in experimental arthritis. Whereas genetic abrogation of autophagy in LECs does not alter immune homeostasis, it induces alterations of the regulatory T cell (T reg cell) population in LNs from arthritic mice, which might be linked to MHCII-mediated antigen presentation by LECs. Furthermore, inflammation-induced autophagy in LECs promotes the degradation of Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), resulting in decreased S1P production. Consequently, in arthritic mice lacking autophagy in LECs, pathogenic Th17 cell migration toward LEC-derived S1P gradients and egress from LNs are enhanced, as well as infiltration of inflamed joints, resulting in exacerbated arthritis. Our results highlight the autophagy pathway as an important regulator of LEC immunomodulatory functions in inflammatory conditions.
Project description:Cumulating evidences suggested an important role of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its receptors in regulating endothelial barrier integrity. Our previous study revealed that the circulating S1P levels and renal expression of S1PRs correlated with disease activity and renal damage in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). This study investigated the role of S1P and its receptors in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive IgG-mediated glomerular endothelial cell (GEnC) activation. The effect of S1P on morphological alteration of GEnCs in the presence of MPO-ANCA-positive IgG was observed. Permeability assay was performed to determine endothelial monolayer activation in quantity. Both membrane-bound and soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were measured. Furthermore, antagonists and/or agonists of various S1PRs were employed to determine the role of different S1PRs. S1P enhanced MPO-ANCA-positive IgG-induced disruption of tight junction and disorganization of cytoskeleton in GEnCs. S1P induced further increase in monolayer permeability of GEnC monolayers in the presence of MPO-ANCA-positive IgG. S1P enhanced MPO-ANCA-positive IgG-induced membrane-bound and soluble ICAM-1/VCAM-1 up-regulation of GEnCs. Soluble ICAM-1 levels in the supernatants of GEnCs stimulated by S1P and MPO-ANCA-positive IgG increased upon pre-incubation of S1PR1 antagonist, while pre-incubation of GEnCs with the S1PR1 agonist down-regulated sICAM-1 level. Blocking S1PR2-4 reduced sICAM-1 levels in the supernatants of GEnCs stimulated by S1P and MPO-ANCA-positive IgG. Pre-incubation with S1PR5 agonist could increase sICAM-1 level in the supernatants of GEnC stimulated by S1P and MPO-ANCA-positive IgG. S1P can enhance MPO-ANCA-positive IgG-mediated GEnC activation through S1PR2-5.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that is characterized by a peculiar mechanism of action. In fact, S1P, which is produced inside the cell, can act as an intracellular mediator, whereas after its export outside the cell, it can act as ligand of specific G-protein coupled receptors, which were initially named endothelial differentiation gene (Edg) and eventually renamed sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs). Among the five S1PR subtypes, S1PR1, S1PR2 and S1PR3 isoforms show broad tissue gene expression, while S1PR4 is primarily expressed in immune system cells, and S1PR5 is expressed in the central nervous system. There is accumulating evidence for the important role of S1P as a mediator of many processes, such as angiogenesis, carcinogenesis and immunity, and, ultimately, fibrosis. After a tissue injury, the imbalance between the production of extracellular matrix (ECM) and its degradation, which occurs due to chronic inflammatory conditions, leads to an accumulation of ECM and, consequential, organ dysfunction. In these pathological conditions, many factors have been described to act as pro- and anti-fibrotic agents, including S1P. This bioactive lipid exhibits both pro- and anti-fibrotic effects, depending on its site of action. In this review, after a brief description of sphingolipid metabolism and signaling, we emphasize the involvement of the S1P/S1PR axis and the downstream signaling pathways in the development of fibrosis. The current knowledge of the therapeutic potential of S1PR subtype modulators in the treatment of the cardiac functions and fibrinogenesis are also examined.
Project description:Production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is linked to 17β-estradiol (E2) activity in many estrogen-responsive cells; in bone development, the role of S1P is unclear. We studied effects of S1P on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts (hOB). Ten nM E2, 1 μM S1P, or 1 μM of the S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonist SEW2871 increased hOB proliferation at 24 hours. S1PR 1, 2, and 3 mRNAs are expressed by hOB but not S1PR4 or S1PR5. Expression of S1PR2 was increased at 7 and 14 days of differentiation, in correspondence with osteoblast-related mRNAs. Expression of S1PR1 was increased by E2 or S1P in proliferating hOB, whereas S1PR2 mRNA was unaffected in proliferating cells; S1PR3 was not affected by E2 or S1P. Inhibiting sphingosine kinase (SPHK) activity with sphingosine kinase inhibitor (Ski) greatly reduced the E2 proliferative effect. Both E2 and S1P increased SPHK mRNA at 24 hours in hOB. S1P promoted osteoblast proliferation via activating MAP kinase activity. Either E2 or S1P increased S1P synthesis in a fluorescent S1P assay. Interaction of E2 and S1P signaling was indicated by upregulation of E2 receptor mRNA after S1P treatment. E2 and S1P also promoted alkaline phosphatase expression. During osteoblast differentiation, S1P increased bone-specific mRNAs, similarly to the effects of E2. However, E2 and S1P showed differences in the activation of some osteoblast pathways. Pathway analysis by gene expression arrays was consistent with regulation of pathways of osteoblast differentiation; collagen and cell adhesion proteins centered on Rho/Rac small GTPase signaling and Map kinase or signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) intermediates. Transcriptional activation also included significant increases in superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 transcription by either S1P or E2. We demonstrate that the SPHK system is a co-mediator for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, which is mainly, but not entirely, complementary to E2, whose effects are mediated by S1PR1 and S1PR2.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) system has been implicated in the pathological process of liver injury. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of S1P/S1PR on bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage (BMM) migration in mouse models of cholestatic liver injury, and identify the signaling pathway underlying this process. S1PR1-3 expression in BMM was characterized by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR and Western blot. Cell migration was determined in Boyden chambers. In vivo, the chimera mice, which received BM transplants from EGFP-transgenic mice, received an operation of bile duct ligation (BDL) to induce liver injury with the administration of S1PR2/3 antagonists. The results showed that S1PR1-3 were all expressed in BMMs. S1P exerted a powerful migratory action on BMMs via S1PR2 and S1PR3. Furthermore, PTX and LY-294002 (PI3K inhibitor) prevented S1PR2/3-mediated BMM migration, and Rac1 activation by S1P was inhibited by JTE-013, CAY-10444 or LY294002. Administration of S1PR2/3 antagonists in vivo significantly reduced BMM recruitment in BDL-treated mice, and attenuated hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. In conclusion, S1P/S1PR2/3 system mediates BMM motility by PTX-PI3K-Rac1 signaling pathway, which provides new compelling information on the role of S1P/S1PR in liver injury and opens new perspectives for the pharmacological treatment of hepatic fibrosis.
Project description:Hyperglycemia aggravates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), but the underlying mechanism for the aggravation remains elusive. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) have been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss whether and how S1P/S1PRs are involved in hyperglycemia-related liver IRI. For our in vivo experiment, we enrolled diabetic patients with benign hepatic disease who had liver resection, and we used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice or normal mice to establish a liver IRI model. In vitro bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were differentiated in high-glucose (HG; 30 mM) or low-glucose (LG; 5 mM) conditions for 7 days. The expression of S1P/S1PRs was analyzed in the liver and BMDMs. We investigated the functional and molecular mechanisms by which S1P/S1PRs may influence hyperglycemia-related liver IRI. S1P levels were higher in liver tissues from patients with diabetes mellitus and mice with STZ-induced diabetes. S1PR3, but not S1PR1 or S1PR2, was activated in liver tissues and Kupffer cells under hyperglycemic conditions. The S1PR3 antagonist CAY10444 attenuated hyperglycemia-related liver IRI based on hepatic biochemistry, histology, and inflammatory responses. Diabetic livers expressed higher levels of M1 markers but lower levels of M2 markers at baseline and after ischemia/reperfusion. Dual-immunofluorescence staining showed that hyperglycemia promoted M1 (CD68/CD86) differentiation and inhibited M2 (CD68/CD206) differentiation. Importantly, CAY10444 reversed hyperglycemia-modulated M1/M2 polarization. HG concentrations in vitro also triggered S1P/S1PR3 signaling, promoted M1 polarization, inhibited M2 polarization, and enhanced inflammatory responses compared with LG concentrations in BMDMs. In contrast, S1PR3 knockdown significantly retrieved hyperglycemia-modulated M1/M2 polarization and attenuated inflammation. In conclusion, our study reveals that hyperglycemia specifically triggers S1P/S1PR3 signaling and exacerbates liver IRI by facilitating M1 polarization and inhibiting M2 polarization, which may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for liver IRI in diabetes.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a multipotent cell population acquired most prominently from bone marrow with the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, and others. MSCs demonstrate the capacity to home to sites of injury and contribute to tissue repair. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid impacting proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis with changes in S1P concentration providing significant implications for various disease conditions including cancer, diabetes, and cardiac disease. These functions are primarily mediated by interactions with 5 G-protein coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1-5). In this paper, we demonstrate that inhibition of S1PR2 results in increased MSC clonogenicity, migration, and proliferation; features dependent on Erk phosphorylation. Furthermore, decreased S1PR2 expression decreases the differentiation of MSCs into adipocytes and mature osteoblasts that may be the result of increased expression of MSC pluripotency factors including Nanog, Sox-9, and Oct-4. Inhibition of S1PR1 and S1PR3 in contrast does not impact MSC migration or Erk activation although increased proliferation is observed. In the study, we describe the essential role of S1PR2 in MSC differentiation pathways through modification of pluripotency factors. We propose a MAPK dependent mechanism through S1PR2 inhibition that promotes equally multipotent MSC proliferation.