Structure Kinetics Relationships and Molecular Dynamics Show Crucial Role for Heterocycle Leaving Group in Irreversible Diacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Drug discovery programs of covalent irreversible, mechanism-based enzyme inhibitors often focus on optimization of potency as determined by IC50-values in biochemical assays. These assays do not allow the characterization of the binding activity (Ki) and reactivity (kinact) as individual kinetic parameters of the covalent inhibitors. Here, we report the development of a kinetic substrate assay to study the influence of the acidity (pKa) of heterocyclic leaving group of triazole urea derivatives as diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL)-? inhibitors. Surprisingly, we found that the reactivity of the inhibitors did not correlate with the pKa of the leaving group, whereas the position of the nitrogen atoms in the heterocyclic core determined to a large extent the binding activity of the inhibitor. This finding was confirmed and clarified by molecular dynamics simulations on the covalently bound Michaelis-Menten complex. A deeper understanding of the binding properties of covalent serine hydrolase inhibitors is expected to aid in the discovery and development of more selective covalent inhibitors.
Project description:Covalent inhibition is a reemerging paradigm in kinase drug design, but the roles of inhibitor binding affinity and chemical reactivity in overall potency are not well-understood. To characterize the underlying molecular processes at a microscopic level and determine the appropriate kinetic constants, specialized experimental design and advanced numerical integration of differential equations are developed. Previously uncharacterized investigational covalent drugs reported here are shown to be extremely effective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (kinact/Ki in the range 10(5)-10(7) M(-1)s(-1)), despite their low specific reactivity (kinact ≤ 2.1 × 10(-3) s(-1)), which is compensated for by high binding affinities (Ki < 1 nM). For inhibitors relying on reactivity to achieve potency, noncovalent enzyme-inhibitor complex partitioning between inhibitor dissociation and bond formation is central. Interestingly, reversible binding affinity of EGFR covalent inhibitors is highly correlated with antitumor cell potency. Furthermore, cellular potency for a subset of covalent inhibitors can be accounted for solely through reversible interactions. One reversible interaction is between EGFR-Cys797 nucleophile and the inhibitor's reactive group, which may also contribute to drug resistance. Because covalent inhibitors target a cysteine residue, the effects of its oxidation on enzyme catalysis and inhibitor pharmacology are characterized. Oxidation of the EGFR cysteine nucleophile does not alter catalysis but has widely varied effects on inhibitor potency depending on the EGFR context (e.g., oncogenic mutations), type of oxidation (sulfinylation or glutathiolation), and inhibitor architecture. These methods, parameters, and insights provide a rational framework for assessing and designing effective covalent inhibitors.
Project description:Irreversible covalent inhibitors can have a beneficial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics profile but are still often avoided due to the risk of indiscriminate covalent reactivity and the resulting adverse effects. To overcome this potential liability, we introduced an alkyne moiety as a latent electrophile into small molecule inhibitors of cathepsin K (CatK). Alkyne-based inhibitors do not show indiscriminate thiol reactivity but potently inhibit CatK protease activity by formation of an irreversible covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine residue, confirmed by crystal structure analysis. The rate of covalent bond formation ( kinact) does not correlate with electrophilicity of the alkyne moiety, indicative of a proximity-driven reactivity. Inhibition of CatK-mediated bone resorption is validated in human osteoclasts. Together, this work illustrates the potential of alkynes as latent electrophiles in small molecule inhibitors, enabling the development of irreversible covalent inhibitors with an improved safety profile.
Project description:We have investigated 4-halopyridines as selective, tunable, and switchable covalent protein modifiers for use in the development of chemical probes. Nonenzymatic reactivity of 4-chloropyridine with amino acids and thiols was ranked with respect to common covalent protein-modifying reagents and found to have reactivity similar to that of acrylamide, but could be switched to a reactivity similar to that of iodoacetamide upon stabilization of the positively charged pyridinium. Diverse, fragment-sized 4-halopyridines inactivated human dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) through covalent modification of the active site cysteine, acting as quiescent affinity labels that required off-pathway catalysis through stabilization of the protonated pyridinium by a neighboring aspartate residue. A series of 2-fluoromethyl-substituted 4-chloropyridines demonstrated that the pKa and kinact /KI values could be predictably varied over several orders of magnitude. Covalent labeling of proteins in an Escherichia coli lysate was shown to require folded proteins, indicating that alternative proteins can be targeted, and modification is likely to be catalysisdependent. 4-Halopyridines, and quiescent affinity labels in general, represent an attractive strategy to develop reagents with switchable electrophilicity as selective covalent protein modifiers.
Project description:The covalent inhibition mechanism of action, which overcomes competition with high-affinity, high-abundance substrates of challenging protein targets, can deliver effective chemical probes and drugs. The success of this strategy has centered on exposed cysteine residues as nucleophiles but the low abundance of cysteine in the proteome has limited its application. We have recently reported our discovery that lysine-56 in the difficult-to-drug target HSP72 could form a covalent bond with a small-molecule inhibitor. We now disclose the optimization of these targeted covalent inhibitors using rational design. Essential to our optimization was the development of a new covalent fluorescence polarization assay, which allows for the direct measurement of the key kinetic parameter in covalent inhibitor design, kinact/KI, extrapolation of the underlying parameters, kinact and Ki, and direct comparison to reversible analogues. Using our approach, we demonstrate a >100-fold enhancement in covalent efficiency and key learnings in lysine-selective electrophile optimization.
Project description:Inhibitors of the human enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) can control endogenous nitric oxide production. A time-dependent covalent inactivator of DDAH1, N5-(1-imino-2-chloroethyl)-l-ornithine ( KI = 1.3 ?M, kinact = 0.34 min-1), was conceptually dissected into two fragments and each characterized separately: l-norvaline ( Ki = 470 ?M) and 2-chloroacetamidine ( KI = 310 ?M, kinact = 4.0 min-1). This analysis suggested that the two fragments were not linked in a manner that allows either to reach full affinity or reactivity, prompting the synthesis and characterization of three analogues: two that mimic the dimethylation status of the substrate, N5-(1-imino-2-chloroisopropyl)-l-ornithine ( kinact /KI = 208 M-1 s-1) and N5-(1-imino-2-chlorisopropyl)-l-lysine ( kinact /KI = 440 M-1 s-1), and one that lengthens the linker beyond that found in the substrate, N5-(1-imino-2-chloroethyl)-l-lysine (Cl-NIL, KI = 0.19 ?M, kinact = 0.22 min-1). Cl-NIL is one of the most potent inhibitors reported for DDAH1, inactivates with a second order rate constant (1.9 × 104 M-1 s-1) larger than the catalytic efficiency of DDAH1 for its endogenous substrate (1.6 × 102 M-1 s-1), and has a partition ratio of 1 with a >100?000-fold selectivity for DDAH1 over arginase. An activity-based protein-profiling probe is used to show inhibition of DDAH1 within cultured HEK293T cells (IC50 = 10 ?M) with cytotoxicity appearing only at higher concentrations (ED50 = 118 ?M). A 1.91 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure reveals specific interactions made with DDAH1 upon covalent inactivation by Cl-NIL. Dissecting a covalent inactivator and analysis of its constituent fragments proved useful for the design and optimization of this potent and effective DDAH1 inhibitor.
Project description:Diacylglycerol lipase ? (DAGL?) is responsible for the formation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGL? inhibitors are required to study the physiological role of 2-AG. Previously, we identified the ?-ketoheterocycles as potent and highly selective DAGL? inhibitors. Here, we present the first comprehensive structure-activity relationship study of ?-ketoheterocycles as DAGL? inhibitors. Our findings indicate that the active site of DAGL? is remarkably sensitive to the type of heterocyclic scaffold with oxazolo-4N-pyridines as the most active framework. We uncovered a fundamental substituent effect in which electron-withdrawing meta-oxazole substituents increased inhibitor potency. (C6-C9)-acyl chains with a distal phenyl group proved to be the most potent inhibitors. The integrated SAR data was consistent with the proposed binding pose in a DAGL? homology model. Altogether, our results may guide the design of future DAGL? inhibitors as leads for molecular therapies to treat neuroinflammation, obesity, and related metabolic disorders.
Project description:A fragment library of electrophilic small heterocycles was characterized through cysteine-reactivity and aqueous stability tests that suggested their potential as covalent warheads. The analysis of theoretical and experimental descriptors revealed correlations between the electronic properties of the heterocyclic cores and their reactivity against GSH that are helpful in identifying suitable fragments for cysteines with specific nucleophilicity. The most important advantage of these fragments is that they show only minimal structural differences from non-electrophilic counterparts. Therefore, they could be used effectively in the design of targeted covalent inhibitors with minimal influence on key non-covalent interactions.
Project description:The divergent sequences, protein structures, and catalytic mechanisms of serine- and metallo-?-lactamases hamper the development of wide-spectrum ?-lactamase inhibitors that can block both types of enzymes. The O-aryloxycarbonyl hydroxamate inactivators of Enterobacter cloacae P99 class C serine-?-lactamase are unusual covalent inhibitors in that they target both active-site Ser and Lys residues, resulting in a cross-link consisting of only two atoms. Many clinically relevant metallo-?-lactamases have an analogous active-site Lys residue used to bind ?-lactam substrates, suggesting a common site to target with covalent inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate that an O-aryloxycarbonyl hydroxamate inactivator of serine-?-lactamases can also serve as a classical affinity label for New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase-1 (NDM-1). Rapid dilution assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and global kinetic fitting are used to map covalent modification at Lys211 and determine KI (140 ?M) and kinact (0.045 min-1) values. Mass spectrometry of the intact protein and the use of ultraviolet photodissociation for extensive fragmentation confirm stoichiometric covalent labeling that occurs specifically at Lys211. A 2.0 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of inactivated NDM-1 reveals that the covalent adduct is bound at the substrate-binding site but is not directly coordinated to the active-site zinc cluster. These results indicate that Lys-targeted affinity labels might be a successful strategy for developing compounds that can inactivate both serine- and metallo-?-lactamases.
Project description:Nitro-substituted 1,3-benzothiazinones (nitro-BTZs) are mechanism-based covalent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-ribose-2'-oxidase (DprE1) with strong antimycobacterial properties. We prepared a number of oxidized and reduced forms of nitro-BTZs to probe the mechanism of inactivation of the enzyme and to identify opportunities for further chemistry. The kinetics of inactivation of DprE1 was examined using an enzymatic assay that monitored reaction progress up to 100?min, permitting compound ranking according to kinact/Ki values. The side-chain at the 2-position and heteroatom identity at the 1-position of the BTZs were found to be important for inhibitory activity. We obtained crystal structures with several compounds covalently bound. The data suggest that steps upstream from the covalent end-points are likely the key determinants of potency and reactivity. The results of protein mass spectrometry using a 7-chloro-nitro-BTZ suggest that nucleophilic reactions at the 7-position do not operate and support a previously proposed mechanism in which BTZ activation by a reduced flavin intermediate is required. Unexpectedly, a hydroxylamino-BTZ showed time-dependent inhibition and mass spectrometry corroborated that this hydroxylamino-BTZ is a mechanism-based suicide inhibitor of DprE1. With this BTZ derivative, we propose a new covalent mechanism of inhibition of DprE1 that takes advantage of the oxidation cycle of the enzyme.
Project description:A new bicyclic organohypervalent iodine heterocycle derivative of benziodazole was prepared by oxidation of 2-iodo-N,N'-diisopropylisophthalamide with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid under mild conditions. Single crystal X-ray crystallography of this compound revealed a five-membered bis-heterocyclic structure with two covalent bonds between the iodine atom and the nitrogen atoms. This novel benziodazole is a very stable compound with good solubility in common organic solvents. This compound can be used as an efficient reagent for oxidatively assisted coupling of carboxylic acids with alcohols or amines to afford the corresponding esters or amides in moderate yields.