Colorectal Cancer Is Associated with a Deficiency of Lipoxin A4, an Endogenous Anti-inflammatory Mediator.
ABSTRACT: Unresolved inflammation, due to insufficient production of proresolving anti-inflammatory lipid mediators, can lead to tumorigenesis. Among these mediators, lipoxin A4 (LXA4) has potent anti-carcinogenic properties, and may serve as key target for modulating inflammation-associated cancer like colorectal cancer. The purpose of present study was to clarify the roles of LXA4 in colorectal cancer. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of LXA4 in colorectal cancer and its relationship with tumor-associated inflammation and immune microenvironment by employing clinical samples and mouse colorectal cancer cell line CT26-bearing tumor model as well as colorectal cancer cells. It was found that colorectal cancer is associated with dysregulation of immune microenvironment and deficiency of LXA4 that could play different roles at different stages of tumor growth: inhibiting early but promoting late tumor growth. Analysis of peripheral immune cells in subcutaneous xenograft mice model disclosed that early LXA4 treatment induced lymphocytes and inhibited neutrophils and monocytes, while late LXA4 treatment induced neutrophils but inhibited lymphocytes. Detailed analysis of tumor microenvironment revealed that early LXA4 treatment could inhibit inflammatory mediators expressions and leukocytes infiltration into tumor. Furthermore, LXA4 could suppress the expressions of p-ERK, p-P38 and NF-κB in subcutaneous xenograft. Additionally, LXA4 could inhibit the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells, and, meanwhile, inhibit the proliferation and migration of colorectal cancer cells stimulated by activated macrophage-conditioned media. These findings suggest that colorectal cancer is associated with a deficiency of LXA4 that could suppress colorectal cancer via modulating tumor-associated inflammation and immune microenvironment as well as inhibiting colorectal cancer cell development.
Project description:Alcoholism is one of the leading and increasingly prevalent reasons of liver associated morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) constitutes a severe disease with currently no satisfying treatment options. Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), a 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15)-dependent lipid mediator involved in resolution of inflammation, showed promising pre-clinical results in the therapy of several inflammatory diseases. Since inflammation is a main driver of disease progression in alcoholic hepatitis, we investigated the impact of endogenous ALOX15-dependent lipid mediators and exogenously applied LXA4 on AH development. A mouse model for alcoholic steatohepatitis (NIAAA model) was tested in Alox12/15+/+ and Alox12/15-/- mice, with or without supplementation of LXA4. Absence of Alox12/15 aggravated parameters of liver disease, increased hepatic immune cell infiltration in AH, and elevated systemic neutrophils as a marker for systemic inflammation. Interestingly, i.p. injections of LXA4 significantly lowered transaminase levels only in Alox12/15-/- mice and reduced hepatic immune cell infiltration as well as systemic inflammatory cytokine expression in both genotypes, even though steatosis progressed. Thus, while LXA4 injection attenuated selected parameters of disease progression in Alox12/15-/- mice, its beneficial impact on immunity was also apparent in Alox12/15+/+ mice. In conclusion, pro-resolving lipid mediators may be beneficial to reduce inflammation in alcoholic hepatitis.
Project description:Metastatic disease remains the primary cause of death for patients with breast cancer. The different steps of the metastatic cascade rely on reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. Within this local microenvironment and in distant organs, immune cells and their mediators are known to facilitate metastasis formation. However, the precise contribution of tumour-induced systemic inflammation to metastasis and the mechanisms regulating systemic inflammation are poorly understood. Here we show that tumours maximize their chance of metastasizing by evoking a systemic inflammatory cascade in mouse models of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. We mechanistically demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-1? elicits IL-17 expression from gamma delta (??) T cells, resulting in systemic, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-dependent expansion and polarization of neutrophils in mice bearing mammary tumours. Tumour-induced neutrophils acquire the ability to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocytes carrying the CD8 antigen, which limit the establishment of metastases. Neutralization of IL-17 or G-CSF and absence of ?? T cells prevents neutrophil accumulation and downregulates the T-cell-suppressive phenotype of neutrophils. Moreover, the absence of ?? T cells or neutrophils profoundly reduces pulmonary and lymph node metastases without influencing primary tumour progression. Our data indicate that targeting this novel cancer-cell-initiated domino effect within the immune system--the ?? T cell/IL-17/neutrophil axis--represents a new strategy to inhibit metastatic disease.
Project description:Tumor-promoting inflammation and the avoidance of immune destruction are hallmarks of cancer. While innate immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, are critical mediators for sterile and nonsterile inflammation, persistent inflammation, such as that which occurs in cancer, is known to disturb normal myelopoiesis. This disturbance leads to the generation of immunosuppressive myeloid cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Due to their potent suppressive activities against effector lymphocytes and their abundance in the tumor microenvironment, immunosuppressive myeloid cells act as a major barrier to cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, various therapeutic approaches directed toward immunosuppressive myeloid cells are actively being tested in preclinical and clinical studies. These include anti-inflammatory agents, therapeutic blockade of the mobilization and survival of myeloid cells, and immunostimulatory adjuvants. More recently, immune checkpoint molecules expressed on tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells have emerged as potential therapeutic targets to redirect these cells to eliminate tumor cells. In this review, we discuss the complex crosstalk between cancer-related inflammation and immunosuppressive myeloid cells and possible therapeutic strategies to harness antitumor immune responses.
Project description:Inflammation in the tumor microenvironment is a strong promoter of tumor growth. Substantial epidemiologic evidence suggests that aspirin, which suppresses inflammation, reduces the risk of cancer. The mechanism by which aspirin inhibits cancer has remained unclear, and toxicity has limited its clinical use. Aspirin not only blocks the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, but also stimulates the endogenous production of anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediators termed aspirin-triggered specialized proresolving mediators (AT-SPMs), such as aspirin-triggered resolvins (AT-RvDs) and lipoxins (AT-LXs). Using genetic and pharmacologic manipulation of a proresolving receptor, we demonstrate that AT-RvDs mediate the antitumor activity of aspirin. Moreover, treatment of mice with AT-RvDs (e.g., AT-RvD1 and AT-RvD3) or AT-LXA4 inhibited primary tumor growth by enhancing macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cell debris and counter-regulating macrophage-secreted proinflammatory cytokines, including migration inhibitory factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and C-C motif chemokine ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein 1. Thus, the pro-resolution activity of AT-resolvins and AT-lipoxins may explain some of aspirin's broad anticancer activity. These AT-SPMs are active at considerably lower concentrations than aspirin, and thus may provide a nontoxic approach to harnessing aspirin's anticancer activity.
Project description:Lipoxins are bioactive eicosanoids that are immunomodulators. In human myeloid cells, lipoxin (LX) A4 actions are mediated by interaction with a G protein-coupled receptor. To explore functions of LXA4 and aspirin-triggered 5(S),6(R),15(R)-trihydroxy-7,9,13-trans-11-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-epi-LXA4) in vivo, we cloned and characterized a mouse LXA4 receptor (LXA4R). When expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, the mouse LXA4R showed specific binding to [3H]LXA4 (K(d) approximately 1.5 nM), and with LXA4 activated GTP hydrolysis. Mouse LXA4R mRNA was most abundant in neutrophils. In addition to LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4, bioactive LX stable analogues competed with both [3H]LXA4 and [3H]leukotriene D4 (LTD4)-specific binding in vitro to neutrophils and endothelial cells, respectively. Topical application of LXA4 analogues and novel aspirin-triggered 15-epi-LXA4 stable analogues to mouse ears markedly inhibited neutrophil infiltration in vivo as assessed by both light microscopy and reduced myeloperoxidase activity in skin biopsies. The 15(R)-16-phenoxy-17,18, 19,20-tetranor-LXA4 methyl ester (15-epi-16-phenoxy-LXA4), an analogue of aspirin triggered 15-epi-LXA4, and 15(S)-16-phenoxy-17,18,19,20-tetranor-LXA4 methyl ester (16-phenoxy-LXA4) were each as potent as equimolar applications of the anti-inflammatory, dexamethasone. Thus, we identified murine LXA4R, which is highly expressed on murine neutrophils, and showed that both LXA4 and 15-epi-LXA4 stable analogues inhibit neutrophil infiltration in the mouse ear model of inflammation. These findings provide direct in vivo evidence for an anti-inflammatory action for both aspirin-triggered LXA4 and LXA4 stable analogues and their site of action in vivo.
Project description:Regulation of leukocyte activation is critical to limit unintended tissue injury during acute inflammation. On neutrophil activation, polyisoprenyl diphosphate phosphatase 1 (PDP1) rapidly converts presqualene diphosphate to presqualene monophosphate to facilitate cell activation. Lipoxins are potent anti-inflammatory mediators for neutrophils, yet their counterregulatory signaling mechanisms remain to be determined. 15-Epi-lipoxin A4 (15-epi-LXA4) blocked agonist-initiated association of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase components p47(PHOX) and p22(PHOX) in human neutrophils. 15-Epi-LXA4 (0.1-100 nM) inhibited neutrophil superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation in a concentration- and ALX/FPR2 receptor-dependent manner that was disrupted by PDP1-specific antibodies. In differentiated HL60 cells, a myeloid cell line, agonist-initiated O2(-) generation was inhibited by PDP1 siRNA. Recombinant human PDP1 was directly phosphorylated in vitro by select protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, including PKC?II. When neutrophils were exposed to formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), PKC?II was rapidly phosphorylated and physically associated with PDP1. Agonist-initiated conversion of neutrophil presqualene diphosphate to presqualene monophosphate was blocked by PKC?II inhibition. Neutrophil exposure to 15-epi-LXA4 attenuated fMLP triggered PKC?II phosphorylation and its interactions with PDP1. Together, these findings indicate that PDP1 serves an integral signaling role in neutrophil proinflammatory responses and as a target for counter-regulatory mediators.
Project description:The activation and infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are critical key steps in inflammation. PMN-mediated inflammation is limited by anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mechanisms, including specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPM). We examined the effects of 15-epi-LXA4 on inflammation and the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins, leukotriene B4 and various hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and SPM, in an oxazolone (OXA)-induced hypersensitivity model for dermal inflammation. 15-epi-LXA4 (100 ?M, 5 ?L subcutaneously injected) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced inflammation in skin, 24 hours after the OXA challenge, as compared to skin treated with vehicle. No significant influence on the biosynthesis of prostaglandins or leukotriene B4 was observed, whereas the level of 15S-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the skin areas treated with 15-epi-LXA4. In spite of the use of a fully validated analytical procedure, no SPM were detected in the biological samples. To investigate the reason for the lack of analytical signal, we tried to mimic the production of SPM (lipoxins, resolvins, maresin and protectin) by injecting them subcutaneously into the skin of mice and studying the in vivo availability and distribution of the compounds. All analytes showed very little lateral distribution in skin tissue and their levels were markedly decreased (> 95%) 2 hours after injection. However, docosahexaenoic acid derivatives were biologically more stable than SPM derived from arachidonic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid.
Project description:Inflammation plays a major role in colon carcinogenesis. Endogenously produced specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) play a central role in inflammation and tissue homeostasis, and have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We studied the associations of plasma levels of two SPMs [lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) and resolvin D1(RvD1)] with risk for recurrent adenoma. In this pilot study, we used data and biosamples from an adenoma chemoprevention study investigating the effects of aspirin and/or folic acid on the occurrence of colorectal adenomas. In the parent study, 1121 participants with a recent adenoma were randomized to study agents to be taken until the next surveillance colonoscopy about 3 years later. In this pilot study, LXA4 and RvD1 from samples taken near the end of study treatment were measured in a randomly selected sub-set of 200 participants. Commercially available ELISA kits to assay the analytes were validated using a metabololipidomic LC-MS/MS assay. Poisson regression with a robust error variance was used to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Plasma LXA4 and RvD1 were not associated with the risk of adenoma occurrence. LXA4 at the end of study follow-up was 32% (P?=?0.01) proportionately higher in women compared to men. A similar non-significant trend toward higher levels among women was observed for RvD1. Our preliminary findings provided no evidence that plasma LXA4 or RvD1 are associated with reduced risk of colorectal adenoma occurrence, but suggest LXA4 may differ among men and women. Future studies focusing on SPM's local effects and levels in the colon are needed.
Project description:Tumor-associated immune-suppressive neutrophils are prevalent in various cancers, including colorectal cancer. However, mechanisms of immune-suppressive neutrophils are not well understood. We report that a key innate suppressor, IRAK-M (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M), is critically involved in the establishment of immune-suppressive neutrophils. In contrast to the wild-type (WT) neutrophils exhibiting immune-suppressive signatures of CD11b<sup>high</sup>PD-L1<sup>high</sup>CD80<sup>low</sup>, IRAK-M-deficient neutrophils are rewired with reduced levels of inhibitory molecules PD-L1 and CD11b, as well as enhanced expression of stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD40. The reprogramming of IRAK-M-deficient neutrophils is mediated by reduced activation of STAT1/3 and enhanced activation of STAT5. As a consequence, IRAK-M-deficient neutrophils demonstrate enhanced capability to promote, instead of suppress, the proliferation and activation of effector T cells both in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, we observed that the transfusion of IRAK-M<sup>-/-</sup> neutrophils can potently render an enhanced anti-tumor immune response in the murine inflammation-induced colorectal cancer model. Collectively, our study defines IRAK-M as an innate suppressor for neutrophil function and reveals IRAK-M as a promising target for rewiring neutrophils in anti-cancer immunotherapy.
Project description:Increasing evidence has revealed that the initiation and progression of breast cancer are greatly affected by the immune environment. Neutrophils are the most abundant leucocytes in circulation and act as the spearhead in inflammation, including in breast cancer. Circulating neutrophils are closely related to the prognosis of breast cancer patients, and tumor-infiltrating neutrophils have varied functions at different stages of breast cancer, such as antitumor or tumor-promoting neutrophils, which are termed N1 and N2 neutrophils, respectively. In this review, we will discuss the utility of circulating neutrophils for predicting prognosis and therapeutic efficacy and the underlying mechanisms of their chemotaxis, the dynamic regulation of their antitumor or protumor functions and their different spatial distributions in tumor microenvironment. Finally, we also discuss the possibility of targeting neutrophils as a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer.