Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and collagen antibody-induced arthritis by CTHRC1.
ABSTRACT: Collagen triple helix repeat-containing1 (Cthrc1) has previously been implicated in osteogenic differentiation and positive regulation of bone mass, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we characterized the bone phenotype of a novel Cthrc1 null mouse strain using bone histomorphometry, ?CT analysis and functional readouts for bone strength. In male Cthrc1 null mice both trabecular bone as well as cortical bone formation was impaired, whereas in female Cthrc1 null mice only trabecular bone parameters were altered. Novel and highly specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that CTHRC1 is expressed by osteocytes and osteoblasts, but not osteoclasts. Furthermore, Cthrc1 null mice exhibited increased bone resorption with increased number of osteoclast and increased osteoclast activity together with enhanced expression of osteoclastogenic genes such as c-Fos, Rankl, Trap, and Nfatc1. Differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes isolated from Cthrc1 null mice differentiated into osteoclasts as effectively as those from wildtype mice. In the presence of CTHRC1 osteoclastogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived monocytes was dramatically inhibited as was functional bone resorption by osteoclasts. This process was accompanied by downregulation of osteoclastogenic marker genes, indicating that extrinsically derived CTHRC1 is required for such activity. In vitro, CTHRC1 had no effect on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells, however, calvarial osteoblasts from Cthrc1 null mice exhibited reduced osteogenic differentiation compared to osteoblasts from wildtypes. In a collagen antibody-induced arthritis model Cthrc1 null mice suffered significantly more severe inflammation and joint destruction than wildtypes, suggesting that CTHRC1 expressed by the activated synoviocytes has anti-inflammatory effects. Mechanistically, we found that CTHRC1 inhibited NF?B activation by preventing I?B? degradation while also inhibiting ERK1/2 activation. Collectively our studies demonstrate that CTHRC1 secreted from osteocytes and osteoblasts functions as an inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation via inhibition of NF?B-dependent signaling. Furthermore, our data suggest that CTHRC1 has potent anti-inflammatory properties that limit arthritic joint destruction.
Project description:Bone mass is maintained by continuous remodeling through repeated cycles of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. This remodeling process is regulated by many systemic and local factors.We identified collagen triple helix repeat containing-1 (Cthrc1) as a downstream target of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) in osteochondroprogenitor-like cells by PCR-based suppression subtractive hybridization followed by differential hybridization, and found that Cthrc1 was expressed in bone tissues in vivo. To investigate the role of Cthrc1 in bone, we generated Cthrc1-null mice and transgenic mice which overexpress Cthrc1 in osteoblasts (Cthrc1 transgenic mice). Microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and bone histomorphometry analyses showed that Cthrc1-null mice displayed low bone mass as a result of decreased osteoblastic bone formation, whereas Cthrc1 transgenic mice displayed high bone mass by increase in osteoblastic bone formation. Osteoblast number was decreased in Cthrc1-null mice, and increased in Cthrc1 transgenic mice, respectively, while osteoclast number had no change in both mutant mice. In vitro, colony-forming unit (CFU) assays in bone marrow cells harvested from Cthrc1-null mice or Cthrc1 transgenic mice revealed that Cthrc1 stimulated differentiation and mineralization of osteoprogenitor cells. Expression levels of osteoblast specific genes, ALP, Col1a1, and Osteocalcin, in primary osteoblasts were decreased in Cthrc1-null mice and increased in Cthrc1 transgenic mice, respectively. Furthermore, BrdU incorporation assays showed that Cthrc1 accelerated osteoblast proliferation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, overexpression of Cthrc1 in the transgenic mice attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss.Our results indicate that Cthrc1 increases bone mass as a positive regulator of osteoblastic bone formation and offers an anabolic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Project description:Bone remodeling is characterized by the sequential, local tethering of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and is key to the maintenance of bone integrity. While bone matrix-mobilized growth factors, such as TGF-?, are proposed to regulate remodeling, no in vivo evidence exists that an osteoclast-produced molecule serves as a coupling factor for bone resorption to formation. We found that CTHRC1, a protein secreted by mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts, targets stromal cells to stimulate osteogenesis. Cthrc1 expression was robustly induced when mature osteoclasts were placed on dentin or hydroxyapatite, and also by increasing extracellular calcium. Cthrc1 expression in bone increased in a high-turnover state (such as that induced by RANKL injections in vivo), but decreased in conditions associated with suppressed bone turnover (such as with aging and after alendronate treatment). Targeted deletion of Cthrc1 in mice eliminated Cthrc1 expression in bone, whereas its deficiency in osteoblasts did not exert any significant effect. Osteoclast-specific deletion of Cthrc1 resulted in osteopenia due to reduced bone formation and impaired the coupling process after resorption induced by RANKL injections, impairing bone mass recovery. These data demonstrate that CTHRC1 is an osteoclast-secreted coupling factor that regulates bone remodeling.
Project description:Bone is remodeled constantly throughout life by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. To maintain bone volume and quality, differentiation of osteoclasts and osteoblasts is tightly regulated through communication between and within these two cell lineages. Previously we reported that cell-cell interaction mediated by ephrinB2 ligand on osteoclasts and EphB4 receptor on osteoblasts generates bidirectional anti-osteoclastogenic and pro-osteoblastogenic signals into respective cells and presumably facilitates transition from bone resorption to bone formation. Here we show that bidirectional ephrinA2-EphA2 signaling regulates bone remodeling at the initiation phase. EphrinA2 expression was rapidly induced by receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand in osteoclast precursors; this was dependent on the transcription factor c-Fos but independent of the c-Fos target gene product NFATc1. Receptor EphA2 was expressed in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts. Overexpression experiments revealed that both ephrinA2 and EphA2 in osteoclast precursors enhanced differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts and that phospholipase Cgamma2 may mediate ephrinA2 reverse signaling. Moreover, ephrinA2 on osteoclasts was cleaved by metalloproteinases, and ephrinA2 released in the culture medium enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Interestingly, differentiation of osteoblasts lacking EphA2 was enhanced along with alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, and Osterix expression, indicating that EphA2 on osteoblasts generates anti-osteoblastogenic signals presumably by up-regulating RhoA activity. Therefore, ephrinA2-EphA2 interaction facilitates the initiation phase of bone remodeling by enhancing osteoclast differentiation and suppressing osteoblast differentiation.
Project description:Bone remodeling is characterized by the sequential, local tethering of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and is key to the maintenance of bone integrity. While bone matrix-mobilized growth factors, such as TGF-β, are proposed to regulate remodeling, no in vivo evidence exists that an osteoclast-produced molecule is the enigmatic coupling factor. We have identified Cthrc1, a protein secreted by mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts, that targets stromal cells so as to stimulate osteogenesis. The expression of Cthrc1 is robustly induced when mature osteoclasts are placed on dentin or hydroxyapatite, and also by increasing extracellular calcium. Cthrc1 expression in bone increases in a high turnover state, such as that which is induced by RANKL injections in vivo, whereas it decreases with aging or following alendronate treatment, conditions associated with suppressed bone turnover. The targeted deletion of the Cthrc1 gene eliminates Cthrc1 expression in bone, whereas its deficiency in osteoblasts does not exert any significant effect. Osteoclast-specific deletion of the Cthrc1 gene results in osteopenia due to reduced bone formation: it also impairs the coupling process following resorption induced by RANKL injections, with a resultant impairment of bone mass recovery. Thus, Cthrc1 is an osteoclast-secreted “coupling factor” that regulates bone remodeling and hence, skeletal integrity. Total bone marrow cells were prepared from the femurs and tibias of 8-10-week-old C57BL/6 mice and cultured in the presence of M-CSF (100ng/ml) for 3 days as described previously (Takeshita et al., 2000 JBMR 15:1477-1488). Cells were harvested with 0.02% EDTA/PBS and used as bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). These BMMs were cultured in the presence of M-CSF (100 ng/ml) and RANKL (100ng/ml) for 2 days. TRAP positive mononuclear cells were harvested and used as pre-osteoclasts (pOC). These pOC cells were further cultured in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL for 2 days in normal plastic plate or on dentin slices. After 2 days, multinucleated TRAP positive mature osteoclasts were generated as mature osteoclasts on plate (mOCp) and mature resorbing osteoclasts on dentin (mOCd), respectively. RNAs were extracted from four different stages of osteoclast lineage cells; BMMs, pOC, mOCp and mOCd, and used for microarray analysis.
Project description:The role of myeloid cell-specific TGF-? signaling in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-induced osteolytic bone lesion development is unknown. We used a genetically engineered mouse model, <i>Tgfbr2<sup>LysMCre</sup></i> knockout (KO), which has a loss of TGF-? signaling specifically in myeloid lineage cells, and we found that the area of H1993 cell-induced osteolytic bone lesions was decreased in <i>Tgfbr2<sup>LysMCre</sup></i> KO mice, relative to the area in control littermates. The bone lesion areas were correlated with tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis in the microenvironment. The smaller bone lesion area was partially rescued by bFGF, which was expressed by osteoblasts. Interestingly, bFGF was able to rescue the osteoclastogenesis, but not the tumor cell proliferation or angiogenesis. We then focused on identifying osteoclast factors that regulate bFGF expression in osteoblasts. We found that the expression and secretion of CTHRC1 was downregulated in osteoclasts from <i>Tgfbr2<sup>LysMCre</sup></i> KO mice; CTHRC1 was able to promote bFGF expression in osteoblasts, possibly through the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. Functionally, bFGF stimulated osteoclastogenesis and inhibited osteoblastogenesis, but had no effect on H1993 cell proliferation. On the other hand, CTHRC1 promoted osteoblastogenesis and H1993 cell proliferation. Together, our data show that myeloid-specific TGF-? signaling promoted osteolytic bone lesion development and bFGF expression in osteoblasts; that osteoclast-secreted CTHRC1 stimulated bFGF expression in osteoblasts in a paracrine manner; and that CTHRC1 and bFGF had different cell-specific functions that contributed to bone lesion development.
Project description:Coordination between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is required for bone health and homeostasis. Here we show that mice deficient in SMURF2 have severe osteoporosis in vivo. This low bone mass phenotype is accompanied by a pronounced increase in osteoclast numbers, although Smurf2-deficient osteoclasts have no intrinsic alterations in activity. Smurf2-deficient osteoblasts display increased expression of RANKL, the central osteoclastogenic cytokine. Mechanistically, SMURF2 regulates RANKL expression by disrupting the interaction between SMAD3 and vitamin D receptor by altering SMAD3 ubiquitination. Selective deletion of Smurf2 in the osteoblast lineage recapitulates the phenotype of germline Smurf2-deficient mice, indicating that SMURF2 regulates osteoblast-dependent osteoclast activity rather than directly affecting the osteoclast. Our results reveal SMURF2 as an important regulator of the critical communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Furthermore, the bone mass phenotype in Smurf2- and Smurf1-deficient mice is opposite, indicating that SMURF2 has a non-overlapping and, in some respects, opposite function to SMURF1.
Project description:Communication between osteoblasts and osteoclasts plays a key role in bone metabolism. We describe here an unexpected role for matrix vesicles (MVs), which bud from bone-forming osteoblasts and have a well-established role in initiation of bone mineralization, in osteoclastogenesis. We show that the MV cargo miR-125b accumulates in the bone matrix, with increased accumulation in transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing miR-125b in osteoblasts. Bone formation and osteoblasts in Tg mice are normal, but the number of bone-resorbing osteoclasts is reduced, leading to higher trabecular bone mass. miR-125b in the bone matrix targets and degrades Prdm1, a transcriptional repressor of anti-osteoclastogenic factors, in osteoclast precursors. Overexpressing miR-125b in osteoblasts abrogates bone loss in different mouse models. Our results show that the MV cargo miR-125b is a regulatory element of osteoblast-osteoclast communication, and that bone matrix provides extracellular storage of miR-125b that is functionally active in bone resorption.
Project description:: The coordinated development and function of bone-forming (osteoblasts) and bone-resorbing (osteoclasts) cells is critical for the maintenance of skeletal integrity and calcium homeostasis. An enhanced adipogenic versus osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been linked to bone loss associated with diseases such as diabetes mellitus, as well as aging and postmenopause. In addition to an inherent decrease in bone formation due to reduced osteoblast numbers, recent experimental evidence indicates that an increase in bone marrow adipocytes contributes to a disproportionate increase in osteoclast formation. Therefore, a potential strategy for therapeutic intervention in chronic bone loss disorders such as osteoporosis is to interfere with the pro-osteoclastogenic influence of marrow adipocytes. However, application of this approach is limited by the extremely complex regulatory processes in the osteoclastogenic program. For example, key regulators of osteoclastogenesis such as the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and the soluble decoy receptor osteoprotegerin (OPG) are not only secreted by both osteoblasts and adipocytes, but are also regulated through several cytokines produced by these cell types. In this context, biologically active signaling molecules secreted from bone marrow adipocytes, such as chemerin, adiponectin, leptin, visfatin and resistin, can have a profound influence on the osteoclast differentiation program of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and thus, hold therapeutic potential under disease conditions. In addition to these paracrine signals, adipogenic transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), C/EBP beta (C/EBP?) and peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor gamma (PPAR?) are also expressed by osteoclastogenic cells. However, in contrast to MSCs, activation of these adipogenic transcription factors in HSCs promotes the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts. Herein, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that link adipogenic signaling molecules and transcription factors to the osteoclast differentiation program and highlight therapeutic strategies targeting these mechanisms for promoting bone homeostasis.
Project description:This study investigated the effects of loss of Cthrc1 on adipogenesis, body composition, metabolism, physical activity, and muscle physiology.Complete metabolic and activity monitoring as well as grip strength measurements and muscle myography was performed in Cthrc1 null and wildtype mice.Compared to wildtypes, Cthrc1 null mice had similar body weights but significantly reduced energy expenditure, decreased lean mass, and increased fat mass, especially visceral fat. In vitro studies demonstrated that Cthrc1 inhibited adipocyte differentiation as well as PPAR and CREB reporter activity, while preadipocytes isolated from Cthrc1 null mice exhibited enhanced adipogenic differentiation. Voluntary physical activity in Cthrc1 null mice as assessed by wheel running was reduced to approximately half the distance covered by wildtypes. Reduced grip strength was observed in Cthrc1 null mice at the age of 15 weeks or older with reduced performance and mass of hyphenate muscle. In the brain, Cthrc1 expression was most prominent in neurons of thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei with evidence for secretion into the circulation in the median eminence.Our data indicate that Cthrc1 regulates body composition through inhibition of adipogenesis. In addition, central Cthrc1 may be a mediator of muscle function and physical activity.
Project description:The skeleton is a dynamic organ that is constantly remodeled. Proteins secreted from bone cells, namely osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts exert regulation on osteoblastogenesis, osteclastogenesis, and angiogenesis in a paracrine manner. Osteoblasts secrete a range of different molecules including RANKL/OPG, M-CSF, SEMA3A, WNT5A, and WNT16 that regulate osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblasts also produce VEGFA that stimulates osteoblastogenesis and angiogenesis. Osteocytes produce sclerostin (SOST) that inhibits osteoblast differentiation and promotes osteoclast differentiation. Osteoclasts secrete factors including BMP6, CTHRC1, EFNB2, S1P, WNT10B, SEMA4D, and CT-1 that act on osteoblasts and osteocytes, and thereby influenceaA osteogenesis. Osteoclast precursors produce the angiogenic factor PDGF-BB to promote the formation of Type H vessels, which then stimulate osteoblastogenesis. Besides, the evidences over the past decades show that at least three hormones or "osteokines" from bone cells have endocrine functions. FGF23 is produced by osteoblasts and osteocytes and can regulate phosphate metabolism. Osteocalcin (OCN) secreted by osteoblasts regulates systemic glucose and energy metabolism, reproduction, and cognition. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is secreted by osteoblasts and can influence energy metabolism by suppressing appetite in the brain. We review the recent progresses in the paracrine and endocrine functions of the secretory proteins of osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts, revealing connections of the skeleton with other tissues and providing added insights into the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases affecting multiple organs and the drug discovery process.