Kinetics of formation and reactivity of the persulfide in the one-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) participates in prokaryotic metabolism and is associated with several physiological functions in mammals. H2S reacts with oxidized thiol derivatives (i.e. disulfides and sulfenic acids) and thereby forms persulfides, which are plausible transducers of the H2S-mediated signaling effects. The one-cysteine peroxiredoxin alkyl hydroperoxide reductase E from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAhpE-SH) reacts fast with hydroperoxides, forming a stable sulfenic acid (MtAhpE-SOH), which we chose here as a model to study the interactions between H2S and peroxiredoxins (Prx). MtAhpE-SOH reacted with H2S, forming a persulfide (MtAhpE-SSH) detectable by mass spectrometry. The rate constant for this reaction was (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 m-1 s-1 (pH 7.4, 25 °C), six times higher than that reported for the reaction with the main low-molecular-weight thiol in M. tuberculosis, mycothiol. H2S was able to complete the catalytic cycle of MtAhpE and, according to kinetic considerations, it could represent an alternative substrate in M. tuberculosis. MtAhpE-SSH reacted 43 times faster than did MtAhpE-SH with the unspecific electrophile 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, a disulfide that exhibits no preferential reactivity with peroxidatic cysteines, but MtAhpE-SSH was less reactive toward specific Prx substrates such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. According to molecular dynamics simulations, this loss of specific reactivity could be explained by alterations in the MtAhpE active site. MtAhpE-SSH could transfer its sulfane sulfur to a low-molecular-weight thiol, a process likely facilitated by the low pKa of the leaving thiol MtAhpE-SH, highlighting the possibility that Prx participates in transpersulfidation. The findings of our study contribute to the understanding of persulfide formation and reactivity.
Project description:The single cysteine residue of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. HSA transports fatty acids (FA), a cargo that increases under conditions of diabetes, exercise or adrenergic stimulation. The stearic acid-HSA (5/1) complex reacted sixfold faster than FA-free HSA at pH 7.4 with the disulfide 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and twofold faster with hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. The apparent pK(a) of HSA-SH decreased from 7.9±0.1 to 7.4±0.1. Exposure to H(2)O(2) (2mM, 5min, 37°C) yielded 0.29±0.04mol of sulfenic acid (HSA-SOH) per mole of FA-bound HSA. The reactivity of HSA-SOH with low molecular weight thiols increased ?threefold in the presence of FA. The enhanced reactivity of the albumin thiol at neutral pH upon FA binding can be rationalized by considering that the corresponding conformational changes that increase thiol exposure both increase the availability of the thiolate due to a lower apparent pK(a) and also loosen steric constraints for reactions. Since situations that increase circulating FA are associated with oxidative stress, this increased reactivity of HSA-SH could assist in oxidant removal.
Project description:Redox-mediated protein modifications control numerous processes in both normal and disease metabolism. Protein sulfenic acids, formed from the oxidation of protein cysteine residues, play a critical role in thiol-based redox signaling. The reactivity of protein sulfenic acids requires their identification through chemical trapping, and this paper describes the use of the triphenylphosphonium (TPP) ion to direct known sulfenic acid traps to the mitochondria, a verified source of cellular reactive oxygen species. Coupling of the TPP group with the 2,4-(dioxocyclohexyl)propoxy (DCP) unit and the bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN) group produces two new probes, DCP-TPP and BCN-TPP. DCP-TPP and BCN-TPP react with C165A AhpC-SOH, a model protein sulfenic acid, to form the expected adducts with second-order rate constants of k = 1.1 M-1 s-1 and k = 5.99 M-1 s-1, respectively, as determined by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The TPP group does not alter the rate of DCP-TPP reaction with protein sulfenic acid compared to dimedone but slows the rate of BCN-TPP reaction compared to a non-TPP-containing BCN-OH control by 4.6-fold. The hydrophobic TPP group may interact with the protein, preventing an optimal reaction orientation for BCN-TPP. Unlike BCN-OH, BCN-TPP does not react with the protein persulfide, C165A AhpC-SSH. Extracellular flux measurements using A549 cells show that DCP-TPP and BCN-TPP influence mitochondrial energetics, with BCN-TPP producing a drastic decrease in basal respiration, perhaps due to its faster reaction kinetics with sulfenylated proteins. Further control experiments with BCN-OH, TPP-COOH, and dimedone provide strong evidence for mitochondrial localization and accumulation of DCP-TPP and BCN-TPP. These results reveal the compatibility of the TPP group with reactive sulfenic acid probes as a mitochondrial director and support the use of the TPP group in the design of sulfenic acid traps.
Project description:Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a group of peroxidases containing a cysteine thiol at their catalytic site. During peroxidase catalysis, the catalytic cysteine, referred to as the peroxidatic cysteine (C(P)), cycles between thiol (C(P)-SH) and disulfide (-S-S-) states via a sulfenic (C(P)-SOH) intermediate. Hyperoxidation of the C(P) thiol to its sulfinic (C(P)-SO(2)H) derivative has been shown to be reversible, but its sulfonic (C(P)-SO(3)H) derivative is irreversible. Our comparative study of hyperoxidation and regeneration of Prx I and Prx II in HeLa cells revealed that Prx II is more susceptible than Prx I to hyperoxidation and that the majority of the hyperoxidized Prx II formation is reversible. However, the hyperoxidized Prx I showed much less reversibility because of the formation of its irreversible sulfonic derivative, as verified with C(P)-SO(3)H-specific antiserum. In an attempt to identify the multiple hyperoxidized spots of the Prx I on two-dimensional PAGE analysis, an N-acetylated Prx I was identified as part of the total Prx I using anti-acetylated Lys antibody. Using peptidyl-Asp metalloendopeptidase (EC 126.96.36.199) peptide fingerprints, we found that N(alpha)-terminal acetylation (N(alpha)-Ac) occurred exclusively on Prx II after demethionylation. N(alpha)-Ac of Prx II blocks Prx II from irreversible hyperoxidation without altering its affinity for hydrogen peroxide. A comparative study of non-N(alpha)-acetylated and N(alpha)-terminal acetylated Prx II revealed that N(alpha)-Ac of Prx II induces a significant shift in the circular dichroism spectrum and elevation of T(m) from 59.6 to 70.9 degrees C. These findings suggest that the structural maintenance of Prx II by N(alpha)-Ac may be responsible for preventing its hyperoxidation to form C(P)-SO(3)H.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) elicits pleiotropic physiological effects ranging from modulation of cardiovascular to CNS functions. A dominant method for transmission of sulfide-based signals is via posttranslational modification of reactive cysteine thiols to persulfides. However, the source of the persulfide donor and whether its relationship to H2S is as a product or precursor is controversial. The transsulfuration pathway enzymes can synthesize cysteine persulfide (Cys-SSH) from cystine and H2S from cysteine and/or homocysteine. Recently, Cys-SSH was proposed as the primary product of the transsulfuration pathway with H2S representing a decomposition product of Cys-SSH. Our detailed kinetic analyses demonstrate a robust capacity for Cys-SSH production by the human transsulfuration pathway enzymes, cystathionine beta-synthase and ?-cystathionase (CSE) and for homocysteine persulfide synthesis from homocystine by CSE only. However, in the reducing cytoplasmic milieu where the concentration of reduced thiols is significantly higher than of disulfides, substrate level regulation favors the synthesis of H2S over persulfides. Mathematical modeling at physiologically relevant hepatic substrate concentrations predicts that H2S rather than Cys-SSH is the primary product of the transsulfuration enzymes with CSE being the dominant producer. The half-life of the metastable Cys-SSH product is short and decomposition leads to a mixture of polysulfides (Cys-S-(S)n-S-Cys). These in vitro data, together with the intrinsic reactivity of Cys-SSH for cysteinyl versus sulfur transfer, are consistent with the absence of an observable increase in protein persulfidation in cells in response to exogenous cystine and evidence for the formation of polysulfides under these conditions.
Project description:Peroxiredoxins (Prx) are widely distributed peroxidases that can be divided into 1-Cys and 2-Cys Prx groups based on the number of conserved cysteine residues that participate in their catalytical cycle. Prx have been described to be strictly dependent on thiols, but here, we show that ascorbate (vitamin C) also reduces 1-Cys Prx, but not 2-Cys Prx, from several taxonomic groups. Reduction by ascorbate is partly related to the fact that the oxidized form of 1-Cys Prx is a stable sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH) instead of a disulfide. In addition, a histidine residue in the active site is required. In fact, we engineered a 2-Cys Prx with these two features, and it displayed ascorbate peroxidase activity. These data represent a breakthrough in the thiol-specific antioxidant paradigm. Ascorbate may be the long-sought-after biological reductant of 1-Cys Prx. Because ascorbate is present in high amounts in cells, the ascorbate/protein sulfenic acid pair represents an aspect of redox biochemistry that has yet to be explored in vivo.
Project description:Oxidation of the thiol functional group in cysteine (Cys-SH) to sulfenic (Cys-SOH), sulfinic (Cys-SO2H) and sulfonic acids (Cys-SO3H) is emerging as an important post-translational modification that can activate or deactivate the function of many proteins. Changes in thiol oxidation state have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes and correlate with disease states but are difficult to monitor in a physiological setting because of a lack of experimental tools. Here, we describe a method that enables live cell labeling of sulfenic acid-modified proteins. For this approach, we have synthesized the probe DAz-1, which is chemically selective for sulfenic acids and cell permeable. In addition, DAz-1 contains an azide chemical handle that can be selectively detected with phosphine reagents via the Staudinger ligation for identification, enrichment and visualization of modified proteins. Through a combination of biochemical, mass spectrometry and immunoblot approaches we characterize the reactivity of DAz-1 and highlight its utility for detecting protein sulfenic acids directly in mammalian cells. This novel method to isolate and identify sulfenic acid-modified proteins should be of widespread utility for elucidating signaling pathways and regulatory mechanisms that involve oxidation of cysteine residues.
Project description:The reversible oxidation of protein cysteine residues (Cys-SH) is a key reaction in cellular redox signaling involving initial formation of sulfenic acids (Cys-SOH), which are commonly detected using selective dimedone-based probes. Here, we report that significant portions of dimedone-tagged proteins are susceptible to cleavage by DTT reflecting the presence of perthiosulfenic acid species (Cys-SSOH) due to similar oxidation of hydropersulfides (Cys-SSH), since Cys-S-dimedone adducts are stable toward DTT. Combined studies using molecular modeling, mass spectrometry, and cell-based experiments indicate that Cys-SSH are readily oxidized to Cys-SSOH, which forms stable adducts with dimedone-based probes. We additionally confirm the presence of Cys-SSH within protein tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, and their apparent oxidation to Cys-SSOH in response NADPH oxidase activation, suggesting that such Cys-SSH oxidation may represent a novel, as yet uncharacterized, event in redox-based signaling.
Project description:The oxidation of thiol groups in proteins is a common event in biochemical processes involving disulfide bond formation and in response to an increased level of reactive oxygen species. It has been widely accepted that the oxidation of a cysteine side chain is initiated by the formation of cysteine sulfenic acid (Cys-SOH). Here, we demonstrate a mechanism of thiol oxidation through a hypervalent sulfur intermediate by presenting crystallographic evidence from an archaeal peroxiredoxin (Prx), the thioredoxin peroxidase from Aeropyrum pernix K1 (ApTPx). The reaction of Prx, which is the reduction of a peroxide, depends on the redox active cysteine side chains. Oxidation by hydrogen peroxide converted the active site peroxidatic Cys-50 of ApTPx to a cysteine sulfenic acid derivative, followed by further oxidation to cysteine sulfinic and sulfonic acids. The crystal structure of the cysteine sulfenic acid derivative was refined to 1.77 A resolution with R(cryst) and R(free) values of 18.8% and 22.0%, respectively. The refined structure, together with quantum chemical calculations, revealed that the sulfenic acid derivative is a type of sulfurane, a hypervalent sulfur compound, and that the S(gamma) atom is covalently linked to the N(delta1) atom of the neighboring His-42. The reaction mechanism is revealed by the hydrogen bond network around the peroxidatic cysteine and the motion of the flexible loop covering the active site and by quantum chemical calculations. This study provides evidence that a hypervalent sulfur compound occupies an important position in biochemical processes.
Project description:H2S is an important signalling molecule involved in diverse biological processes. It mediates the formation of cysteine persulfides (R-S-SH), which affect the activity of target proteins. Like thiols, persulfides show reactivity towards electrophiles and behave similarly to other cysteine modifications in a biotin switch assay. In this manuscript, we report on qPerS-SID a mass spectrometry-based method allowing the isolation of persulfide containing peptides in the mammalian proteome. With this method, we demonstrated that H2S donors differ in their efficacy to induce persulfides in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, data analysis revealed that persulfide formation affects all subcellular compartments and various cellular processes. Negatively charged amino acids appeared more frequently adjacent to cysteines forming persulfides. We confirmed our proteomic data using pyruvate kinase M2 as a model protein and showed that several cysteine residues are prone to persulfide formation finally leading to its inactivation. Taken together, the site-specific identification of persulfides on a proteome scale can help to identify target proteins involved in H2S signalling and enlightens the biology of H2S and its releasing agents.
Project description:The selective reaction of chemical reagents with reduced protein thiols is critical to biological research. This reaction is utilized to prevent cross-linking of cysteine-containing peptides in common proteomics workflows and is applied widely in discovery and targeted redox investigations of the mechanisms underlying physiological and pathological processes. However, known and commonly used thiol blocking reagents like iodoacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, and others were found to cross-react with oxidized protein sulfenic acids (-SOH) introducing significant errors in studies employing these reagents. We have investigated and are reporting here a new heteroaromatic alkylsulfone, 4-(5-methanesulfonyl-[1,2,3,4]tetrazol-1-yl)-phenol (MSTP), as a selective and highly reactive -SH blocking reagent compatible with biological applications.