Clinical Value of Lymph Node Ratio Integration with the 8th Edition of the UICC TNM Classification and 2015 ATA Risk Stratification Systems for Recurrence Prediction in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Recently, the 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification and the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system were released. This study was conducted to assess the clinical value of the lymph node ratio (LNR) as a predictor of recurrence when integrated with these newly released stratification systems, and to compare the predictive accuracy of the modified systems with that of the newly released systems. The optimal LNR threshold value for predicting papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence was 0.17857 using the Contal and O'Quigley method. The 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system with the LNR and the 2015 ATA risk stratification system with the LNR were significant predictors of recurrence. Furthermore, calculation of the proportion of variance explained (PVE), the Akaike information criterion (AIC), Harrell's c index, and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) revealed that the 8th edition of the TNM staging system with the LNR, and the 2015 ATA risk stratification system with the LNR, showed the best predictive performance. Integration of the LNR with the TNM staging and the ATA risk stratification systems should improve prediction of recurrence in patients with PTC.
Project description:Background: Considerable modifications have been introduced in the new edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) TNM staging system. Based on the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, this study aimed to compare the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system for patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) and follicular variant papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FVPTMC). Methods: A Data from 2004 to 2014 of 39,032 patients registered in the SEER database were included. The 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC staging system were compared in terms of TNM staging, age cutoff, and clinical staging. Patient survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. The American Thyroid Association (ATA) risk stratification system was integrated with the AJCC/UICC staging system for further investigation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, Harrell's C-index, Akaike information criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used to assess the models' performances. Results: Revised TNM categories, age cutoff, and clinical staging in the 8th edition resulted in reclassification of the overall stage. Applying the 8th edition, 1,278 stage III and 425 stage IV patients were reclassified as stage I; 950 stage III and 459 stage IV patients were reclassified as stage II; 77 stage IV patients were reclassified as stage III; and only 88 patients remained in stage IV. All patients in stage I, according to the 7th edition, remained in this stage when using the 8th edition. Patients classified into higher stages (III and IV) in the 8th edition showed a worse prognosis than those classified into same stages in the 7th edition. The 8th edition proved to be a better model with higher prognostic efficacy survival (higher AUC and C-index, lower AIC and BIC) than the 7th edition. When integrated with the ATA risk stratification system, the 8th edition still showed better discriminative power for patients in the higher risk group. Conclusion: Based on the SEER database, the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC staging system has better prognostic efficacy than the 7th edition for patients with PTMC and FVPTMC.
Project description:Background:The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system was released with major revisions. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate differences between the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system and to compare the predictability of prognosis between the two staging systems with patients who underwent thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at a single institution. Methods:A total of 3238 patients underwent thyroid operation from January 2002 to December 2006 at Yonsei University Hospital (Seoul, Korea), of which 2294 with complete clinical data and sustained follow up were enrolled. Clinicopathologic features and TNM staging by applying the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC/UICC were analyzed retrospectively by the complete review of medical charts and pathology reports of patients. Mean follow-up duration was 132.9?±?27.9?months. Results:A significant number of T3 patients were downstaged to T1 (838, 36.5%) and T2 (122, 5.3%). After applying the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, the number of stage?I patients increased significantly from 1434 (62.5%) to 2058 (89.7%), whereas numbers of stage III and IV patients decreased significantly from 644 (28.1%) to 33 (1.4%) and from 199 (8.7%) to 17 (0.7%), respectively. According to Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and values of the Harrell's c-index and integrated area under the curve (iAUC), the 8th edition has significantly better predictive performance for disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than the 7th edition. Conclusions:A significant population was downstaged after applying the 8th edition of the AJCC/UICC TNM staging system, and the 8th edition provided significantly better accuracy in predicting DFS and DSS in patients with DTC.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the validity of the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system for gastric cancer. Methods:The clinicopathologic data of 7371 patients who were diagnosed with gastric cancer and had 16 or more involved lymph nodes (LNs) were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and retrospectively reviewed. Results:Stage migration occurred primarily during stage III between the 7th and 8th edition TNM staging systems. Stages IIIB and IIIC in the 7th edition staging system were divided in the 8th edition and had obvious differences in survival rates (both P < 0.001). The 8th edition TNM stages IIIC and IV showed similar survival rates (P = 0.101). The prognosis of patients with T4aN3bM0 was not different from that of patients with TxNxM1 (P = 0.433), while the prognosis of patients with T4bN3bM0 was significantly poorer than that of patients with TxNxM1 (P = 0.008). A revised TNM system with both T4aN3bM0 and T4bN3bM0 incorporated into stage IV was proposed. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the revised TNM system, but not the 7th and 8th editions, was an independent factor for disease-specific survival (DSS) in the third step of the analysis. Further analyses revealed that the revised TNM system had superior discriminatory ability to the 8th edition staging system, which was also an improvement over the 7th edition staging system. Conclusion:The 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system is superior to the 7th edition for predicting the DSS rates of gastric cancer patients. However, for better prognostic stratification, it might be more suitable for T4aN3bM0/T4bN3bM0 to be incorporated into stage IV in the 8th edition TNM staging system.
Project description:Purpose:The 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-lymph node-metastasis (TNM) staging system for gallbladder cancer (GBC) recommended that at least six lymph nodes (LNs) should be examined. But most patients with GBC had fewer than six LNs resected. This study aimed to establish an alternative index for assessing the LN status during the staging system for GBC patients with fewer than six LNs retrieved. Patients and Methods:Patient data was extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (cases between 2004 and 2013). X-tile software was used to determine the optimal cutoff value for lymph node ratio (LNR) and a concordance index (C-index) was used to evaluate the discriminatory powers of the two staging systems. Results:The majority of GBC patients in our cohort (1353, 78.5%) had fewer than six LNs examined. Among patients with inadequate LN examination, the higher number of LNs examined correlated with a lower proportion of patients. Using the TNM staging system, the C-index for patients with fewer than six LNs and patients with six or more LNs screened were 0.636 and 0.704, respectively. Using the staging system based on LNR (TNrM), the C-index for patients with fewer than six LNs retrieved and patients with six or more LNs retrieved were 0.649 and 0.694, respectively. Similar results were observed in patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBA). Conclusion:TNrM might be superior to the 8th AJCC TNM staging system for stratifying GBC patients with fewer than six LNs examined, and it can complement TNM for more accurate risk stratification. Future prospective studies are needed to validate our findings.
Project description:PURPOSE:The new 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/International Union for Cancer Control (UICC) lung cancer staging system was developed and internally validated using the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) database, but external validation is needed. The goal of this study is to validate the discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of this new staging system in a larger, independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort with greater emphasis on North American patients. METHODS:A total of 858,909 NSCLC cases with one malignant primary tumor collected from 2004 to 2013 in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were analyzed. The primary coding guidelines of the Collaborative Staging Manual and Coding Instructions for the new 8th edition AJCC/UICC lung cancer staging system was used to define the new T, M and TNM stages for all patients in the database. Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression models and time-dependent receiver operating characteristics were used to compare the discriminatory ability and prognostic performance of the 7th and the revised 8th T, M categories and overall stages. RESULTS:We demonstrated that the 8th staging system provides better discriminatory ability than the 7th staging system and predicts prognosis for NSCLC patients using the NCDB. There were significant survival differences between adjacent groups defined by both clinical staging and pathologic staging systems. These staging parameters were significantly associated with survival after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS:The updated T, M, and overall TNM stage of the 8th staging system show improvement compared to the 7th edition in discriminatory ability between adjacent subgroups and are independent predictors for prognosis.
Project description:Background:Preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer determines the choice of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer. The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system was revised to its 8th version in 2016, there has been no report correlating the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging with preoperative MRI examinations and pathological findings. The purpose of our study is to determine the staging accuracy and evaluate the resectability by using MRI about pancreatic cancer compared with intraoperative or pathological findings according to the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system. Methods:One hundred thirty-two patients with a pathological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer who underwent preoperative MRI were identified. The clinical data, MRI findings and pathological findings were analyzed. Preoperative MRI staging and resectability evaluation were compared with pathological findings. The accuracy of MRI for preoperative T and N staging was evaluated, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI in evaluating the resectability were assessed. All the staging and resectability assessments were according to the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system. Results:Analysis showed that the accuracy of MRI for evaluation of the T and N stages was 82.6% (109/132) and 74.2% (98/132), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI in assessing the resectability were 94.2% and 71.4%, respectively. Integrating the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM stage, no significant differences were identified between the preoperative MRI and pathological results for the staging of pancreatic cancer (P=0.805). Conclusions:MRI is highly accurate for T staging and moderately accurate for N staging. MRI provides important preoperative evaluation of the stage and resectability of pancreatic cancer based on the 8th edition of the AJCC TNM staging system.
Project description:The 8th edition of the TNM was released in 2016 and included major revisions, especially for stage III. We aimed to compare the prognostic value of the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC TNM classification for stage III gastric cancer. Clinical data from 1557 patients operated on for stage III gastric cancer according to the 7th edition between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed and compared using the 7th and 8th TNM classifications. A proposed staging system was established, and the three systems were compared in terms of prognostic performance. The stage shifted for 669 (42.96%) patients. It shifted from IIIA to IIIB (one patient, 0.06%), IIIB to IIIA (230 patients, 14.8%), IIIB to IIIC (94 patients, 6.0%), and IIIC to IIIB (344 patients, 22.1%). However, the new AJCC subgroupings did not prove distinctive for survival levels between T3N3aM0 (stage IIIB) and T3N3bM0 (stage IIIC) or between T4aN3aM0 (stage IIIB) and T4aN3bM0 (stage IIIC) when <30 lymph nodes (LNs) were resected. The performance of the 8th edition (c-index, 0.614; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.596-0.633) revealed no relevant improvement compared to the 7th edition (c-index, 0.624; 95% CI, 0.605-0.643). The proposed staging system generated the best prognostic stratification. The 8th TNM edition may not provide better accuracy in predicting the prognosis of stage III gastric cancer. The proposed staging system, comprised of a combination of the number of LNs harvested and the 7th and 8th AJCC classifications, may improve predictive capacities for stage III gastric cancer.
Project description:The International Union Against Cancer/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) TNM staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is the most important system for survival prediction. The TNM 7th edition UICC/AJCC TNM staging system for NPC was adopted in January 2009, and is now internationally recommended. In comparison with the TNM 6th edition, there were several revisions in the new edition staging system. This study aims to evaluate the prognostic value of the TNM 7th edition for NPC patients in comparison with the TNM 6th edition.Clinical data of 2,629 NPC patients from the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2006 and December 2010 were retrospectively collected and all the patients were restaged according to the criteria of the TNM 6th edition and TNM 7th edition UICC/AJCC staging manual. Univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the prognostic values between adjacent stage categories of the TNM 6th edition and TNM 7th edition.In comparison with the TNM 6th edition, a significant alteration of the distribution of N categories was observed when the TNM 7th edition was applied (?2?=?20.589, P<0.001), with 119 (119/670, 17.8%) patients up-staging from N0 to N1. With regard to T and overall stage, 37 (37/561, 6.6%) patients were down-staged from T2a with the TNM 6th edition to T1 with the TNM 7th edition, and finally two patients were up-staged to overall stage II (2/118, 1.7%). Moreover, the survival curves were significantly segregated (P<0.05) between T1 and T2 as well as N1 and N2 with the TNM 7th edition.The TNM 7th edition led to a significant alteration in the distribution of N categories and it is superior to the TNM 6th edition in predicting the frequency of overall survival and distant metastasis-free survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has increased substantially in recent decades, particularly p16-positive human papillomavirus (HPV)-related OPSCC, which has risen by 50% in western countries. HPV-positivity is the most favourable non-anatomic predictor of oropharyngeal cancer outcomes, which underscores the importance of incorporating this variable into the cancer staging system. METHODS:In the present article, we review the differences between the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC staging system, with particular focus on the role of HPV-positivity in patients with head and neck cancer. RESULTS:In the previous edition (7th edition) of the AJCC/UICC manual, HPV status and its correlation with nodal metastasis were not considered, thereby leading to incorrect lymph node (N) staging and, potentially, inadequate treatment and worse outcomes. The 8th edition of the AJCC manual addresses these issues, providing more accurate discrimination between groups and better risk stratification in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. In the future, additional adjustments are likely to be needed, such as unification of the pathological and clinical staging models. CONCLUSIONS:The new staging system is substantially more accurate than the previous system and should be widely adopted in routine clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The AJCC/UICC classification is widely used for predicting survival in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but has not been evaluated as a predictor of recurrence. The hypothesis of this study was that the eighth edition of the AJCC system can be used in this novel way. METHODS:All patients in the study underwent surgery for PTC at a high-volume endocrine surgery centre in France between 1985 and 2015. The seventh and eighth editions of the AJCC/UICC staging system for PTC were employed to predict recurrence and disease-specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank tests. RESULTS:Among 4124 patients (79·7 per cent female), median age was 50 (i.q.r. 38-60)?years; 3906 patients (94·7 per cent) underwent total thyroidectomy, with lymph node dissection in 2495 (60·5 per cent). The eighth edition of the AJCC/UICC staging system placed 91·8, 7·1, 0·4 and 0·7 per cent of patients in stages I-IV respectively. After reclassifying patients from the seventh to the eighth AJCC/UICC edition, the disease was downstaged in 23·8 per cent. Over a median follow-up of 7?years, 260 patients (6·4 per cent) developed recurrent disease, including 5·2 per cent of patients with stage I, 19·6 per cent with stage II, 59 per cent with stage III and 50 per cent with stage IV disease, according to the eighth edition. The eighth edition was a better predictor of recurrence than the seventh edition. CONCLUSION:The eighth edition of the AJCC/UICC staging system appears to be a novel tool for predicting PTC recurrence, which is a meaningful outcome for this indolent disease. The eighth edition can be used to risk-stratify patients, keeping in mind that other molecular and pathological predictive factors must be integrated into the assessment of recurrence risk.