Polymorphisms in PCSK9, LDLR, BCMO1, SLC12A3, and KCNJ1 are Associated with Serum Lipid Profile in Chinese Han Population.
ABSTRACT: Unfavorable serum lipid levels are the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebral infarction, and other cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. This study included 2323 Han Chinese in southern China. We collected medical reports, lifestyle details, and blood samples of individuals and used the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method to genotype single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two SNPs showed a strong evidence of association with total cholesterol (TC): rs1003723 and rs6413504 in the low-density lipoproteins receptor (LDLR). Two SNPs in LDLR showed a strong evidence of association with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), rs1003723 and rs6413504. Two SNPs showed a strong evidence of association with triglycerides (TG), namely, rs662145 in pro-protein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and rs11643718 in the solute carrier family 12 member 3 (SLC12A3). For the TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, these SNPs generated strong combined effects on these lipid levels. For each additional dangerous gene, TC increased by 0.085 mmol/L (p = 7.00 × 10-6), and LDL-C increased by 0.075 mmol/L (p = 9.00 × 10-6). The TG increased by 0.096 mmol/L (p = 2.90 × 10-5). Compared with those bearing no risk alleles, the risk of hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and dyslipidemia increased in those with two or more risk alleles and one risk gene. Polymorphisms of PCSK9, LDLR, and SLC12A3 were associated with the plasma lipid levels in people in southern China. These results provide a theoretical basis for gene screening and the prevention of dyslipidemia.
Project description:Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis and atherogenesis. However, there are only limited rodent models, with a functional low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to evaluate the drug candidates targeting the PCSK9/LDLR pathway, that are translatable to humans. Here, by using our recently generated LDLR heterozygote (Ldlr+/-) hamster model with functional LDLR pathway and CETP function, we seek to evaluate the effect of a PCSK9 antibody, evolocumab, on dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis compared with ezetimibe, an effective inhibitor of cholesterol absorption, as a positive therapeutic control. We show that the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were significantly increased in Ldlr+/- hamsters fed a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet; therefore, areas of atherosclerotic lesion in the aorta were obviously increased and positively correlated with plasma LDL-C and TC. Circulating free PCSK9 was downregulated by the HFHC diet and was undetectable in the evolocumab treated group, as expected. Most importantly, either evolocumab or ezetimibe treatment prevented HFHC diet-induced hyperlipidemia and subsequent atherosclerotic plaque formation. The results indicate that Ldlr+/- hamsters fed an HFHC diet represent an ideal rodent model to evaluate drug candidates that affect LDLR pathways.
Project description:Circulating lipid concentrations are among the strongest modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). Most genetic studies have focused on Caucasian populations with little information available for populations of African ancestry. Using a cohort of ~2800 African-Americans (AAs) from a biobank at Vanderbilt University (BioVU), we sought to trans-ethnically replicate genetic variants reported by the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium to be associated with lipid traits in Caucasians, followed by fine-mapping those loci using all available variants on the MetaboChip. In AAs, we replicated one of 56 SNPs for total cholesterol (TC) (rs6511720 in LDLR, P=2.15 × 10-8), one of 63 SNPs for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (rs3764261 in CETP, P=1.13 × 10-5), two of 46 SNPs for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (rs629301 in CELSR2/SORT1, P=1.11 × 10-5 and rs6511720 in LDLR, P=2.47 × 10-5) and one of 34 SNPs for TG (rs645040 in MSL2L1, P=4.29 × 10-4). Using all available variants on MetaboChip for fine mapping, we identified additional variants associated with TC (APOE), HDL-C (LPL and CETP) and LDL-C (APOE). Furthermore, we identified two loci significantly associated with non-HDL-C: APOE/APOC1/TOMM40 and PCSK9. In conclusion, the genetic architecture of lipid traits in AAs differs substantially from that in Caucasians and it remains poorly characterized.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Information about the interactions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overweight/obesity on serum lipid profiles is still scarce. The present study was undertaken to detect ten SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on serum lipid levels. METHODS: A total of 978 normal weight and 751 overweight/obese subjects of Bai Ku Yao were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Normal weight, overweight and obesity were defined as a body mass index (BMI) < 24, 24-28, and > 28 kg/m(2); respectively. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1 and ApoB levels were measured. Genotyping of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) V825I, acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) rs1044925, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) AvaII, hepatic lipase gene (LIPC) -250G>A, endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) 584C>T, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, the E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain-interacting protein (MYLIP) rs3757354, proprotein convertase subtilisin-like kexin type 9 (PCSK9) E670G, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) +294T>C, and Scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SCARB1) rs5888 was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. The interactions were detected by factorial design covariance analysis. RESULTS: The genotypic and allelic frequencies of LIPC and PCSK9 were different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects, the genotypic frequency of LIPG and allelic frequency of MYLIP were also different between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects (P < 0.05-0.001). The levels of TC, ApoA1 (ABCA-1); TC, LDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TG, HDL-C, and ApoA1 (LIPG); TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); HDL-C and ApoA1 (MYLIP) in normal weight subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The levels of LDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (ABCA-1); HDL-C, ApoA1, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB (LIPC); TC, HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (LIPG); TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (MTHFR); TC, TG and ApoB (MYLIP); TG (PCSK9); TG, ApoA1 and ApoB (PPARD); and TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (SCARB1) in overweight/obese subjects were different among the genotypes (P < 0.01-0.001). The SNPs of ABCA-1 (LDL-C and ApoA1/ApoB); LIPC (TC, LDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB); LIPG (ApoB); MTHFR (TC, TG and LDL-C); MYLIP (TC and TG); PCSK9 (TG, HDL-C, ApoB and ApoA1/ApoB); PPARD (TG and ApoA1/ApoB); and SCARB1 (TG, ApoA1 and ApoB) interacted with overweight/obesity to influence serum lipid levels (P < 0.05-0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The differences in serum lipid levels between normal weight and overweight/obese subjects might partly result from different genetic polymorphisms and the interactions between several SNPs and overweight/obesity.
Project description:To determine the relative frequency of mutations in three different genes (low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), APOB, PCSK9), and to examine their effect in development of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with clinically defined definite familial hypercholesterolaemia in UK.409 patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia patients (158 with CHD) were studied. The LDLR was partially screened by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) (exons 3, 4, 6-10 and 14) and by using a commercial kit for gross deletions or rearrangements. APOB (p.R3500Q) and PCSK9 (p.D374Y) were detected by specific assays. Coding exons of PCSK9 were screened by SSCP.Mutations were detected in 253 (61.9%)236 (57.7%) carried LDLR, 10 (2.4%) carried APOB p.Q3500 and 7 (1.7%) PCSK9 p.Y374. No additional mutations were identified in PCSK9. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking and systolic blood pressure, compared to those with no detectable mutation, the odds ratio of having CHD in those with an LDLR mutation was 1.84 (95% CI 1.10 to 3.06), for APOB 3.40 (0.71 to 16.36), and for PCSK9 19.96 (1.88 to 211.5; p = 0.001 overall). The high risk in patients carrying LDLR and PCSK9 p.Y374 was partly explained by their higher pretreatment cholesterol levels (LDLR, PCSK9 and no mutation, 10.29 (1.85), 13.12 and 9.85 (1.90) mmol/l, respectively, p = 0.001). The post-statin treatment lipid profile in PCSK9 p.Y374 carriers was worse than in patients with no identified mutation (LDL-C, 6.77 (1.82) mmol/l v 4.19 (1.26) mmol/l, p = 0.001, HDL-C 1.09 (0.27) mmol/l v 1.36 (0.36) mmol/l, p = 0.03).The higher CHD risk in patients carrying PCSK9 p.Y347 or a detected LDLR mutation supports the usefulness of DNA testing in the diagnosis and management of patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia. Mutations in PCSK9 appear uncommon in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia in UK.
Project description:Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), are increasing in African populations. High serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol) levels are a known risk factor for CVDs in European populations, but the link remains poorly understood among Africans. This study investigated the associations between serum LDL-cholesterol levels and selected variants in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), apolipoprotein B (APOB), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1) genes in some selected African populations. Nineteen SNPs were selected from publicly available African whole genome sequence data based on functional prediction and allele frequency. SNPs were genotyped in 1000 participants from the AWI-Gen, study selected from the extremes of LDL-cholesterol level distribution (500 with LDL-cholesterol>3.5 mmol/L and 500 with LDL-cholesterol<1.1 mmol/L). The minor alleles at five of the six associated SNPs were significantly associated (P<0.05) with lower LDL-cholesterol levels: LDLRAP1 rs12071264 (OR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.75, P = 2.73x10-4) and rs35910270 (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.64-0.94, P = 0.008); APOB rs6752026 (OR 0. 55, 95% CI: 0.41-0.72, P = 2.82x10-5); LDLR: rs72568855 (OR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.82, P = 0.008); and PCSK9 rs45613943 (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.88, P = 0.001). The minor allele of the sixth variant was associated with higher LDL-cholesterol levels: APOB rs679899 (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.06-1.86, P = 0.016). A replication analysis in the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM) study found the PCSK9 variant to be significantly associated with low LDL-cholesterol levels (Beta = -0.10). Since Africans generally have lower LDL-cholesterol levels, these LDL-cholesterol associated variants may be involved in adaptation due to unique gene-environment interactions. In conclusion, using a limited number of potentially functional variants in four genes, we identified significant associations with lower LDL-cholesterol levels in sub-Saharan Africans.
Project description:Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of serum LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. PCSK9 is secreted by the liver into the plasma and binds the hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR), causing its subsequent degradation. We first demonstrated that a moderate dose of atorvastatin (40 mg) increases PCSK9 serum levels, suggesting why increasing statin doses may have diminished efficacy with regard to further LDL-C lowering. Since that initial observation, at least two other groups have reported statin-induced PCSK9 increases. To date, no analysis of the effect of high-dose atorvastatin (80 mg) on PCSK9 over time has been conducted. Therefore, we studied the time course of atorvastatin (80 mg) in human subjects. We measured PCSK9 and lipid levels during a 2-week lead-in baseline period and every 4 weeks thereafter for 16 weeks. We observed that atorvastatin (80 mg) caused a rapid 47% increase in serum PCSK9 at 4 weeks that was sustained throughout 16 weeks of dosing. Importantly, while PCSK9 levels were highly correlated with total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C, and triglyceride (TG) levels at baseline, atorvastatin (80 mg) completely abolished all of these correlations. Together, these results further suggest an explanation for why increasing doses of statins fail to achieve proportional LDL-C lowering.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abnormalities in lipid metabolism are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Variants of many genes have been verified to confer risk for lipid metabolism abnormalities. However, the relationship between genetic variants of the NCC-encoding SLC12A3 gene and lipid metabolism in the Mongolian population remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of SLC12A3 variants on Mongolian lipid metabolism, including total cholesterol (TCHO), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). METHODS:A randomly selected population of Mongolians (n?=?331) from China underwent clinical testing. An ANOVA test, Kruskal-Wallis H test (K-W test) and haplotype analysis were used to evaluate the association between the levels of lipids (TCHO, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and polymorphisms in SLC12A3 loci. RESULTS:We identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs5803, rs2010501 and rs711746 in the SLC12A3 gene that were significantly associated with an individual's serum LDL-c level. Haplotypes combining these SNPs also showed the same trend (all p values?<?0.01). Furthermore, the influence of SLC12A3 genetic polymorphisms on differences in individual serum LDL-c levels remained significant, even after we controlled gender, and demographic and other non-genetic factors. CONCLUSION:These results suggest that variants of the SLC12A3 gene confer susceptibility to the abnormal serum LDL-c level in the Mongolian population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common inherited metabolic disease with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. It is characterised by raised serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leading to premature coronary artery disease. Children with FH are subjected to early and enhanced atherosclerosis, leading to greater risk of coronary events, including premature coronary artery disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a pair of monochorionic diamniotic identical twins with a diagnosis of heterozygous FH, resulting from mutations in both LDLR and ABCG8 genes. CASE PRESENTATION:This is a rare case of a pair of 8-year-old monochorionic diamniotic identical twin, who on family cascade screening were diagnosed as definite FH, according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Criteria (DLCC) with a score of 10. There were no lipid stigmata noted. Baseline lipid profiles revealed severe hypercholesterolaemia, (TC = 10.5 mmol/L, 10.6 mmol/L; LDL-c = 8.8 mmol/L, 8.6 mmol/L respectively). Their father is the index case who initially presented with premature CAD, and subsequently diagnosed as FH. Family cascade screening identified clinical FH in other family members including their paternal grandfather who also had premature CAD, and another elder brother, aged 10 years. Genetic analysis by targeted next-generation sequencing using MiSeq platform (Illumina) was performed to detect mutations in LDLR, APOB100, PCSK9, ABCG5, ABCG8, APOE and LDLRAP1 genes. Results revealed that the twin, their elder brother, father and grandfather are heterozygous for a missense mutation (c.530C > T) in LDLR that was previously reported as a pathogenic mutation. In addition, the twin has heterozygous ABCG8 gene mutation (c.55G > C). Their eldest brother aged 12 years and their mother both had normal lipid profiles with absence of LDLR gene mutation. CONCLUSION:A rare case of Asian monochorionic diamniotic identical twin, with clinically diagnosed and molecularly confirmed heterozygous FH, due to LDLR and ABCG8 gene mutations have been reported. Childhood FH may not present with the classical physical manifestations including the pathognomonic lipid stigmata as in adults. Therefore, childhood FH can be diagnosed early using a combination of clinical criteria and molecular analyses.
Project description:Previous observational studies supported a positive association of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level with serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the causal relationship between HbA1c and either one of them was unclear in the East Asians. We performed a Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in a community-based study sample in Shanghai, China (n?=?11,935). To clarify the cause-and-effect relationships of HbA1c with the four interested lipids, an Expanded HbA1c genetic risk score (GRS) with 17 HbA1c-related common variants and a Conservative score by excluding 11 variants were built and adopted as the Instrumental Variables (IVs), respectively. The Expanded HbA1c-GRS was associated with 0.19 unit increment in log-TG (P?=?0.009), 0.42?mmol/L TC (P?=?0.01), and 0.33?mmol/L LDL-C (P?=?0.01); while the Conservative HbA1c-GRS was associated with 0.22 unit in log-TG (P?=?0.03), 0.60?mmol/L TC (P?=?0.01), and 0.51?mmol/L LDL-C (P?=?0.007). No causal relationship was detected for HDL-C. Sensitivity analysis supported the above findings. In conclusions, MR analysis supports a causal role of increased HbA1c level in increment of circulating TG, TC, and LDL-C in a Chinese population.
Project description:TRIB1 is a GWAS locus associated with plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) levels. In mice, liver-specific overexpression of TRIB1 lowers plasma lipid levels. Berberine (BBR) is a natural lipid lowering drug that reduces plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and TG in hyperlipidemic patients and in mice by mechanisms involving upregulation of hepatic LDL receptor (LDLR). Here, we demonstrated that BBR treatment reduced plasma LDL-C, TC and TG in LDLR wildtype (WT) mice fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet and it only lowered TG in LDLR WT mice fed a normal chow diet. In hypercholesterolemic LDLR deficient mice (Ldlr-/-), BBR treatment reduced plasma TG levels by 51% compared to the vehicle control without affecting plasma cholesterol levels. Hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that Trib1 mRNA levels were significantly elevated by BBR treatment in all three mouse models and increases of Trib1 mRNA expression were associated with reduced expression of lipogenic genes including Cebpa, Acc1 and Scd1. In vitro studies further demonstrate that BBR induces TRIB1 mRNA expression by a transcriptional mechanism via ERK signaling pathway. These new findings warrant future in vivo studies to determine the causal role of Trib1 in BBR-mediated TG lowering independent of LDLR regulation.