Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Air Quality across Weifang from 2014-2018.
ABSTRACT: Air pollution has become a severe threat and challenge in China. Focusing on air quality in a heavily polluted city (Weifang Cty), this study aims to investigate spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of air pollution and identify the influence of weather factors on primary pollutants in Weifang over a long period from 2014-2018. The results indicate the annual Air quality Index (AQI) in Weifang has decreased since 2014 but is still far from the standard for excellent air quality. The primary pollutants are O3 (Ozone), PM10 (Particles with aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm), and PM2.5 (Particles with aerodynamic diameter ?10 µm); the annual concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 show a significant reduction but that of O3 is basically unchanged. Seasonally, PM10 and PM2.5 show a U-shaped pattern, while O3 exhibits inverted U-shaped variations, and different pollutants also present different characteristics daily. Spatially, O3 exhibits a high level in the central region and a low level in the rural areas, while PM10 and PM2.5 are high in the northwest and low in the southeast. Additionally, the concentration of pollutants is greatly affected by meteorological factors, with PM2.5 being negatively correlated with temperature and wind speed, while O3 is positively correlated with the temperature. This research investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of the air pollution and provided important policy advice based on the findings, which can be used to mitigate air pollution.
Project description:Previous studies have reported adverse effects of either regional or near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) on lung function. However, there has been little study of the joint effects of these exposures.To assess the joint effects of NRAP and regional pollutants on childhood lung function in the Children's Health Study.Lung function was measured on 1811 children from eight Southern Californian communities. NRAP exposure was assessed based on (1) residential distance to the nearest freeway or major road and (2) estimated near-roadway contributions to residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO) and total nitrogen oxides (NOx). Exposure to regional ozone (O3), NO2, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10?µm (PM10) and 2.5?µm (PM2.5) was measured continuously at community monitors.An increase in near-roadway NOx of 17.9?ppb (2 SD) was associated with deficits of 1.6% in forced vital capacity (FVC) (p=0.005) and 1.1% in forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) (p=0.048). Effects were observed in all communities and were similar for NO2 and NO. Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with a reduction in FVC. Lung function deficits of 2-3% were associated with regional PM10 and PM2.5 (FVC and FEV1) and with O3 (FEV1), but not NO2 across the range of exposure between communities. Associations with regional pollution and NRAP were independent in models adjusted for each. The effects of NRAP were not modified by regional pollutant concentrations.The results indicate that NRAP and regional air pollution have independent adverse effects on childhood lung function.
Project description:Short-term exposures to outdoor air pollutants have been associated with lower lung function, but the results are inconsistence. The effects of different pollutant levels on lung function changes are still unclear. We quantified the effects of outdoor air pollution exposure (NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5) on lung function among 1,694 female non-smokers from the Wuhan-Zhuhai Cohort in China by using linear mixed model. We further investigated the associations in the two cities with different air quality levels separately to quantify the effects of different pollutant level exposure on lung function. We found the moving averages of NO2, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly associated with reduced FVC. In city at high pollutant level, the moving average of NO2, PM10, O3, and PM2.5 exposures were significantly associated with both FVC and FEV1 reductions. In the low-level air pollution city, PM10 (Lag03-Lag05) and O3 concentrations (Lag01-Lag03) were significantly associated with reduced FVC, while PM10 (Lag03-Lag05), O3 (Lag0-Lag03), and PM2.5 (Lag04-Lag06) exposure were significantly associated with reduced FEV1. Our results suggest that outdoor air pollution is associated with short-term adverse effects on lung function among female non-smokers. The adverse effects may persist for longer durations within 7 days at higher air pollutant levels.
Project description:Previous studies have explored the association between air pollution levels and adverse birth outcomes such as lower birth weight. Existing literature suggests an association, although results across studies are not consistent. Additional research is needed to confirm the effect, investigate the exposure window of importance, and distinguish which pollutants cause harm. We assessed the association between ambient pollutant concentrations and term birth weight for 1,548,904 births in TX from 1998 to 2004. Assignment of prenatal exposure to air pollutants was based on maternal county of residence at the time of delivery. Pollutants examined included particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). We applied a linear model with birth weight as a continuous variable. The model was adjusted for known risk factors and region. We assessed pollutant effects by trimester to identify biological exposure window of concern, and explored interaction due to race/ethnicity. An interquartile increase in ambient pollutant concentrations of SO2 and O3 was associated with a 4.99-g (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87-8.11) and 2. 72-g (95% CI, 1.11-4.33) decrease in birth weight, respectively. Lower birth weight was associated with exposure to O3 in the first and second trimester; whereas results were not significant for other pollutants by trimester A positive association was exhibited for PM2.5 in the first trimester. Effects estimates for PM10 and PM2.5 were inconsistent across race/ethnic groups. Current ambient air pollution levels may be increasing the risk of lower birth weight for some pollutants. These risks may be increased for certain racial/ethnic groups. Additional research including consideration of improved methodology is needed to investigate these findings. Future studies should examine the influence of residual confounding.
Project description:Objective To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes.Design Retrospective population based cohort study.Setting Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km2), UK, from 2006 to 2010.Participants 540?365 singleton term live births.Main outcome measures Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight.Results Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 ?g/m3 nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 73 ?g/m3 nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14 ?g/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 23 ?g/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10), and 32 ?g/m3 ozone (O3). Average daytime (LAeq,16hr) and night-time (Lnight) road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, and source specific PM2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM2.5 traffic exhaust) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM2.5 traffic non-exhaust) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM2.5 traffic exhaust and PM2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM2.5>13.8 ?g/m3during pregnancy.Conclusions The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes.
Project description:Lockdown measures to contain COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a considerable change in air pollution worldwide. We estimate the temporal and diurnal changes of the six criteria air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and gaseous pollutants (NO2, O3, CO, and SO2) during lockdown (25th March - 3rd May 2020) across regions of India using the observations from 134 real-time monitoring sites of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). Significant reduction in PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO has been found in all the regions during the lockdown. SO2 showed mixed behavior, with a slight increase at some sites but a comparatively significant decrease at other locations. O3 also showed a mixed variation with a mild increase in IGP and a decrease in the South. The absolute decrease in PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 was observed during peak morning traffic hours (08-10 Hrs) and late evening (20-24 Hrs), but the percentage reduction is almost constant throughout the day. A significant decrease in day-time O3 has been found over Indo Gangetic plain (IGP) and central India, whereas night-time O3 has increased over IGP due to less O3 loss. The most significant reduction (?40-60%) was found in PM2.5 and PM10. The highest decrease in PM was found for the north-west and IGP followed by South and central regions. A considerable reduction (?30-70%) in NO2 was found except for a few sites in the central region. A similar pattern was observed for CO having a ?20-40% reduction. The reduction observed for PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and enhancement in O3 was proportional to the population density. Delhi's air quality has improved with a significant reduction in primary pollutants, however, an increase in O3 was observed. The changes reported during the lockdown are combined effect of changes in the emissions, meteorology, and atmospheric chemistry that requires detailed investigations.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To better understand the burden of air pollution on deaths, we examined the effects of air pollutants on years of life lost (YLL) in Beijing, China.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective regression analysis using daily time series.<h4>Setting</h4>8 urban districts in Beijing, China.<h4>Participants</h4>80 515 deaths (48 802 male, 31 713 female) recorded by the Beijing death classification system during 2004-08.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Associations between daily YLL and ambient air pollutants (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), PM10, SO2, and NO2), after adjusting for long term trends, seasonality, day of the week, and weather conditions. We also examined mortality risk related to air pollutants.<h4>Results</h4>Mean concentrations of daily PM2.5, PM10, SO2 and NO2 were 105.1 μg/m(3), 144.6 μg/m(3), 48.6 μg/m(3), and 64.2 μg/m(3), respectively. All air pollutants had significant effects on years of life lost when we used single pollutant models. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 was related to YLL increases of 15.8, 15.8, 16.2, and 15.1 years, respectively. The effects of air pollutants on YLL appeared acutely and lasted for two days (lag 0-1); these effects associated with an IQR increase in PM2.5 were greater in women than men (11.1 (95% confidence interval 4.7 to 17.5) v 4.7 (-2.9 to 12.3) YLL) and in people aged up to 65 years than those older than 65 years (12.0 (2.9 to 21) v 3.8 (-0.9 to 8.6) YLL). The mortality risk associated with an IQR increase in PM2.5 was greater for people older than 65 years (2.5% (95% confidence interval 0.6% to 4.5%) increase of mortality) than those aged up to 65 years (0.7% (-0.8% to 2.2%)).<h4>Conclusions</h4>YLL provides a complementary measure for examining the effect of air pollutants on mortality. Increased YLL are associated with increased air pollution. This study highlights the need to reduce air pollution in Beijing, China, to protect the health of the population.
Project description:The purpose of this data, was to evaluate the air quality index of Kerman city in different season of 2015. The data showed that the PM10 and O3 were highest in the winter season and PM2.5, CO, SO2 and NO2 in the spring season as the air quality indexes. The highest number of unhealthy days was observed in spring in relation to PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants. The data showed that 33 and 9 days of the spring season had unfavorable conditions in relation PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants respectively. Therefore, the pollutant responsible for air pollution in Kerman was PM2.5. By comparing the air quality index in different seasons of 2015 in terms of different pollutants, it was found that in most of the seasons, Kerman has a desirable air quality index.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few studies have investigated air pollution exposure disparities by race/ethnicity and income across criteria air pollutants, locations, or time. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to quantify exposure disparities by race/ethnicity and income throughout the contiguous United States for six criteria air pollutants, during the period 1990 to 2010. METHODS:We quantified exposure disparities among racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic (any race), non-Hispanic Asian) and by income for multiple spatial units (contiguous United States, states, urban vs. rural areas) and years (1990, 2000, 2010) for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5; excluding year-1990), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM10), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). We used census data for demographic information and a national empirical model for ambient air pollution levels. RESULTS:For all years and pollutants, the racial/ethnic group with the highest national average exposure was a racial/ethnic minority group. In 2010, the disparity between the racial/ethnic group with the highest vs. lowest national-average exposure was largest for NO2 [54% (4.6 ppb)], smallest for O3 [3.6% (1.6 ppb)], and intermediate for the remaining pollutants (13%-19%). The disparities varied by U.S. state; for example, for PM2.5 in 2010, exposures were at least 5% higher than average in 63% of states for non-Hispanic Black populations; in 33% and 26% of states for Hispanic and for non-Hispanic Asian populations, respectively; and in no states for non-Hispanic White populations. Absolute exposure disparities were larger among racial/ethnic groups than among income categories (range among pollutants: between 1.1 and 21 times larger). Over the period studied, national absolute racial/ethnic exposure disparities declined by between 35% (0.66μg/m3; PM2.5) and 88% (0.35 ppm; CO); relative disparities declined to between 0.99× (PM2.5; i.e., nearly zero change) and 0.71× (CO; i.e., a ∼29% reduction). DISCUSSION:As air pollution concentrations declined during the period 1990 to 2010, absolute (and to a lesser extent, relative) racial/ethnic exposure disparities also declined. However, in 2010, racial/ethnic exposure disparities remained across income levels, in urban and rural areas, and in all states, for multiple pollutants. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8584.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The elevation and dissipation of pollutants after the ignition of fireworks in different functional areas of a valley city were investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>The Air Quality Index (AQI) as well as inter-day and intra-day concentrations of various air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, O3) were measured during two episodes that took place during Chinese New Year festivities.<h4>Results</h4>For the special terrain of Jinan, the mean concentrations of pollutants increased sharply within 2-4 h of the firework displays, and concentrations were 4-6 times higher than the usual levels. It took 2-3 d for the pollutants to dissipate to background levels. Compared to Preliminary Eve (more fireworks are ignited on New Year's Eve, but the amounts of other human activities are also lesser), the primary pollutants PM2.5, PM10, and CO reached higher concentrations on New Year's Eve, and the highest concentrations of these pollutants were detected in living quarters. All areas suffered from serious pollution problems on New Year's Eve (rural = urban for PM10, but rural > urban for PM2.5). However, SO2 and NO2 levels were 20%-60% lower in living quarters and industrial areas compared to the levels in these same areas on Preliminary Eve. In contrast to the other pollutants, O3 concentrations fell instead of rising with the firework displays.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Interactions between firework displays and other human activities caused different change trends of pollutants. PM2.5 and PM10 were the main pollutants, and the rural living quarter had some of the highest pollution levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many studies have reported the impact of air pollution on cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few of these studies were conducted in severe haze-fog areas. The present study focuses on the impact of different air pollutant concentrations on daily CVD outpatient visits in a severe haze-fog city. METHODS:Data regarding daily air pollutants and outpatient visits for CVD in 2013 were collected, and the association between six pollutants and CVD outpatient visits was explored using the least squares mean (LSmeans) and logistic regression. Adjustments were made for days of the week, months, air temperature and relative humidity. RESULTS:The daily CVD outpatient visits for particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in the 90th-quantile group were increased by 30.01, 29.42, 17.68, 14.98, 29.34%, and?-?19.87%, respectively, compared to those in the <10th-quantile group. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in PM10 300- and 500-?g/m3, PM2.5 100- and 300-?g/m3 and CO 3-mg/m3 groups were 2.538 (1.070-6.020), 7.781 (1.681-36.024), 3.298 (1.559-6.976), 8.72 (1.523-49.934), and 5.808 (1.016-33.217), respectively, and their corresponding attributable risk percentages (AR%) were 60.6, 87.15, 69.68, 88.53 and 82.78%, respectively. The strongest associations for PM10, PM2.5 and CO were found only in lag 0 and lag 1. The ORs for the increase in CVD outpatient visits per increase in different units of the six pollutants were also analysed. CONCLUSIONS:All five air pollutants except O3 were positively associated with the increase in daily CVD outpatient visits in lag 0. The high concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and CO heightened not only the percentage but also the risk of increased daily CVD outpatient visits. PM10, PM2.5 and CO may be the main factors of CVD outpatient visits.