Burden of visual impairment associated with eye diseases: exploratory survey of 298 Chinese patients.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To explore the economic burden, prevalence of catastrophic healthcare expenditure (CHE) and the quality of life (QoL) of Chinese patients with visual impairment (VI) associated with eye diseases. DESIGN:A questionnaire survey from March to May 2016 by structured face-to-face interviews of patients with VI. PARTICIPANTS:302 patients who were diagnosed with moderate VI or worse in both eyes (visual acuity <6/18) were included, and 298 patients (98.7%) who completed the survey questionnaires were eligible for the study. OUTCOME MEASURES:The economic burden was estimated by calculating participants' direct costs covered in 2015 and the definition of CHE was out-of-pocket (OOP) costs exceeding 30% of annual household income. QoL was weighed by health utility value using time-trade-off valuation techniques. RESULTS:Annual average direct costs per patient caused by VI were US$6988.6±US$10 834.3, and 70.3% were direct medical costs of which only 26.9% were reimbursable by medical insurance. 32.2% of households that suffered from CHE, in particular, were less wealthy patients with VI living in rural areas and without medical insurance. The health utility value was rated at 0.65 on average, and patients with VI aged 51-57, living alone and insured by commercial medical insurance had relatively less QoL. CONCLUSION:Our study explored the economic burden and QoL of VI associated with patients with eye diseases in China, indicating a substantial economic burden and poor QoL. Preferential medical insurance policies should be designed in relation to people with VI to further reduce the health inequalities, avoid CHE and promote QoL.
Project description:This study aimed to locate the contributing factors of Catastrophic Health Expenditure (CHE), evaluate their impacts, and try to propose strategies for reducing the possibilities of CHE in the context of China's current public health insurance system. The financial data of all hospitalization cases from a sample hospital in 2013 were gathered and used to determine the pattern of household medical costs. A simulation model was constructed based on China's current public health insurance system to evaluate the financial burden for medical service on Chinese patients, as well as to calculate the possibilities of CHE. Then, by adjusting several parameters, suggestions were made for China's health insurance system in order to reduce CHE. It's found with China's current public health insurance system, the financial aid that a patient may receive depends on whether he is from an urban or rural area and whether he is employed. Due to the different insurance policies and the wide income gap between urban and rural areas, rural residents are much more financially vulnerable during health crisis. The possibility of CHE can be more than 50% for low-income rural families. The CHE ratio can be dramatically lowered by applying different policies for different household income groups. It's concluded the financial burden for medical services of Chinese patients is quite large currently, especially for those from rural areas. By referencing different healthcare policies in the world, applying different health insurance policies for different income groups can dramatically reduce the possibility of CHE in China.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Associations between smoking, cancer and mortality are well established. Although cancer mortality rates have decreased in recent years, the economic burden of smoking-related cancers continues to increase. This study investigates the economic costs of cancers related to smoking in Korea in 2014. METHODS:Cancer patients were identified through National Health Insurance Services medical claims with ICD-10 cancer codes. We multiplied the costs by the population attributable fraction for each type of cancer and calculated direct and indirect costs, where direct costs comprise direct medical and non-medical costs of inpatients and outpatients, and indirect costs include estimates of future income loss due to premature death, productivity loss during hospitalization and outpatient visits, and job loss. RESULTS:In 2014, there were 79297 smoking-related cancer patients, accounting for 8.47% of all Korean cancer cases for that year. The direct cost of cancers due to smoking was approximately 595 million USD, whereas indirect costs were much higher, at nearly 2.2 billion USD. The average expenditure of a typical patient was 34815 USD. Lung, liver and stomach cancers were most prevalent and represented the most significant share of the economic burden, whereas the largest per-patient spending was for pancreatic, liver, and lung cancers. Lung, liver and stomach cancers had the highest economic impact on men, while lung, liver and ovarian cancers had the most significant economic impact on women. CONCLUSIONS:It is imperative that more stringent steps be taken to reduce the huge economic burden of cancers linked to smoking. ABBREVIATIONS:IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer, PAF: population attributable fraction, NHIS: National Health Insurance Services, ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problem 10th Revision, GDP: Gross Domestic Product, DALYs: Disability-Adjusted-Life-Years, WHO: World Health Organization, FCTC: Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the rapid increase in magnitude and mortality of cancer, which is costly disease to manage, several patients particularly in developing countries are facing a huge financial burden. The study aimed to examine the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE), identify associated factors and coping strategies among patients attending cancer treatment services in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS:A hospital-based cross-sectional survey of patients with cancer was conducted in public and private hospitals between January and March 2018. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. All direct medical and nonmedical expenditures were measured and reported as expenditure (US$) per patient (1US$ equivalent to 23.41 Ethiopian Birr). The CHE was estimated using a threshold of 10% of annual household income. RESULTS:A total of 352 (response rate of 87.1%) participants were interviewed. Majority (73.3%) of the respondents were females; most (94%) from public hospitals and their mean (±SD) age was 48?±?13.2?years. Vast majority (74.4%) of patients experienced CHE with mean overall expenditure of $2366 per patient (median: $1708). Medical expenditure shared the highest overall expenditure (83.6%) with mean medical and nonmedical costs of $1978 (median: $1394) and $388 (median: $222), respectively. Patients who took greater than six cycles of chemotherapy (AOR: 3.64; 95% CI: 1.11-11.92), and age (AOR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.06) were significantly associated with CHE. Household saving (85.5%) followed by financial support received (43.0%) was the main coping strategy. CONCLUSION:A substantial number of patients with cancer were exposed to CHE with a considerable medical expenditure. Hence, in addition to the popularization of the already introduced health insurance scheme, other better prepayment or insurance mechanisms should also be considered to ensure financial risk protection and realize universal health coverage for patients with cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Leukemia can create a significant economic burden on the patients and their families. The objective of this study is to assess the medical expenditure and compensation of pediatric leukemia, and to explore the incidence and determinants of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) among households with pediatric leukemia patients in China. METHODS:A cross-sectional interview was conducted among households living with pediatric leukemia using a questionnaire in two tertiary hospitals. CHE was defined as out-of-pocket (OOP) payments that were greater than or equal to 40% of a household's capacity to pay (CTP). Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the determinants of CHE. RESULTS:Among 242 households living with pediatric leukemia, the mean OOP payment for pediatric leukemia healthcare was $9860, which accounted for approximately 35.7% of the mean household's CTP. The overall incidence of CHE was 43.4% and showed a downward trend with the lowest income group at 69.0% to the highest income group at 16.1%. The logistic regression model found that medical insurance, frequency of hospital admissions, charity assistance, and income level were significant predictors of CHE. CONCLUSION:The results revealed that pediatric leukemia had a significant catastrophic effect on families, especially those with lower economic status. The occurrence of CHE in households living with pediatric leukemia could be reduced by addressing income disparity. In addition, extending coverage and improving compensation from medical insurance could also alleviate CHE. Some other measures that can be implemented are to address the barriers of charity assistance for vulnerable groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:At present, there are few studies on the economic burden and medical treatment of children with asthma in China. Thus this study aimed to investigate the economic burden of medical treatment of children with asthma in China. METHOD:The 2015 China Medical Insurance Research Association (CHIRA) database was searched for patients with asthma from 0 to 14?years old. A cross-sectional study with cost analysis was conducted. RESULTS:The annual per capita direct medical cost was RMB 525 (US$75) related to asthma. Totaling 58% of the medical expenditure for asthma was covered by insurance in China, the majority of which were direct medical costs. Those that have the highest rates of using antibiotics were central China (100.0%), children aged 3?years and under (63.6%), as well as fourth-tier and fifth-tier cities (77.1%). Outpatient clinics (98.58% vs 1.42%, P?<?0.01), tertiary hospitals (62.08% vs 37.92%, P?<?0.01), and general hospitals (72.27% vs 27.73%, P?<?0.01) were more often visited than the inpatient clinics, secondary and primary as well as the specialized clinics, respectively. CONCLUSION:The economic burden of childhood asthma in China is relatively low, and the national medical insurance reduces their economic burden to a large extent. Abuse of antibiotics in treating asthma was found in China. There remain opportunities to strengthen the hierarchical medical system, reducing hospitalization and emergency visits, and ultimately reducing the economic burden of children with asthma.
Project description:Purpose:To assess the change in quality of life (QOL) and costs for patients with rotator cuff tears after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (aRCR) compared with continued nonoperative management, using real-world evidence. Methods:Patients indicated for aRCR were included in a prospective study and followed up to 2 years after surgery (postop) for all measurements. QOL (EQ-5D-5L) and shoulder function (Constant Score, Oxford Shoulder Score, subjective shoulder value) were assessed. Sixteen major insurance companies provided all-diagnoses direct medical costs in Swiss francs (CHF; 1 CHF = 1.03 USD). Baseline data at recruitment and costs sustained over 1 year before surgery (preop) served as a proxy for nonoperative management. Total direct medical costs to gain 1 extra quality-adjusted life year (QALY) were calculated as the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; mean of 2 years postop compared with 1 year preop) from a societal perspective. Subgroup analyses were separately performed for traumatic (trauma-OP) and degenerative (degen-OP) rotator cuff tear patients. Sensitivity analyses for aRCR patients included more intensive nonoperative treatment with corresponding QOL gain. The relationship between QOL and shoulder function was explored using regression analysis. Results:For 153 aRCR patients (mean age 57 years; 63% male), the mean EQ-5D index improved from 0.71 (preop) to 0.94 (1 year postop) and 0.96 (2 years postop). Mean total costs increased from 5,499 CHF (preop) to 17,116 CHF (1 year postop), then decreased to 4,226 CHF (2 years postop). The ICER for all aRCR patients was 24,924 CHF/QALY (95% confidence interval [CI] 16,742 to 33,106) and 17,357 CHF/QALY (95% CI 10,951 to 23,763) and 36,474 CHF/QALY (95% CI 16,301 to 56,648) for the trauma-OP and degen-OP groups, respectively. QOL and shoulder function were significantly associated (P < .001). Conclusions:For RC patients treated at a specialized Swiss orthopaedic clinic, aRCR is a cost-effective intervention associated with clinically relevant improvement in QOL up to 2 years after repair compared with prior nonoperative management. Level of Evidence:Economic Analyses - Developing an Economic Model, Level II.
Project description:Visual impairment and blindness (VI&B) cause a considerable and increasing economic burden in all high-income countries due to population ageing. Thus, we conducted a review of the literature to better understand all relevant costs associated with VI&B and to develop a multiperspective overview.Systematic review: Two independent reviewers searched the relevant literature and assessed the studies for inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as quality.Interventional, non-interventional and cost of illness studies, conducted prior to May 2012, investigating direct and indirect costs as well as intangible effects related to visual impairment and blindness were included.We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement approach to identify the relevant studies. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the variability of the reported cost categories and varying definition of visual impairment.A total of 22 studies were included. Hospitalisation and use of medical services around diagnosis and treatment at the onset of VI&B were the largest contributor to direct medical costs. The mean annual expenses per patient were found to be US$ purchasing power parities (PPP) 12 175-14 029 for moderate visual impairment, US$ PPP 13 154-16 321 for severe visual impairment and US$ PPP 14 882-24 180 for blindness, almost twofold the costs for non-blind patients. Informal care was the major contributor to other direct costs, with the time spent by caregivers increasing from 5.8 h/week (or US$ PPP 263) for persons with vision >20/32 up to 94.1 h/week (or US$ PPP 55 062) for persons with vision ?20/250. VI&B caused considerable indirect costs due to productivity losses, premature mortality and dead-weight losses.VI&B cause a considerable economic burden for affected persons, their caregivers and society at large, which increases with the degree of visual impairment. This review provides insight into the distribution of costs and the economic impact of VI&B.
Project description:Background:In terms of medical costs, prostate cancer is on the increase as one of the most costly cancers, posing a tremendous economic burden, but evidence on the health care utilization and medical expenditure of prostate cancer has been absent in China. Objective:This study aimed to analyze health care utilization and direct medical costs of patients with prostate cancer in China. Methods:Health care service data with a national representative sample of basic medical insurance beneficiaries between 2015 and 2017 were obtained from the China Health Insurance Association database. We conducted descriptive and statistical analyses of health care utilization, annual direct medical costs, and composition based on cancer-related medical records. Health care utilization was measured by the number of hospital visits and the length of stay. Results:A total of 3,936 patients with prostate cancer and 24,686 cancer-related visits between 2015 and 2017 were identified in the database. The number of annual outpatient and inpatient visits per patient differed significantly from 2015 to 2017. There was no obvious change in length of stay and annual direct medical costs from 2015 to 2017. The number of annual visits per patient (outpatient: 3.0 vs. 4.0, P < 0.01; inpatient: 1.5 vs. 2.0, P < 0.001) and the annual medical direct costs per patient (US$2,300.1 vs. US$3,543.3, P < 0.001) of patients covered by the Urban Rural Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URRBMI) were both lower than those of patients covered by the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI), and the median out-of-pocket expense of URRBMI was higher than that of UEBMI (US$926.6 vs. US$594.0, P < 0.001). The annual direct medical costs of patients with prostate cancer in Western regions were significantly lower than those of patients in Eastern and Central regions (East: US$4011.9; Central: US$3458.6; West: US$2115.5) (P < 0.001). Conclusions:There was an imbalanced distribution of health care utilization among regions in China. The direct medical costs of Chinese patients with prostate cancer remained stable, but the gap in health care utilization and medical costs between two different insurance schemes and among regions still needed to be further addressed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study was conducted to determine the scale and the nature of the economic burden caused by strokes and to use the results as an evidential source for determining the allocation of South Korea stroke cases in 2015.<h4>Methods</h4>For research subjects, the study analyzed demographic characteristics and economic burden based on data from national health insurance (NHI) claims for inpatient and outpatient cases of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke in 2015 through the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) and statistical data regarding cause of death from the Korea National Statistical Office (KNSO). This study, in order to estimate economic burden due to stroke, deduced the direct and indirect costs of illness caused by stroke, using cost-of-illness (COI) methods. The economic burden is divided into direct and indirect costs, and indirect cost is estimated by summing lost productivity measured in opportunity cost lost by medical disposition due to a specific disease and lost productivity due to premature death.<h4>Results</h4>The total economic burden in Korea due to stroke was US$6.855 billion, that due to ischemic stroke was US$3.658 billion, and that due to hemorrhagic stroke was US$3.197 billion. The average economic burden per stroke case was about US$7247.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The results of estimating the annual economic burden in all of Korea due to stroke will be used as an evidential source for preparing medical insurance policies, priorities, and plans for arranging medical resources for stroke as well as for determining effective prevention of the disease and related priorities in national health care policies.
Project description:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and destruction of the joints.This research aims to estimate the economic burden of RA in Taiwan.The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), a claims-based dataset encompassing 99 % of Taiwan's population, was applied. We used a micro-costing approach for direct healthcare costs and indirect social costs by estimating the quantities and prices of cost categories. Direct costs included surgeries, hospitalizations, medical devices and materials, laboratory tests, and drugs. The costs and quantities of the direct economic burden were calculated based on 2011 data of NHIRD. We identified RA patients and a control cohort matched 1:4 on demographic and clinical covariates to calculate the incremental cost related to RA. Indirect costs were evaluated by missed work (absenteeism) and worker productivity (presenteeism). For the indirect burden, we estimated the rate of absenteeism and presenteeism from a patient survey. Costs were presented in US dollars (US$1 = 30 TWD).A total of 41,269 RA patients were included in the database with incremental total direct cost of US$86,413,971 and indirect cost of US$138,492,987. This resulted in an average incremental direct cost of US$2050 per RA patient. Within direct costs, the largest burdens were associated with drugs (US$73,028,944), laboratory tests (US$6,132,395), and hospitalizations (US$3,208,559). For indirect costs, absenteeism costs and presenteeism costs were US$16,059,681 and US$114,291,687, respectively.The economic burden of RA in Taiwan is driven by indirect healthcare costs, most notably presenteeism.