The State of Higher Education in Occupational Health and Safety in Central Asian Countries.
ABSTRACT: A healthy workforce is vital for the sustainable social and economic development of any country. Assuring occupational health and safety (OHS) depends not only on the passing of quality working legislation and inspection of workplaces, but also on preparation of qualified specialists on OHS. Aimed at assessing of relevance of the content of training at Central Asian universities to the needs in prevention of risks of accidents and injuries and promotion of a preventive culture in the workplace, and finding out how they are compliant with the recommendations of the Mainstreaming occupational safety and health into the education (2010), we examined curricula of 20 medical and non-medical universities across Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.The analysis of training programs showed that education in OHS and preparation of qualified specialists in Central Asiana countries is up-to-date and tailored to local needs for prevention of risks of accidents and injuries and promotes the notion of a preventive culture in the workplace.
Project description:Background. The study examines the mediation effect of safety knowledge in causal the relationship between Occupational Health and Safety Management Frameworks (OHSMF) and occupational injuries and workplace accidents in the Ghanaian Oil and Gas Industry. The study explores different dimensions of occupational health and safety management systems, workplace accidents, and occupational injuries. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 699 respondents through a convenience and purposive sampling technique were selected in three government-owned oil and gas organizations for the study. Correlation, multiple regression analysis, and bootstrapping methods were used for data analysis. The findings of both the regression and correlation analysis indicated that there is a moderately strong negative and significant relationship between Occupational Health and Safety Management Frameworks (OHSMF) and workplace accidents and occupational injuries. Safety knowledge significantly mediates the causal relationship between OHSMF and workplace accidents and injuries. Safety training was found to be a significant predictor of safety knowledge, work-related injuries, and workplace accidents. The negative relationship between OHSMF and workplace accidents and injuries shows that the existing OHSMF are either ineffective or lack the acceptable safety standards to control hazard exposures in the industry. Management must invest in frequent safety training and orientations to improve safety knowledge among workers. The study further recommends government and industry players to extend serious attention towards the promotion and improvement of occupational health and safety management systems in Ghana.
Project description:Background Occupational accidents occur for a variety of reasons, such as unsafe behaviors of workers and insufficient safety equipment at the workplace, but there are also various economic and social factors that can impact working conditions and working environment. This study analyzed the relationship between changes in economic factors and the occurrence of occupational accidents in Korea. Methods Multilinear regression analysis was used as the analysis model. The general to specific method was also used, which consecutively removes statistically insignificant variables from a general model that includes dependent variables and lagged variables of dependent variables. Results The frequency of occupational accidents was found to have a statistically significant relationship to economic indicators. The monthly number of cases of occupational injury and disease and fatal occupational injuries were found to be closely related to manufacturing capacity utilization, differences in the production index in the services sector, and commencements of building construction. The increase in equipment investment indicators was found to reduce fatal occupational injuries. Conclusion The results of this study may be used to develop occupational accident trends or leading indicators, which in turn can be used by organizations that manage and monitor occupational accidents toward taking administrative action designed to reduce occupational accidents. The results also imply that short-term and mid- to long-term economic and social changes that can impact workers, workplaces and working conditions, and workplace organizations must be taken into account if more effective government policies are to be established and implemented toward further prevention of occupational accidents.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) include a large part of manufacturing jobs and play an important role in developing national economics and employment. OBJECTIVES:The present study aimed to investigate occupational health problems and safety conditions among SMEs in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS:This cross-sectional study was carried out on 711 SMEs, including 371 small enterprises (fewer than 25 workers) and 340 medium enterprises (25-99 workers), in Shiraz, Iran. The participants were selected randomly among the workplaces under the coverage of social security insurance. The researcher-made questionnaire, which consisted of demographic characteristics, the frequency rate of occupational accidents, and exposure to workplace harmful agents, were distributed among participants. FINDINGS:The results showed there were significantly more physical and chemical harmful agents in medium enterprises compared to small ones (P < 0.001). However, the frequency rate of accidents in small enterprises was significantly higher than in medium enterprises (P < 0.001). Also, there was no significant difference between the studied enterprises in ergonomic hazards, except for awkward posture, whose frequency rate was significantly higher in small enterprises (P < 0.05). Finally, among the reported symptoms, the prevalence of eye, skin, ear, and respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in medium enterprises compared to small enterprises (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Occupational health and safety (OHS) regulations in medium enterprises have led to improved OHS conditions compared to small enterprises. Therefore, small enterprises should be included in OHS regulations.
Project description:Background:Promoting healthy lifestyles at work should complement workplace safety programs. This study systematically investigates current states of occupational health and safety (OHS) policy as well as practice in the European Union (EU). Methods:OHS policies of EU member states were categorized as either prevention or health promotion provisions using a manifest content analysis. Policy rankings were then created for each prevention and promotion. Rankings compared eight indicators from the European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks-2 data on prevention and promotion practices for each member state using Chi-square and probit regression analyses. Results:Overall, 73.1% of EU establishments take preventive measures against direct physical harm, and about 35.4% take measures to prevent psychosocial risks. Merely 29.5% have measures to promote health. Weak and inconsistent links between OHS policy and practice indicators were identified. Conclusion:National OHS policies evidently concentrate on prevention while compliance with health and safety practices is relatively low. Psychosocial risks are often addressed in national policy but not implemented by institutions. Current risk assessment methods are outdated and often lack psychosocial indicators. Health promotion at work is rare in policy and practice, and its interpretation remains preventive. Member states need to adopt policies that actively improve health and well-being at the workplace.
Project description:Background:Workers exposed to hazards without adequate protections are at greater risk of injury and illness. Supervisor activities have also been associated with injury risk. We examined the interplay between supervisor safety support and occupational health and safety (OHS) vulnerability on workplace injury and illness. Methods:A survey was administered to 2,390 workers employed for more than 15 hrs/week in workplaces with at least five employees who had a direct supervisor. We examined the combined effects of hazard exposure with inadequate protection (OHS vulnerability) and supervisor support on workplace injury and illness, using additive interactions in log-binomial regression models. Results:OHS vulnerability and lack of supervisor support independently increased the likelihood of physical injuries at work. Crude and adjusted models showed that the risk of physical injury was at least 3.5 times higher among those experiencing both OHS vulnerability and a lack of supervisor support than individuals without OHS vulnerability and with a supportive direct supervisor. Workers who experienced vulnerability were at less risk if they had a supervisor who was supportive. Conclusion:In workplaces where workers experience one or more types of OHS vulnerability, having a supportive supervisor may play an important role in reducing the risk of injury and protecting workers.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Healthcare workers account for 10% of the EU's total workforce, with a significant proportion of those employed in hospitals. Musculoskeletal injuries are the predominant group of injuries in healthcare professionals due to the physical demands of their work, such as the mobilization and positioning of the dependent patients. The management of this type of problem should take into account direct and indirect costs, such as periods of incapacity for work due to illness, hiring and training of new employees during periods of absence, reduced levels of productivity and the effects on production and quality of work. OBJECTIVES:1-Characterization of injuries resulting from occupational accidents in hospital workers according to the International Classification of Diseases ICD-10; 2-Identification of the predictive factors of absenteeism duration due to temporary work incapacity in workplace accidents. METHODS:A retrospective observational study was conducted based on the analysis of 1621 cases of work-related accidents of employees of Centro Hospitalar São João from January 2011 to December 2014. An ICD-10 classification code was associated with each of the accident cases, based on pre-established criteria for classification of the specific diagnoses of musculoskeletal injuries. The duration of temporary work incapacity was compared between the categories of sociodemographic variables, among six categories of ICD-10 primary diagnosis (reclassification), and between the two major chapters of ICD-10 classification-chapter XIX (direct trauma) and chapter XIII (indirect trauma-strain injuries). The sociodemographic predictors of the occurrence of strain injuries were determined by logistic regression. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted with selection of duration of work incapacity as the dependent variable. RESULTS:A total of 824 cases of musculoskeletal injuries occurred on hospital premises during the study period, which corresponded to a total of 22159 lost workdays in the context of temporary work incapacity due to work injury. According to the ICD-10 reclassification, the three most frequent diagnostic groups were direct lower limb trauma (n = 230, 27.9%), spinal strain injuries (n = 194, 23.5%) and direct upper limb trauma (n = 174, 21.1%). Significant differences were observed in temporary work incapacity duration among the ICD-10 diagnostic categories: spinal strain injuries were the diagnostic group associated with longer duration of temporary work incapacity, with a median = 14.0 (25-75th percentile: 6.0-35.0). The only variable that demonstrated to be significantly predictive of temporary work incapacity less than or greater than 20 days was the ICD-10 diagnostic group. The regression results revealed a 5-fold increase in risk in the case of spinal strain injuries for temporary work incapacity durations of less than or greater than 20 days (OR = 5.58 and OR = 5.89 respectively). CONCLUSIONS:The study findings support the benefits of the characterization of workplace injuries by medical diagnostic groups, namely in the interpretation of the sequelae of the accidents and the medical contextualization of the accidents. Association of ICD-10characterization can improve the analysis of workplace accidents at an institutional level, and promote the implementation of preventive measures and control of absenteeism.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Both social and ethical arguments have been used to support preventive occupational health services (OHS). During the 1990s it became more common to support political argumentation for occupational health and safety by converting the consequences of ill health at work into monetary units. In addition, OHS has been promoted as a profitable investment for companies, and this aspect has been used by OHS providers in their marketing. Our intention was to study whether preventive occupational health services positively influence a company's economic performance. METHODS: We combined the financial statements provided by Statistics Finland and employers' reimbursement applications for occupational health services (OHS) costs to the Social Insurance Institution. The data covered the years 1997, 1999 and 2001 and over 6000 companies. We applied linear regression analysis to assess whether preventive OHS had a positive influence on the companies' economic performance after two or four years. RESULTS: Resources invested in preventive OHS were not positively related to a company's economic performance. In fact, the total cost of preventive OHS per turnover was negatively correlated to economic performance. CONCLUSION: Even if OHS has no effect on the economic performance of companies, it may have other effects more specific to OHS. Therefore, we recommend that the evaluation of prevention in OHS should move towards outcome measures, such as sickness absence, disability pension and productivity, when applicable, both in occupational health service research and in practice at workplaces.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The agriculture sector consistently ranks among the most hazardous occupational industries globally with high risk of job-related injuries, illnesses, disability, and death. In 2015, the agricultural fatal work injury rate in the United States was 22.8 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers; seven times the all-worker fatal injury rate of 3.4 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers. In this study we identified the factors that are associated with workplace accident and injuries at the Goldtree (SL) Limited Company - a private international agro-industrial palm kernel oil company operating in eastern Sierra Leone. METHODS:This is a descriptive research that made use of both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to collect and analyse agro-industrial occupation-related accident and injuries of workers attached to the Goldtree (SL) Limited Company, an international palm kernel oil producing and marketing company in Sierra Leone. We analyzed the responses of 100 workers at the Goldtree (SL) Limited Company that are related to their work safety, adherence to work safety guidelines as well as working habit. RESULTS:Thirty nine (39.0%) of the workers interviewed in this study said they had been involved in some forms of occupational accident; (33.3%) of those involved in some form of occupational-related accidents have been working in the company for 3-5?years, 22.0% have been working at the company for at least 2?years; 7.7% have been working for 6-8?years (X2 =?9.88, p-value?=?0.02). CONCLUSION:Workers who have spent few years in the job, and those workers who have confidence that management is committed to addressing health and safety issues, believed that their working tools were in excellent condition, or agreed that they have the rights and responsibilities for an effective workplace health and safety system have decreased odds of experiencing occupational-related accidents or injury at the study site.
Project description:Employers are increasingly interested in offering workplace wellness programs in addition to occupational health and safety (OHS) activities to promote worker health, wellbeing, and productivity. Yet, there is a dearth of research on workplace factors that enable the implementation of OHS and wellness to inform the future integration of these activities in Canadian workplaces. This study explored workplace demographic factors associated with the co-implementation of OHS and wellness activities in a heterogenous sample of Canadian workplaces. Using a cross-sectional survey of 1285 workplaces from 2011 to 2014, latent profiles of co-occurrent OHS and wellness activities were identified, and multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between workplace demographic factors and the profiles. Most workplaces (84%) demonstrated little co-occurrence of OHS and wellness activities. Highest co-occurrence was associated with large workplaces (odds ratio (OR) = 3.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15⁻5.89), in the electrical and utilities sector (OR = 5.57, 95% CI = 2.24⁻8.35), and a high people-oriented culture (OR = 4.70, 95% CI = 1.59⁻5.26). Promoting integrated OHS and wellness approaches in medium to large workplaces, in select industries, and emphasizing a people-oriented culture were found to be important factors for implementing OHS and wellness in Canadian organizations. Informed by these findings, future studies should understand the mechanisms to facilitate the integration of OHS and wellness in workplaces.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In most industrialized societies, regulations, inspections, insurance, and legal options are established to support workers who suffer injury, disease, or death in relation to their work; in practice, these resources are imperfect or even unavailable due to workplace or employer obstruction. Thus, limitations exist to identify unmet needs in occupational safety and health information. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to explore hidden issues related to occupational accidents by examining social network services (SNS) data using topic modeling. METHODS:Based on the results of a Google search for the phrases occupational accident, industrial accident and occupational diseases, a total of 145 websites were selected. From among these websites, we collected 15,244 documents on queries related to occupational accidents between 2002 and 2018. To transform unstructured text into structure data, natural language processing of the Korean language was conducted. We performed the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) as a topic model using a Python library. A time-series linear regression analysis was also conducted to identify yearly trends for the given documents. RESULTS:The results of the LDA model showed 14 topics with 3 themes: workers' compensation benefits (Theme 1), illicit agreements with the employer (Theme 2), and fatal and non-fatal injuries and vulnerable workers (Theme 3). Theme 1 represented the largest cluster (52.2%) of the collected documents and included keywords related to workers' compensation (ie, company, occupational injury, insurance, accident, approval, and compensation) and keywords describing specific compensation benefits such as medical expense benefits, temporary incapacity benefits, and disability benefits. In the yearly trend, Theme 1 gradually decreased; however, other themes showed an overall increasing pattern. Certain queries (ie, musculoskeletal system, critical care, and foreign workers) showed no significant variation in the number of queries. CONCLUSIONS:We conducted LDA analysis of SNS data of occupational accident-related queries and discovered that the primary concerns of workers posting about occupational injuries and diseases were workers' compensation benefits, fatal and non-fatal injuries, vulnerable workers, and illicit agreements with employers. While traditional systems focus mainly on quantitative monitoring of occupational accidents, qualitative aspects formulated by topic modeling from unstructured SNS queries may be valuable to address inequalities and improve occupational health and safety.