Accelerated phosphatidylcholine turnover in macrophages promotes adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
ABSTRACT: White adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation contributes to the development of insulin resistance in obesity. While the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) pro-inflammatory signalling in the development of insulin resistance has been established, it is less clear how WAT inflammation is initiated. Here, we show that ATMs isolated from obese mice and humans exhibit markers of increased rate of de novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis. Macrophage-specific knockout of phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase A (CCT?), the rate-limiting enzyme of de novo PC biosynthesis pathway, alleviated obesity-induced WAT inflammation and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, CCT?-deficient macrophages showed reduced ER stress and inflammation in response to palmitate. Surprisingly, this was not due to lower exogenous palmitate incorporation into cellular PCs. Instead, CCT?-null macrophages had lower membrane PC turnover, leading to elevated membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid levels that negated the pro-inflammatory effects of palmitate. Our results reveal a causal link between obesity-associated increase in de novo PC synthesis, accelerated PC turnover and pro-inflammatory activation of ATMs.
Project description:Obesity-related changes in adipose tissue leukocytes, in particular adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and dendritic cells (ATDCs), are implicated in metabolic inflammation, insulin resistance, and altered regulation of adipocyte function. We evaluated stromal cell and white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion dynamics with high fat diet (HFD) feeding for 3-56 days, quantifying ATMs, ATDCs, endothelial cells (ECs), and preadipocytes (PAs) in visceral epididymal WAT and subcutaneous inguinal WAT. To better understand mechanisms of the early response to obesity, we evaluated ATM proliferation and lipid accumulation. ATMs, ATDCs, and ECs increased with rapid WAT expansion, with ATMs derived primarily from a CCR2-independent resident population. WAT expansion stimulated proliferation in resident ATMs and ECs, but not CD11c+ ATMs or ATDCs. ATM proliferation was unperturbed in Csf2- and Rag1-deficient mice with WAT expansion. Additionally, ATM apoptosis decreased with WAT expansion, and proliferation and apoptosis reverted to baseline with weight loss. Adipocytes reached maximal hypertrophy at 28 days of HFD, coinciding with a plateau in resident ATM accumulation and the appearance of lipid-laden CD11c+ ATMs in visceral epididymal WAT. ATM increases were proportional to tissue expansion and adipocyte hypertrophy, supporting adipocyte-mediated regulation of resident ATMs. The appearance of lipid-laden CD11c+ ATMs at peak adipocyte size supports a role in responding to ectopic lipid accumulation within adipose tissue. In contrast, ATDCs increase independently of proliferation and may be derived from circulating precursors. These changes precede and establish the setting in which large-scale adipose tissue infiltration of CD11c+ ATMs, inflammation, and adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to insulin resistance.
Project description:When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. FAs have been postulated to play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance, a major risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how chronic inhibition of fat mobilization from WAT modulates insulin sensitivity remains elusive. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) participates in the breakdown of WAT triacylglycerol into FAs. HSL haploinsufficiency and treatment with a HSL inhibitor resulted in improvement of insulin tolerance without impact on body weight, fat mass, and WAT inflammation in high-fat-diet-fed mice. In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. The reduction in FA turnover was accompanied by an improvement of glucose metabolism with a shift in respiratory quotient, increase of glucose uptake in WAT and skeletal muscle, and enhancement of de novo lipogenesis and insulin signalling in liver. In human adipocytes, HSL gene silencing led to improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, resulting in increased de novo lipogenesis and activation of cognate gene expression. In clinical studies, WAT lipolytic rate was positively and negatively correlated with indexes of insulin resistance and WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression, respectively. In obese individuals, chronic inhibition of lipolysis resulted in induction of WAT de novo lipogenesis gene expression. Thus, reduction in WAT lipolysis reshapes FA fluxes without increase of fat mass and improves glucose metabolism through cell-autonomous induction of fat cell de novo lipogenesis, which contributes to improved insulin sensitivity.
Project description:During obesity, adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are increased in concert with local inflammation and insulin resistance. Since the levels of sphingolipid (SLs) in adipose tissue (AT) are altered during obesity we investigated the potential impact of SLs on ATMs. For this, we first analyzed expression of SL metabolizing genes in ATMs isolated from obese mice. A marked induction of sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression was observed in obese ATM when compared to lean ATM. This induction was observed in both MGL-ve (M1) and MGL1+ve (M2) macrophages from obese WAT. Next, RAW264.7 cells were exposed to excessive palmitate, resulting in a similar induction of Sphk1. This Sphk1 induction was also observed when cells were treated with chloroquine, a lysosomotropic amine impacting lysosome function. Simultaneous incubation of RAW cells with palmitate and the Sphk1 inhibitor SK1-I promoted cell death, suggesting a protective role of Sphk1 during lipotoxic conditions. Interestingly, a reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes was detected in obese ATM and was found to be associated with elevated Sphk1 expression. Altogether, our data suggest that lipid overload in ATM induces Sphk1, which promotes cell viability.
Project description:Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of high-grade prostate cancer (PC) and worse prognosis for PC patients. Recently, we showed in men that obesity-related periprostatic white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, characterized by macrophages surrounding dead or dying adipocytes forming crown-like structures, was associated with high-grade PC. Possibly, interventions that suppress periprostatic WAT inflammation will improve outcomes for men with PC. Here, we tested the hypothesis that supplemental 17?-estradiol (E2) could decrease periprostatic WAT inflammation in obese male mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce periprostatic WAT inflammation before being treated with supplemental E2. E2 supplementation suppressed caloric intake, induced weight loss, decreased periprostatic WAT inflammation and downregulated the expression of genes linked to inflammation including Cd68, Mcp1 and Tnf. Similar to the effects of E2 supplementation, treatment with diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen, also suppressed caloric intake and reduced periprostatic WAT inflammation. To determine whether the observed effects of supplemental estrogen could be reproduced by caloric restriction (CR) alone, obese mice were put on a 30% CR diet. Like estrogen treatment, CR was effective in reducing body weight, periprostatic WAT inflammation and the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Transcriptomic analyses of periprostatic fat showed that obesity was associated with enrichment in inflammatory response pathways, which were normalized by both supplemental E2 and CR. Taken together, these findings strengthen the rationale for future efforts to determine whether either CR or supplemental estrogen will decrease periprostatic WAT inflammation and thereby improve outcomes for men with PC.
Project description:White adipose tissue (WAT) hypertrophy is an essential hallmark of obesity and is associated with the activation of resident immune cells. While the benefits of caloric restriction (CR) on health span are generally accepted, its effects on WAT physiology are not well understood. We previously demonstrated that short-term CR reverses obesity in male rhesus macaques exposed to a high-fat Western-style diet (WSD). Here, we analyzed subcutaneous WAT biopsies collected from this cohort of animals before and after WSD and following CR. This analysis showed that WSD induced adipocyte hypertrophy and inhibited ?-adrenergic-simulated lipolysis. CR reversed adipocyte hypertrophy, but WAT remained insensitive to ?-adrenergic agonist stimulation. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis revealed that ?3-adrenergic receptor and de novo lipogenesis genes were downregulated by WSD and remained downregulated after CR. In contrast, WSD-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression was effectively reversed by CR. Furthermore, peripheral blood monocytes isolated during the CR period exhibited a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to those obtained after WSD. Collectively, this study demonstrates that short-term CR eliminates an obesity-induced pro-inflammatory response in WAT and peripheral monocytes.
Project description:Obesity is closely associated with increased adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which contribute to systemic insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism by creating a pro-inflammatory environment. Very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is involved in lipoprotein uptake and storage. However, whether lipid uptake via VLDLR in macrophages affects obesity-induced inflammatory responses and insulin resistance is not well understood. Here we show that elevated VLDLR expression in ATMs promotes adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance in obese mice. In macrophages, VLDL treatment upregulates intracellular levels of C16:0 ceramides in a VLDLR-dependent manner, which potentiates pro-inflammatory responses and promotes M1-like macrophage polarization. Adoptive transfer of VLDLR knockout bone marrow to wild-type mice relieves adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. These findings suggest that increased VLDL-VLDLR signaling in ATMs aggravates adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Obesity is a pandemic disorder that is characterized by accumulation of adipose tissue and chronic low-grade inflammation that is driven primarily by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). While ATM polarization from pro-(M1) to anti-(M2) inflammatory phenotype influences insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure, the mechanisms of such a switch are unclear. In the current study, we identified epigenetic pathways including microRNAs (miR) in ATMs that regulate obesity-induced inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS:Male C57BL/6J mice were fed normal chow diet (NCD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to develop lean and diet-induced obese mice, respectively. Transcriptome microarrays, microRNA microarrays, and MeDIP-Seq were performed on ATMs isolated from visceral fat. Pathway analysis and bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMDM) transfections further allowed computational and functional analysis of miRNA-mediated ATM polarization. RESULTS:ATMs from HFD-fed mice were skewed toward M1 inflammatory phenotype. Concurrently, the expression of miRs 30a-5p, 30c-5p, and 30e-5p was downregulated in ATMs from HFD mice when compared to mice fed NCD. The miR-30 family was shown to target Delta-like-4, a Notch1 ligand, whose expression was increased in HFD ATMs. Inhibition of miR-30 in conditioned BMDM triggered Notch1 signaling, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and M1 macrophage polarization. In addition, DNA hypermethylation was observed in mir30-associated CpG islands, suggesting that HFD downregulates miR-30 through epigenetic modifications. CONCLUSIONS:HFD-induced obesity downregulates miR-30 by DNA methylation thereby inducing Notch1 signaling in ATMs and their polarization to M1 macrophages. These findings identify miR-30 as a regulator of pro-inflammatory ATM polarization and suggest that miR-30 manipulation could be a therapeutic target for obesity-induced inflammation.
Project description:Obesity is associated with increased classically activated M1 adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and decreased alternatively activated M2 ATMs, both of which contribute to obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We find that inhibiting DNA methylation pharmacologically using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or genetically by DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) deletion promotes alternative activation and suppresses inflammation in macrophages. Consistently, mice with myeloid DNMT1 deficiency exhibit enhanced macrophage alternative activation, suppressed macrophage inflammation, and are protected from obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. The promoter and 5'-untranslated region of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?1 (PPAR?1) are enriched with CpGs and are epigenetically regulated. The saturated fatty acids stearate and palmitate and the inflammatory cytokine TNF-? significantly increase, whereas the TH2 cytokine IL-4 significantly decreases PPAR?1 promoter DNA methylation. Accordingly, inhibiting PPAR?1 promoter DNA methylation pharmacologically using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or genetically by DNMT1 deletion promotes macrophage alternative activation. Our data therefore establish DNA hypermethylation at the PPAR?1 promoter induced by obesity-related factors as a critical determinant of ATM proinflammatory activation and inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance in obesity.
Project description:Pathologic expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT) in obesity is characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and fibrosis; however, factors triggering this maladaptive remodeling are largely unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that the potential to recruit new adipocytes from Pdgfr?+ preadipocytes determines visceral WAT health in obesity. We manipulate levels of Pparg, the master regulator of adipogenesis, in Pdgfr?+ precursors of adult mice. Increasing the adipogenic capacity of Pdgfr?+ precursors through Pparg overexpression results in healthy visceral WAT expansion in obesity and adiponectin-dependent improvements in glucose homeostasis. Loss of mural cell Pparg triggers pathologic visceral WAT expansion upon high-fat diet feeding. Moreover, the ability of the TZD class of anti-diabetic drugs to promote healthy visceral WAT remodeling is dependent on mural cell Pparg. These data highlight the protective effects of de novo visceral adipocyte differentiation in these settings, and suggest Pdgfr?+ adipocyte precursors as targets for therapeutic intervention in diabetes.
Project description:Macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue (AT) during obesity contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. Recruitment of monocytes to obese AT has been the most studied mechanism explaining this accumulation. However, recent evidence suggests that recruitment-independent mechanisms may also regulate pro-inflammatory AT macrophage (ATM) numbers. The role of increased ATM survival during obesity has yet to be explored.We demonstrate that activation of apoptotic pathways is significantly reduced in ATMs from diet-induced and genetically obese mice. Concurrently, pro-survival Bcl-2 family member protein levels and localization to the mitochondria is elevated in ATMs from obese mice. This increased pro-survival signaling was associated with elevated activation of the transcription factor, NF-?B, and increased expression of its pro-survival target genes. Finally, an obesogenic milieu increased ATM viability only when NF-?B signaling pathways were functional.Our data demonstrate that obesity promotes survival of inflammatory ATMs, possibly through an NF-?B-regulated mechanism.