Comparative Genomics and Phylogenomic Analysis of the Genus Salinivibrio.
ABSTRACT: In the genomic era phylogenetic relationship among prokaryotes can be inferred from the core orthologous genes (OGs) or proteins in order to elucidate their evolutionary history and current taxonomy should benefits of that. The genus Salinivibrio belongs to the family Vibrionaceae and currently includes only five halophilic species, in spite the fact that new strains are very frequently isolated from hypersaline environments. Species belonging to this genus have undergone several reclassifications and, moreover, there are many strains of Salinivibrio with available genomes which have not been affiliated to the existing species or have been wrongly designated. Therefore, a phylogenetic study using the available genomic information is necessary to clarify the relationships of existing strains within this genus and to review their taxonomic affiliation. For that purpose, we have also sequenced the first complete genome of a Salinivibrio species, Salinivibrio kushneri AL184T, which was employed as a reference to order the contigs of the draft genomes of the type strains of the current species of this genus, as well as to perform a comparative analysis with all the other available Salinivibrio sp. genomes. The genome of S. kushneri AL184T was assembled in two circular chromosomes (with sizes of 2.84 Mb and 0.60 Mb, respectively), as typically occurs in members of the family Vibrionaceae, with nine complete ribosomal operons, which might explain the fast growing rate of salinivibrios cultured under laboratory conditions. Synteny analysis among the type strains of the genus revealed a high level of genomic conservation in both chromosomes, which allow us to hypothesize a slow speciation process or homogenization events taking place in this group of microorganisms to be tested experimentally in the future. Phylogenomic and orthologous average nucleotide identity (OrthoANI)/average amino acid identity (AAI) analyses also evidenced the elevated level of genetic relatedness within members of this genus and allowed to group all the Salinivibrio strains with available genomes in seven separated species. Genome-scale attribute study of the salinivibrios identified traits related to polar flagellum, facultatively anaerobic growth and osmotic response, in accordance to the phenotypic features described for species of this genus.
Project description:The genus Salinivibrio includes obligatory halophilic bacteria and is commonly isolated from hypersaline habitats and salted food products. They grow optimally between 7.5 and 10% salts and are facultative anaerobes. Currently, this genus comprises four species, one of them, S. costicola, with three subspecies. In this study we isolated and characterized an additional 70 strains from solar salterns located in different locations. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these strains as belonging to the genus Salinivibrio but could not differentiate strains into species-like groups. To achieve finer phylogenetic resolution, we carried out a MultiLocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) of the new isolates and the type strains of the species of Salinivibrio based on the individual as well as concatenated sequences of four housekeeping genes: gyrB, recA, rpoA, and rpoD. The strains formed four clearly differentiated species-like clusters called phylogroups. All of the known type and subspecies strains were associated with one of these clusters except S. sharmensis. One phylogroup had no previously described species coupled to it. Further DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) experiments with selected representative strains from these phylogroups permitted us to validate the MLSA study, correlating the species level defined by the DDH (70%) with a 97% cut-off for the concatenated MLSA gene sequences. Based on these criteria, the novel strains forming phylogroup 1 could constitute a new species while strains constructing the other three phylogroups are members of previously recognized Salinivibrio species. S. costicola subsp. vallismortis co-occurs with S. proteolyticus in phylogroup 4, and separately from other S. costicola strains, indicating its need for reclassification. On the other hand, genome fingerprinting analysis showed that the environmental strains do not form clonal populations and did not cluster according to their site of cultivation. In future studies regarding the classification and identification of new Salinivibrio strains we recommend the following strategy: (i) initial partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for genus-level identification; (ii) sequencing and concatenation of the four before mentioned housekeeping genes for species-level discrimination; (iii) DDH experiments, only required when the concatenated MLSA similarity values among a new isolate and other Salinivibrio strains are above the 97% cut-off.
Project description:The genus Salinivibrio belongs to the family Vibrionaceae and includes Gram-stain-negative, motile by a polar flagellum, and facultatively anaerobic curved rods. They are halophilic bacteria commonly found in hypersaline aquatic habitats and salted foods. This genus includes five species and two subspecies. A presumed novel species, strain S35T, was previously isolated from the high-altitude volcanic, alkaline, and saline lake Socompa (Argentinean Andes). In this study we carried out a complete taxonomic characterization of strain S35T, including the 16S rRNA gene sequence and core-genome analysis, the average nucleotide identity (ANIb, ANIm, and orthoANI), and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (GGDC), as well as the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization. It grew at 3%-20% (w/v) NaCl, pH 6-10, and 10-42 °C, with optimum growth at 7.0%-7.5% (w/v) NaCl, pH 8.0, and 37 °C, respectively. Strain S35T was oxidase- and catalase-positive, able to produce acid from D-glucose and other carbohydrates. Hydrolysis of DNA, methyl red test, and nitrate and nitrite reduction were positive. Its main fatty acids were C16:0, C16:1 ?7c and C16:1 ?6c, and C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c. ANI, GGDC, and core-genome analysis determined that strain S35T constitutes a novel species of the genus Salinivibrio, for which the name Salinivibrio socompensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S35T (= CECT 9634T = BNM 0535T).
Project description:Species of the family Vibrionaceae are ubiquitous in marine environments. Several of these species are important pathogens of humans and marine species. Evidence indicates that genetic exchange plays an important role in the emergence of new pathogenic strains within this family. Data from the sequenced genomes of strains in this family could show how the genes encoded by all these strains, known as the pangenome, are distributed. Information about the core, accessory and panproteome of this family can show how, for example, genes encoding virulence-associated proteins are distributed and help us understand how virulence emerges.We deduced the complete set of orthologs for eleven strains from this family. The core proteome consists of 1,882 orthologous groups, which is 28% of the 6,629 orthologous groups in this family. There were 4,411 accessory orthologous groups (i.e., proteins that occurred in from 2 to 10 proteomes) and 5,584 unique proteins (encoded once on only one of the eleven genomes). Proteins that have been associated with virulence in V. cholerae were widely distributed across the eleven genomes, but the majority was found only on the genomes of the two V. cholerae strains examined.The proteomes are reflective of the differing evolutionary trajectories followed by different strains to similar phenotypes. The composition of the proteomes supports the notion that genetic exchange among species of the Vibrionaceae is widespread and that this exchange aids these species in adapting to their environments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Salinivibrios are moderately halophilic bacteria found in salted meats, brines and hypersaline environments. We obtained three novel conspecific Salinivibrio strains closely related to S. costicola, from Socompa Lake, a high altitude hypersaline Andean lake (approx. 3,570 meters above the sea level). RESULTS:The three novel Salinivibrio spp. were extremely resistant to arsenic (up to 200 mM HAsO42-), NaCl (up to 15%), and UV-B radiation (19 KJ/m2, corresponding to 240 minutes of exposure) by means of phenotypic tests. Our subsequent draft genome ionsequencing and RAST-based genome annotation revealed the presence of genes related to arsenic, NaCl, and UV radiation resistance. The three novel Salinivibrio genomes also had the xanthorhodopsin gene cluster phylogenetically related to Marinobacter and Spiribacter. The genomic taxonomy analysis, including multilocus sequence analysis, average amino acid identity, and genome-to-genome distance revealed that the three novel strains belong to a new Salinivibrio species. CONCLUSIONS:Arsenic resistance genes, genes involved in DNA repair, resistance to extreme environmental conditions and the possible light-based energy production, may represent important attributes of the novel salinivibrios, allowing these microbes to thrive in the Socompa Lake.
Project description:Background:The Streptococcus genus is relevant to both public health and food safety because of its ability to cause pathogenic infections. It is well-represented (>100 genomes) in publicly available databases. Streptococci are ubiquitous, with multiple sources of isolation, from human pathogens to dairy products. The Streptococcus genus has traditionally been classified by morphology, serum types, the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, and multi-locus sequence types subject to in-depth comparative genomic analysis. Methods:Core and pan-genomes described the genomic diversity of 108 strains belonging to 16 Streptococcus species. The core genome nucleotide diversity was calculated and compared to phylogenomic distances within the genus Streptococcus. The core genome was also used as a resource to recruit metagenomic fragment reads from streptococci dominated environments. A conventional 16S rRNA gene phylogeny reconstruction was used as a reference to compare the resulting dendrograms of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and genome similarity score (GSS) dendrograms. Results:The core genome, in this work, consists of 404 proteins that are shared by all 108 Streptococcus. The average identity of the pairwise compared core proteins decreases proportionally to GSS lower scores, across species. The GSS dendrogram recovers most of the clades in the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny while distinguishing between 16S polytomies (unresolved nodes). The GSS is a distance metric that can reflect evolutionary history comparing orthologous proteins. Additionally, GSS resulted in the most useful metric for genus and species comparisons, where ANI metrics failed due to false positives when comparing different species. Discussion:Understanding of genomic variability and species relatedness is the goal of tools like GSS, which makes use of the maximum pairwise shared orthologous sequences for its calculation. It allows for long evolutionary distances (above species) to be included because of the use of amino acid alignment scores, rather than nucleotides, and normalizing by positive matches. Newly sequenced species and strains could be easily placed into GSS dendrograms to infer overall genomic relatedness. The GSS is not restricted to ubiquitous conservancy of gene features; thus, it reflects the mosaic-structure and dynamism of gene acquisition and loss in bacterial genomes.
Project description:Bacteria of the genus Elizabethkingia are emerging infectious agents that can cause infection in humans. The number of published whole-genome sequences of Elizabethkingia is rapidly increasing. In this study, we used comparative genomics to investigate the genomes of the six species in the Elizabethkingia genus, namely E. meningoseptica, E. anophelis, E. miricola, E. bruuniana, E. ursingii, and E. occulta. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny, pan genome analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed, and clusters of orthologous groups were evaluated. Of the 86 whole-genome sequences available in GenBank, 21 were complete genome sequences and 65 were shotgun sequences. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization clearly delineated the six Elizabethkingia species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that E. bruuniana, E. ursingii, and E. occulta were closer to E. miricola than to E. meningoseptica and E. anophelis. A total of 2,609 clusters of orthologous groups were identified among the six type strains of the Elizabethkingia genus. Metabolism-related clusters of orthologous groups accounted for the majority of gene families in KEGG analysis. New genes were identified that substantially increased the total repertoire of the pan genome after the addition of 86 Elizabethkingia genomes, which suggests that Elizabethkingia has shown adaptive evolution to environmental change. This study presents a comparative genomic analysis of Elizabethkingia, and the results of this study provide knowledge that facilitates a better understanding of this microorganism.
Project description:Life in salt pans with varying chemical compositions require special adaptation strategies at both the physiological and molecular level. The Marakkanam salt pan in South India is characterized with a high fluctuation in salinity (19-490 ppt), Ultravioletradiation, and heavy metal concentrations. Several bacterial species have been isolated and identified in the view of phylogenetic analysis and for the subsequent production of industrially important enzymes. However, limited information exists on the genomic basis of their survival under variable environmental conditions. To this extent, we sequenced the whole genome of the <i>Salinivibrio</i> sp. HTSP, a moderately halophilic bacterium. We analysed the physiological and genomic attributes of <i>Salinivibrio</i> sp. HTSP to elucidate the strategies of adaptation under various abiotic stresses. The genome size is estimated to be 3.39 Mbp with a mean G + C content of 50.6%, including 3150 coding sequences. The genome possessed osmotic stress-related coding sequences, and genes involved in different pathways of DNA repair mechanisms and genes related to the resistance to toxic metals were identified. The periplasmic stress response genes and genes of different oxidative stress mechanisms were also identified. The tolerance capacity of the bacterial isolates to heavy metals, UV-radiation, and salinity was also confirmed through appropriate laboratory experiments under controlled conditions.
Project description:Spirochetal bacteria were successfully isolated from mosquitoes (Culex pipiens, Aedes cinereus) in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2002. Preliminary 16S rRNA phylogenetic sequence analysis showed that these strains differed significantly from other spirochetal genera within the family Spirochaetaceae and suggested a novel bacterial genus in this family. To obtain more comprehensive genomic information of these isolates, we used Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore technologies to sequence four genomes of these spirochetes (BR151, BR149, BR193, BR208). The overall size of the genomes varied between 1.68 and 1.78 Mb; the GC content ranged from 38.5 to 45.8%. Draft genomes were compared to 36 publicly available genomes encompassing eight genera from the class Spirochaetes. A phylogeny generated from orthologous genes across all taxa and the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) confirmed the genus status of these novel spirochetes. The genus Entomospira gen. nov. is proposed with BR151 selected as type species of the genus. For this isolate and the closest related isolate, BR149, we propose the species name Entomospira culicis sp. nov. The two other isolates BR208 and BR193 are named Entomospira nematocera sp. nov. (BR208) and Entomospira entomophilus sp. nov. (BR193). Finally, we discuss their interesting phylogenetic positioning.
Project description:<i>Vibrionaceae</i> is a large marine bacterial family, which can constitute up to 50% of the prokaryotic population in marine waters. <i>Photobacterium</i> is the second largest genus in the family and we used comparative genomics on 35 strains representing 16 of the 28 species described so far, to understand the genomic diversity present in the <i>Photobacterium</i> genus. Such understanding is important for ecophysiology studies of the genus. We used whole genome sequences to evaluate phylogenetic relationships using several analyses (16S rRNA, MLSA, <i>fur</i>, amino-acid usage, ANI), which allowed us to identify two misidentified strains. Genome analyses also revealed occurrence of higher and lower GC content clades, correlating with phylogenetic clusters. Pan- and core-genome analysis revealed the conservation of 25% of the genome throughout the genus, with a large and open pan-genome. The major source of genomic diversity could be traced to the smaller chromosome and plasmids. Several of the physiological traits studied in the genus did not correlate with phylogenetic data. Since horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is often suggested as a source of genetic diversity and a potential driver of genomic evolution in bacterial species, we looked into evidence of such in <i>Photobacterium</i> genomes. Genomic islands were the source of genomic differences between strains of the same species. Also, we found transposase genes and CRISPR arrays that suggest multiple encounters with foreign DNA. Presence of genomic exchange traits was widespread and abundant in the genus, suggesting a role in genomic evolution. The high genetic variability and indications of genetic exchange make it difficult to elucidate genome evolutionary paths and raise the awareness of the roles of foreign DNA in the genomic evolution of environmental organisms.
Project description:To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinimonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA), and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on (1) eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis); (2) clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; (3) orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; (4) phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3); and (5) description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the "Porteresiae" clade.