Endocytic Trafficking of DMP1 and GRP78 Complex Facilitates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells.
ABSTRACT: Periodontal ligament contains periodontal ligament stem cells that maintain tissue homeostasis. Targeting hPDLSCs (human periodontal ligament cells) is a promising strategy for repair and regeneration of bone tissue destroyed by periodontal diseases. However, the mechanisms by which PDLSCs differentiate into osteoblasts to form a mineralized matrix is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the molecular events that contribute to osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and its receptor, Glucose regulated protein-78 (GRP78), are localized in the progenitor cells of the PDL. Our overall goal is to demonstrate the formation of DMP1-GRP78 complex at the plasma membrane and subsequent protein trafficking and nuclear localization to promote osteogenic differentiation. To study the internalization and routing of the complex, we mimic an in vivo differentiation scenario by stimulating cells with DMP1 and culturing them in the presence of osteogenic differentiation conditions. We first demonstrate the translocation of the ER chaperone protein GRP78 to the plasma membrane during the differentiation process. Total internal reflection microscopy imaging demonstrates the formation and internalization of the receptor- ligand (GRP78-DMP1) complex. Confocal microscopy results show the internalization of the GRP78-DMP1 complex specifically through the caveolin pathway and trafficked through the cell with various endocytic markers such as Rab5 and 7 GTPases to early and late endosomes respectively. DMP1 is ultimately transported to the nucleus where it functions to promote osteogenic differentiation as demonstrated by quantitative Real-Time PCR. This observation is the first report that suggests DMP1 and GRP78 can interact at the plasma membrane, then packaged in vesicles and ultimately DMP1 is routed to the nucleus where it aids in osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Characterizing the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs would favor the development of therapeutic strategies for reconstruction of mineralized tissues destroyed by periodontal diseases.
Project description:During tooth development, the jawbone interacts with dental germ and provides the development microenvironment. Jawbone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMSCs) maintain this microenvironment for root and periodontium development. However, the effect of the jawbone microenvironment on periodontium tissue regeneration is largely elusive. Our previous study showed that cell aggregates (CAs) of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promoted periodontium regeneration on the treated dentin scaffold. Here, we found that JBMSCs enhanced not only the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) but also their adhesion to titanium (Ti) material surface. Importantly, the compound CAs of PDLSCs and JBMSCs regenerated periodontal ligament-like fibers and mineralized matrix on the Ti scaffold surface, both in nude mice ectopic and minipig orthotopic transplantations. Our data revealed that an effective regenerative microenvironment, reconstructed by JBMSCs, promoted periodontium regeneration by regulating PDLSCs function on the Ti material.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within the periodontal ligament (PDL), termed periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), have a self-renewing capability and a multidirectional differentiation potential. The molecular mechanisms that regulate multidirectional differentiation, such as the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs, remain to be elucidated. Cullin 4B (CUL4B), which assembles the CUL4B-RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL4B) complex, is involved in regulating a variety of developmental and physiological processes including the skeletal development and stemness of cancer stem cells. However, nothing is known about the possible role of CUL4B in the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Here, we found that knockdown of CUL4B decreased the proliferation, migration, stemness and osteogenic differentiation ability of PDLSCs. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CUL4B cooperates with the PRC2 complex to repress the expression of miR-320c and miR-372/373-3p, which results in the upregulation of RUNX2, a master transcription factor (TF) that regulates osteogenic differentiation. In brief, the present study reveals the role of CUL4B as a new regulator of osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate the roles of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in periodontitis. METHODS:Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs between periodontitis periodontal ligament tissues and healthy periodontal ligament tissues were selected out using R project. PDLSCs were identified using flow cytometry. Western blot was employed to detect pathway relative proteins. Besides, targeted relationships between lncRNA and miRNA, as well as miRNA and mRNA were verified by dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and Alizarin Red Staining (ARS). Markers for osteoblast (Runx2, Osterix, Osteocalcin, Colla1) were detected using western blot. RESULTS:LncRNA MEG3 and IGF1 were both down-regulated, while miR-27a-3p was up-regulated in periodontitis samples compared with healthy samples. Overexpression of MEG3 promoted osteogenic differentiation by enhancing expression of IGF1 yet suppressing expression of miRNA-27a-3p. Meanwhile, the results of ALP and ARS staining indicated that up-regulation of lncRNA MEG3 or IGF1 promoted osteogenic differentiation in PDLSCs, which could be reversed with up-regulation of miRNA-27a-3p. CONCLUSION:Down-regulation of MEG3 suppressed osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs through miR-27a-3p/IGF1 axis in periodontitis.
Project description:Multiple studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) have been utilized to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, impact of periodontitis with diabetes mellitus on PDLSCs and mechanisms mediating effects of complex microenvironments remain poorly understood. In this study, we found multiple differentiation potential of PDLSCs from chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus donors (D-PDLSCs) was damaged significantly. Inhibition of NF-?B signaling could rescue osteogenic potential of PDLSCs from simple chronic periodontitis patients (P-PDLSCs), whereas did not promote D-PDLSCs osteogenesis. In addition, we found expression of DKK1 in D-PDLSCs did not respond to osteogenic signal and decreased osteogenic potential of D-PDLSCs treated with DKK1 could be reversed. To further elucidate different character between P-PDLSCs and D-PDLSCs, we treated PDLSCs with TNF-? and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and find out AGEs which enhance effect of TNF-? in PDLSCs might mediate special personality of D-PDLSCs. The adverse effect of AGEs in PDLSCs could be reversed when PDLSCs were treated with DKK1. These results suggested DKK1 mediating WNT signaling might be a therapy target to rescue potential of PDLSCs in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Critical tissues that undergo regeneration in periodontal tissue are of mesenchymal origin; thus, investigating the regulatory mechanisms underlying the fate of periodontal ligament stem cells could be beneficial for application in periodontal tissue regeneration. Nitric oxide (NO) regulates many biological processes in developing embryos and adult stem cells. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of NO on the function of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) as well as to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS:Immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry were used for stem cell identification. Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunofluorescent staining, and flow cytometry were used to examine the expression of NO-synthesizing enzymes. The proliferative capacity of PDLSCs was determined by EdU assays. The osteogenic potential of PDLSCs was tested using alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, Alizarin Red staining, and calcium concentration detection. Oil Red O staining was used to analyze the adipogenic ability. Western blot, RT-PCR, and staining were used to examine the signaling pathway. RESULTS:Human PDLSCs expressed both inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and produced NO. Blocking the generation of NO with the NOS inhibitor L-NG-monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) had no influence on PDLSC proliferation and apoptosis but significantly attenuated the osteogenic differentiation capacity and stimulated the adipogenic differentiation capacity of PDLSCs. Increasing the physiological level of NO with NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) significantly promoted the osteogenic differentiation capacity but reduced the adipogenic differentiation capacity of PDLSCs. NO balances the osteoblast and adipocyte lineage differentiation in periodontal ligament stem cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:NO is essential for maintaining the balance between osteoblasts and adipocytes in PDLSCs via the JNK/MAPK signaling pathway. NO balances osteoblast and adipocyte lineage differentiation via JNK/MAPK signaling pathway.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Cigarette smoking is one of the high risk factors of adult chronic periodontitis and nicotine is the well established toxic substance in cigarette. However, the mechanism of nicotine induced periodontitis is still unknown. Here we studied whether nicotine impaired the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) through activating ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7 nAChR).<h4>Methods</h4>hPDLSCs with multi differentiation potential and surface makers for mesenchymal stem cells were harvested by limiting dilution technique. The level of mineralized nodule formation was assessed by alizarin red S staining. Expression level of ostegenic related genes and proteins were detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis. The expression of ?7 nAChR and its downstream signaling pathway were examined by western blot. The role of the receptor and related signaling pathway in nicotine impairing the osteogenic potential of hPDLSCs were also studied in different levels.<h4>Results</h4>Nicotine deteriorated the ostegenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner. Activation of ?7 nAChR by nicotine treatment activated wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, leading to osteogenic deficiency of hPDLSCs. Blockage of ?7 nAChR and wnt pathway inhibitor treatment rescued nicotine induced osteogenic differentiation deficiency.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data suggested that nicotine activated ?7 nAChR expressed on PDLSCs and further activated wnt signaling downstream, thus deteriorating the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs. The impairment of osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs by nicotine might lead to cigarette smoking related periodontitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Periodontal ligament stromal cells (PDLSCs) are ideal cell sources for periodontal tissue repair and regeneration, but little is known about what determines their osteogenic capacity. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulatory molecules at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. However, their roles in the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs are still largely unknown. METHODS:The expression of lncRNA Fer-1-like family member 4 (FER1L4) during the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs was detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Overexpression or knockdown of FER1L4 was used to confirm its regulation of osteogenesis in PDLSCs. Alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin red S staining were used to detect mineral deposition. Dual luciferase reporter assays were used to analyze the binding of miR-874-3p to FER1L4 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Bone regeneration in critical-sized calvarial defects was assessed in nude mice. New bone formation was analyzed by micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin staining, Masson's trichrome staining, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS:FER1L4 levels increased gradually during consecutive osteogenic induction of PDLSCs. Overexpression of FER1L4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs, as revealed by alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin red S staining, and the expression of osteogenic markers, whereas FER1L4 knockdown inhibited these processes. Subsequently, we identified a predicted binding site for miR-874-3p on FER1L4 and confirmed a direct interaction between them. Wild-type FER1L4 reporter activity was significantly inhibited by miR-874-3p, whereas mutant FER1L4 reporter was not affected. MiR-874-3p inhibited osteogenic differentiation and reversed the promotion of osteogenesis in PDLSCs by FER1L4. Moreover, miR-874-3p targeted VEGFA, a crucial gene in osteogenic differentiation, whereas FER1L4 upregulated the expression of VEGFA. In vivo, overexpression of FER1L4 led to more bone formation compared to the control group, as demonstrated by micro-CT and the histologic analyses. CONCLUSION:FER1L4 positively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs via miR-874-3p and VEGFA. Our study provides a promising target for enhancing the osteogenic potential of PDLSCs and periodontal regeneration.
Project description:Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from periodontitis patients showed defective osteogenic differentiation. However, the mechanism of impaired osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in inflammatory microenvironments is still unclear. In this study, we found that inflammation in the microenvironment resulted in downregulation of histone acetyltransferase GCN5 expression and lack of GCN5 caused decreased osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. Previous study showed activated Wnt/?-cateinin pathway of PDLSCs resulted in defective osteogenic differentiation. Here we found knockdown of GCN5 decreased the expression of DKK1, an inhibitor of Wnt/?-cateinin pathway, thus activated Wnt/?-catenin pathway of PDLSCs. Mechanistically, GCN5 regulated DKK1 expression by acetylation of Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and Histone H3 lysine 14 (H3K14) at its promoter region. Interestingly, we found that in vivo injection of aspirin rescued the periodontitis of rats through inhibiting inflammation and upregulating GCN5 expression. Furthermore, aspirin treatment of PDLSCs upregulated GCN5 expression and increased osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. In conclusion, GCN5 plays a protective role in periodontitis through acetylation of DKK1 and applying drugs targeting GCN5, such as aspirin, could be a new approach for periodontitis treatment.
Project description:We performed RNA-sequencing and miRNA-sequencing to detect the whole transcriptome of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) at different stages during osteogenic differentiation. Overall design: PDLSCs were isolated and cultured in osteogenic medium. Total RNA from cells at D0, D3, D7, and D14 were extracted, and submitted to RNA-sequencing and miRNA-sequencing.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated periodontal tissue regeneration is considered to be a promising method for periodontitis treatment. The molecular mechanism of functional regulation by MSCs remains unclear, thus limiting their application. Our previous study discovered that Periostin (POSTN) promoted the migration and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (PDLSCs), but it is still unclear whether POSTN is able to restore the regenerative potential of PDLSCs under inflammatory conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of POSTN on PDLSCs under inflammatory conditions and its mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS:PDLSCs were isolated from periodontal ligament tissue. TNF-? was used at 10 ng/mL to mimic inflammatory conditions. Lentivirus POSTN shRNA was used to knock down POSTN. Recombinant human POSTN (rhPOSTN) was used to stimulate PDLSCs. A scratch assay was used to analyse cell migration. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Alizarin Red staining and expression of osteogenesis-related genes were used to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential. Western blot analysis was used to detect the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and AKT signalling pathways. RESULTS:After a 10 ng/mL TNF-? treatment, knockdown of POSTN impeded scratch closure, inhibited ALP activity and mineralization in vitro, and decreased expression of RUNX2, OSX, OPN and OCN in PDLSCs, while 75 ng/mL rhPOSTN significantly accelerated scratch closure, enhanced ALP activity and mineralization in vitro, and increased expression of RUNX2, OSX, OPN and OCN. In addition, knockdown of POSTN inhibited expression of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), while 75 ng/mL rhPOSTN increased expression of p-JNK in PDLSCs with TNF-? treatment. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK by its inhibitor SP600125 dramatically blocked POSTN-enhanced scratch closure, ALP activity and mineralization in PDLSCs. CONCLUSIONS:Our results revealed that POSTN might promote the migration and osteogenic differentiation potential of PDLSCs via the JNK pathway, providing insight into the mechanism underlying MSC biology under inflammatory conditions and identifying a potential target for improving periodontal tissue regeneration.