Characteristics of prescription in 29 Level 3 Neonatal Wards over a 2-year period (2017-2018). An inventory for future research.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:The primary objective of this study is to determine the current level of patient medication exposure in Level 3 Neonatal Wards (L3NW). The secondary objective is to evaluate in the first month of life the rate of medication prescription not cited in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC). A database containing all the medication prescriptions is collected as part of a prescription benchmarking program in the L3NW. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The research is a two-year observational cohort study (2017-2018) with retrospective analysis of medications prescribed in 29 French L3NW. Seventeen L3NW are present since the beginning of the study and 12 have been progressively included. All neonatal units used the same computerized system of prescription, and all prescription data were completely de-identified within each hospital before being stored in a common data warehouse. RESULTS:The study population includes 27,382 newborns. Two hundred and sixty-one different medications (International Nonproprietary Names, INN) were prescribed. Twelve INN (including paracetamol) were prescribed for at least 10% of patients, 55 for less than 10% but at least 1% and 194 to less than 1%. The lowest gestational ages (GA) were exposed to the greatest number of medications (18.0 below 28 weeks of gestation (WG) to 4.1 above 36 WG) (p<0.0001). In addition, 69.2% of the 351 different combinations of an medication INN and a route of administration have no indication for the first month of life according to the French SmPC. Ninety-five percent of premature infants with GA less than 32 weeks received at least one medication not cited in SmPC. CONCLUSION:Neonates remain therapeutic orphans. The consequences of polypharmacy in L3NW should be quickly assessed, especially in the most immature infants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The use of psychotropic medications and their adverse effects in frail elderly has been debated extensively. However, recent data from European studies show that these drugs are still frequently prescribed in nursing home residents. In Austria, prevalence data are lacking. We aimed to determine the prevalence of psychotropic medication prescription in Austrian nursing homes and to explore characteristics associated with their prescription. METHODS: Cross-sectional study and association analysis in forty-eight out of 50 nursing homes with 1844 out of a total of 2005 residents in a defined urban-rural region in Austria. Prescribed medication was retrieved from residents' charts. Psychotropic medications were coded according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification 2005. Cluster-adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate institutional and residents' characteristics associated with prescription. RESULTS: Residents' mean age was 81; 73% of residents were female. Mean cluster-adjusted prevalence of residents with at least one psychotropic medication was 74.6% (95% confidence interval, CI, 72.0-77.2). A total of 45.9% (95% CI 42.7-49.1) had at least one prescription of an antipsychotic medication. Two third of all antipsychotic medications were prescribed for bedtime use only. Anxiolytics were prescribed in 22.2% (95% CI 20.0-24.5), hypnotics in 13.3% (95% CI 11.3-15.4), and antidepressants in 36.8% (95% CI 34.1-39.6) of residents. None of the institutional characteristics and only few residents' characteristics were significantly associated with psychotropic medication prescription. Permanent restlessness was positively associated with psychotropic medication prescription (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32-1.79) whereas cognitive impairment was inversely associated (AOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88). CONCLUSION: Frequency of psychotropic medication prescription is high in Austrian nursing homes compared to recent published data from other countries. Interventions should aim at reduction and optimisation of prescriptions.
Project description:We use prescription of statin medications and prescription of warfarin to explore the capacity of electronic health record data to (1) describe cohorts of patients prescribed these medications and (2) identify cohorts of patients with evidence of adverse events related to prescription of these medications. This study was conducted in the WWAMI region Practice and Research Network (WPRN)., a network of primary care practices across Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana and Idaho DataQUEST, an electronic data-sharing infrastructure. We used electronic health record data to describe cohorts of patients prescribed statin or warfarin medications and reported the proportions of patients with adverse events. Among the 35,445 active patients, 1745 received at least one statin prescription and 301 received at least one warfarin prescription. Only 3?percent of statin patients had evidence of myopathy; 51 patients (17% of those prescribed warfarin) had a bleeding complication. Primary-care electronic health record data can effectively be used to identify patients prescribed specific medications and patients potentially experiencing medication adverse events.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Inappropriate medication prescription is a common cause of preventable adverse drug events among elderly persons in the primary care setting. OBJECTIVE:The aim of this systematic review is to quantify the extent of inappropriate prescription to elderly persons in the primary care setting. METHODS:We systematically searched Ovid-Medline and Ovid-EMBASE from 1950 and 1980 respectively to March 2012. Two independent reviewers screened and selected primary studies published in English that measured (in)appropriate medication prescription among elderly persons (>65 years) in the primary care setting. We extracted data sources, instruments for assessing medication prescription appropriateness, and the rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions. We grouped the reported individual medications according to the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classification and compared the median rate of inappropriate medication prescription and its range within each therapeutic class. RESULTS:We included 19 studies, 14 of which used the Beers criteria as the instrument for assessing appropriateness of prescriptions. The median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions (IMP) was 20.5% [IQR 18.1 to 25.6%.]. Medications with largest median rate of inappropriate medication prescriptions were propoxyphene 4.52 (0.10-23.30)%, doxazosin 3.96 (0.32 15.70)%, diphenhydramine 3.30 (0.02-4.40)% and amitriptiline 3.20 (0.05-20.5)% in a decreasing order of IMP rate. Available studies described unequal sets of medications and different measurement tools to estimate the overall prevalence of inappropriate prescription. CONCLUSIONS:Approximately one in five prescriptions to elderly persons in primary care is inappropropriate despite the attention that has been directed to quality of prescription. Diphenhydramine and amitriptiline are the most common inappropriately prescribed medications with high risk adverse events while propoxyphene and doxazoxin are the most commonly prescribed medications with low risk adverse events. These medications are good candidates for being targeted for improvement e.g. by computerized clinical decision support.
Project description:Data from prescription databases are increasingly being used to study associations between maternal medications used in pregnancy and congenital anomalies. We therefore investigated the extent to which prescriptions reflect the actual use of medication during pregnancy, and whether medicines used during pregnancy are taken according to the prescribed dosage and duration.We performed a cross-sectional study in a population-based congenital anomaly register (EUROCAT Northern Netherlands). We included 202 women who had at least one prescription during their pregnancy and who gave birth between 2009 and 2011. Compliance with the prescribed medication was verified by telephone interview. We calculated the compliance rates for several medication groups by dividing the number of mothers who confirmed they had taken the medication by the total number to whom it had been prescribed. Compliance was positive if the mother confirmed she took the medication, even if she only took one of several prescriptions from the same medication group. For each prescription taken, we also determined whether her use conformed to the prescribed dosage and duration.During the first trimester, the compliance rates ranged from 0.84 (for chronic diseases) to 0.92 (for pregnancy-related symptoms). Most of the medications actually taken were used at the prescribed dosage or lower. More than half of the medications actually taken were used for the duration prescribed or shorter.Prescription records are generally a relatively reliable source of data for research into associations between medication use in pregnancy and congenital anomalies compared with other data sources. Pharmacy records of medication use in pregnancy might represent an overestimation, which should be taken into account. However, our results show that, except for 'corticosteroids, dermatological preparations'; 'ear, eye, nose and throat preparations'; and 'anxiolytics, hypnotics and sedatives', this overestimation generally seems minimal.
Project description:PURPOSE:We described the medication use during pregnancy in the French population using the French Pregnancy Cohort (FPC). METHODS:The FPC was built with the sampling of all pregnant women included in the French Echantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires (EGB), which is a 1/97th representative sample of the population covered by the French health insurance. The EGB includes anonymized information on the socio-demographic and medical characteristics of beneficiaries, and the health care services they have received such as diagnoses and procedure codes as well as data on filled reimbursed medication; EGB also includes data on hospital stays in all public and private French health facilities. Each filled prescription record contains information on drug brand and generic names, date of prescription and date of dispensing, quantity dispensed, mode of administration, duration of prescription, dosage, and prescribing physician specialty. FPC includes data on all pregnancies of women in the EGB (2010-2013). Date of entry in the FPC is the first day of pregnancy regardless of pregnancy outcome (spontaneous abortions or planned abortions (with or without medical reasons), deliveries), and data on women are collected retrospectively for a period of one year before pregnancy, and prospectively during pregnancy, and up to one year after delivery. The prevalence of prescribed medications before, during and after pregnancy was compared; comparison was also done between trimesters. Pregnancy outcomes are described and include spontaneous and planned abortions, livebirths, and stillbirths. RESULTS:FPC includes data on 36,065 pregnancies. Among them, 27,253 (75.6%) resulted in a delivery including 201 stillbirths (0.7%). The total number of spontaneous abortions was 6,718 (18.6%), and planned abortions 2,094 (5.8%). The prevalence of filled medication use was 91.1%, 89.9%, and 95.6% before, during and after pregnancy, respectively. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of use once the pregnancy was diagnosed (first trimester exposure, 76.4% vs. exposure in the year prior to pregnancy, 91.1% (p < .01)), post-pregnancy medication use was above the pre-pregnancy level (95.6%). Maternal depression was the most prevalent comorbidity during pregnancy (20%), and post-partum depression was higher in those who delivered a stillborn infant (38.8%) as well as in those with a spontaneous (19.5%) or planned abortion (22.4%) compared to those with a liveborn (12.0%). CONCLUSION:FPC is an excellent tool for the study of the risk and benefit of drug use during the perinatal period. FPC has the advantage of including a representative sample of French pregnant women, and study medications only available in France in addition to others available worldwide.
Project description:Pharmaceutical prescribing and drug-drug interaction data underlie recommendations on drug combinations that should be avoided or closely monitored by prescribers. Because the number of patients taking multiple medications is increasing, a comprehensive view of prescribing patterns in patients is important to better assess real world pharmaceutical response and evaluate the potential for multi-drug interactions. We obtained self-reported prescription data from NHANES surveys between 1999 and 2010, and confirm the previously reported finding of increasing drug use in the elderly. We studied co-prescription drug trends by focusing on the 2009-2010 survey, which contains prescription data on 690 drugs used by 10,537 subjects. We found that medication profiles were unique for individuals aged 65 years or more, with ?98 unique drug regimens encountered per 100 subjects taking 3 or more medications. When drugs were viewed by therapeutic class, it was found that the most commonly prescribed drugs were not the most commonly co-prescribed drugs for any of the 16 drug classes investigated. We cross-referenced these medication lists with drug interaction data from Drugs.com to evaluate the potential for drug interactions. The number of drug alerts rose proportionally with the number of co-prescribed medications, rising from 3.3 alerts for individuals prescribed 5 medications to 11.7 alerts for individuals prescribed 10 medications. We found 22% of elderly subjects taking both a substrate and inhibitor of a given cytochrome P450 enzyme, and 4% taking multiple inhibitors of the same enzyme simultaneously. By examining drug pairs prescribed in 0.1% of the population or more, we found low agreement between co-prescription rate and co-discussion in the literature. These data show that prescribing trends in treatment could drive a large extent of individual variability in drug response, and that current pairwise approaches to assessing drug-drug interactions may be inadequate for predicting real world outcomes.
Project description:Prescription medication borrowing can result in adverse health outcomes. We aimed to study the patterns of borrowing prescription medications in an adult urban population seeking healthcare in the outpatient, emergency, and inpatient units of an urban medical center. Participants indicated whether they (1) had a primary care doctor, medical insurance, a prior history of substance abuse, psychiatric disorders, or chronic pain; and (2) had borrowed a prescription medication. If so, they noted the medication obtained, source, frequency of use, and reasons why they had not obtained a prescription from a licensed medical provider. Of the 641 participants, most were African American (75%), urban residents (75%), high school educated or less (71%), and lacked full-time employment (68%). Many had health insurance (90%) and had recently seen their primary medical provider (75%). Eighteen percent reported ever borrowing a prescription medication. On multivariate analysis, history of chronic pain was marginally associated with increased medication borrowing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.58) while having Medicare insurance (OR = 0.436) or a primary care medical provider routinely ask about medication usage (OR = 0.589) were significantly associated with decreased medication borrowing. The most commonly obtained medications were for pain (74%), usually in the form of opioids, and were obtained from a family member (49%) or friend (38%). Thirty-five percent of those who borrowed medications did so more than once a year, with lack of convenient access to medical care the most frequently cited reason for use (67%). Only a third of those who borrowed medications had informed their primary medical providers of the behavior. In conclusion, borrowing prescription medications is a common behavior in the population studied. Further research is warranted into interventions to reduce such use, especially the impact of methods to improve the convenience of contacting licensed medical providers.
Project description:Describe a novel approach to comprehensively summarize medication adherence.Kaiser Permanente Northern California Diabetes Registry (n approximately 220,000)In a new prescription cohort design (27,329 subjects prescribed new medications), we used pharmacy utilization data to estimate adherence during 24 months follow-up. Proportion of time without sufficient medications (medication gaps) was estimated using a novel measure (New Prescription Medication Gaps [NPMG]) and compared with a traditional measure of adherence.Data derived from electronic medical records and survey responses.Twenty-two percent of patients did not become ongoing users (had zero or only one dispensing of the new prescription). The proportion of newly prescribed patients that never became ongoing users was eightfold greater than the proportion who maintained ongoing use, but with inadequate adherence. Four percent of those with at least two dispensings discontinued therapy during the 24 months follow-up. NPMG was significantly associated with high out-of-pocket costs, self-reported adherence, and clinical response to therapy.NPMG is a valid adherence measure. Findings also suggest a larger burden of inadequate adherence than previously thought. Public health efforts have traditionally focused on improving adherence in ongoing users; clearly more attention is needed to address nonpersistence in the very first stages after a new medication is prescribed.
Project description:Purpose: Musculoskeletal diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA) and low back pain (LBP), are the leading causes of years lived with disability, and are associated with lowered quality-of-life, lost productivity, and increased healthcare costs. However, information publicly available regarding the Japanese real-world usage of prescription medications is limited. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with OA and chronic LBP (CLBP), and to investigate the patterns of medications and opioid use in Japanese real-world settings. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted using a Japanese administrative claims database between 2013 and 2017. The outcomes were patient characteristics and prescription medications, and they were evaluated separately for OA and CLBP. Results: The mean age of 118,996 patients with OA and 256,402 patients with CLBP was 68.8±13.1 years and 64.8±16.4 years, respectively. Approximately 90% of patients with OA and CLBP were prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Other prescriptions included hyaluronate injection (35.6%), acetaminophen (21.4%), and steroid injection (20.0%) in patients with OA, and pregabalin (39.0%) and acetaminophen (22.4%) in patients with CLBP. Weak opioids were prescribed to 10.7% and 20.6% of patients with OA and CLBP, respectively. The prescription of COX-2 inhibitors (OA: +6.5%; CLBP: +6.7%) and acetaminophen (OA: +16.4%; CLBP: +14.4%) increased between 2013 and 2017. The first commonly prescribed medication among patients with OA and CLBP were NSAIDs; hyaluronate injection (patients with OA) and pregabalin (patients with CLBP) were also common first-line medications. Acetaminophen, steroid injection (patients with OA), and weak opioids were prescribed more in the later phases of treatment. Conclusion: Most patients were prescribed limited classes of pain drugs, with NSAIDs being the most common pain medication in Japan for patients with OA and CLBP. Opioid prescription was uncommon, and were weak opioids when prescribed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elderly patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) frequently present comorbidities that put them at risk of polypharmacy and medication-related problems. This study aims to describe the overall medication profile of patients aged ?75?years with advanced CKD from a multicenter French study and specifically the renally (RIMs) and potentially inappropriate-for-the-elderly medications (PIMs) that they take. METHODS:This is a cross-sectional analysis of medication profiles of individuals aged ?75?years with eGFR <?20?ml/min/1.73?m2 followed by a nephrologist, who collected their active prescriptions at the study inclusion visit. Medication profiles were first analyzed according to route of administration, therapeutic classification. Second, patients were classified according to their risk of potential medication-related problems, based on whether the prescription was a RIM or a PIM. RIMs and PIMs have been defined according to renal appropriateness guidelines and to Beer's criteria in the elderly. RIMs were subclassified by 4 types of category: (a) contraindication; (b) dose modification is recommended based on creatinine clearance (CrCl); (c) dose modification based on CrCl is not recommended but a maximum daily dose is mentioned, (d) no specific recommendations based on CrCl: "use with caution", "avoid in severe impairment", "careful monitoring of dose is required" "reduce the dose". RESULTS:We collected 5196 individual medication prescriptions for 556 patients, for a median of 9 daily medications [7-11]. Antihypertensive agents, antithrombotics, and antianemics were the classes most frequently prescribed. Moreover, 77.0% of patients had at least 1 medication classified as a RIM. They accounted 31.3% of the drugs prescribed and 9.25% was contraindicated drugs. At least 1 PIM was taken by 57.6 and 45.5% of patients had at least one medication classified as RIM and PIM. The prescriptions most frequently requiring reassessment due to potential adverse effects were for proton pump inhibitors and allopurinol. The PIMs for which deprescription is especially important in this population are rilmenidine, long-term benzodiazepines, and anticholinergic drugs such as hydroxyzine. CONCLUSION:We showed potential drug-related problems in elderly patients with advanced CKD. Healthcare providers must reassess each medication prescribed for this population, particularly the specific medications identified here. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02910908.